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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 8U 
197U 



Benjamin Moulton, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 

May 3-4, 1974 

McCormick's Creek State Park 

Spencer, Indiana 

Pall Meeting 

October 31-November 2, 1974 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1975 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 8U 
197U 



Benjamin Moulton, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 

May 3-4, 1974 

McCormick's Creek State Park 

Spencer, Indiana 

Fall Meeting 

October 31-November 2, 1974 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1975 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. 
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume, p. 508. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence con- 
cerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $7.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They can- 
not be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes 
can be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be 
addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here : 

Annotated Bibliography of Economy Geology 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemischer Informationsdienst 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metals Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torry Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Part 1 
THE WORK OF THE ACADEMY 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1974 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 14 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 18 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 19 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 23 

Annual Financial Report 27 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 33 

Biological Survey Committee Report 34 

Necrology 37 

New Members for 1974 45 

Part 2 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 

"Roots in the Soil and Water and Sky," Damian V. Schmelz . . 51 

Anthropology 

R03ERT E. Pace — Middle Woodland Cultural Traditions of the 

Wabash Lowlands* 55 

Gilbert C. Apfelstadt and Robert E. Henn — The Leonard Site: An 

Interim Report* 55 

David V. Ellis and B. K. Swartz, Jr. — Exploratory Investigations 

at the Mound's Bluff Site, Madison County, Indiana* 55 

Colin C. Hastie III — Folk Medicine and Faith Healing in a Rural 

Southern Community* 56 

Gerald W. Kline and Gary Apfelstadt — Notes on the Lowe Flared 

Base Projectile Point 57 

Curtis H. Tomak — Prairie Creek: A Stratified Site in Southwestern 

Indiana 65 

Botany 

Diana L. Adams and Gary W. Barrett — Species Importance and 
Apportionment within Virgin and Timbered Beech-Maple Forest 
Ecosystems* 69 

Julie Van Horn and David L. Dilcher — Foliar Morphology of 

Platanus* 69 



* Abstract or Note only 

iii 



iv Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Paul C. Pecknold, Walter R. Stevenson, Donald H. Scott — A 

Compilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1974. . 71 

Robert S. Benda, John Gulvas, Thomas Neal — Effect of Power 

Plant Passage on Algal Primary Productivity 85 

Roger F. Boneham — Chieftain No. 20 Flora (Middle Pennsylvania) 

of Vigo County, Indiana 89 

David L. Dilcher and Raymond N. Pheifer — Stump Casts of 

Arborescent Lycopods 114 

Calvin F. Bey and Robert D. Williams — Black Walnut Trees of 

Southern Origin Growing Well in Indiana 122 

Cell Biology 

Arthur R. Schulz — Computer-Based Method for Calculation of the 

Utilizable Energy of Proteins* 129 

William D. Travers and Richard L. Vetter — Low Level Micro- 
wave Effects on the Thyroxine-Binding Capacity in Rats* 129 

Paul G. Mahlberg and F. R. Turner — Ultrastructural Observations 

on Endocytosis (Secondary Vacuolation) in Plant Cells* 129 

Thomas H. Gieske — Cadmium Inhibition of Renal Amino Acid 

Transport* 130 

William J. Hurkman — Light-Induced Ultrastructural Change in the 

Protein Body of Mung Bean Plastids* 130 

William D. Merritt, T. W. Keenan, D. James Morre — Glycosyl 
Transferases of Ganglioside Biosynthesis in Rat Liver Hyper- 
plastic Nodules and Hepatomas Induced by N-2 Flourenylace- 
tamide* 131 

Florence Juillerat — Molecular Weight Differences in Polypeptides 

from Type A and B Trichomonad Costae* 131 

William E. Bishop and Alice S. Bennett — Homologous Inhibition 

of Myoblast Fusion In Vitro 133 

Iris L. Sun, D. C. Phelps, R. T. Crane, F. L. Crane — Chelator In- 
hibition as a New Approach to the Mechanism of Energy 
Coupling in Biological Membranes 139 

R. Barr, D. Rosen, F. L. Crane — New Ionic Redox Agents for the 

Study of Photosynthesis 147 

C. L. Richardson, M. Bar, D. James Morre — Regression of Crown 

Gall Tumors of Bean Leaves Induced by Glucosamine 160 

C. L. Jelsema, D. James Morre, M. Ruddat — Isolation and Char- 
acterization of Sphereosomes from Aleurone Layers of Wheat . . 166 

Patricia McCarthy, C. L. Richardson, W. D. Merrit, D. James 
Morre — Altered Golgi Apparatus Architecture in Animal and 
Plant Tumors 179 



* Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents v 

Page 
Chemistry 

Stanley L. Burden— Using an On-Line Minicomputer in the Under- 
graduate Chemistry Laboratory* 187 

Ross C. Koile and Robert E. Van Atta— Further Studies on the 

Physical and Chemical Evaluation of Used Motor Oil* 187 

John W. McFarland, William Essary, Lale Cilenti, William 
Cozart, Alan Kaylo, Philip McFarland— The Chemistry of 
the Furopyridines* 187 

Dwain Sparks and Eugene Schwartz — Determination of the For- 
mation Constants of HF, HF 2 -, and AgF in Aqueous Solution 
Using the Fluoride Electrode* 188 

Robert E. Van Atta— Inexpensive Instruments for Constant- 
Current Coulometric Titrations* 188 

Daniel P. Fadal and Stanley L. Burden — Analyzing Environ- 
mental Samples in the Undergraduate Science Laboratory by 
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy* 189 

Michael A. Sailor and Robert E. Van Atta— Effect of Sampling 
Parameters and Other Physical and Chemical Conditions on 
the Chemical Analysis of White River Waters* 189 

John M. Gardlik and Warren E. Hoffman — Spectrophotometry 
Determination of Stability Constants: A Study of the Complex 
Ions Formed from Di-n-Butyloxamidine and Ni + 2 , Co + 2 , and 
Cu + 2 Ions* I89 

Bruce N. Storhoff and Christoper L. Scanlon — The Syntheses 
and Reactions of Some Tetrahydrofuran Complexes of Rhenium 
(I)* 190 

P. L. Bock and G. M. Whitesides— The Stereochemistry of Inser- 
tion Reactions Involving Carbon-Iron a-Bonds* 190 

James D. Copp and John H. Meiser— The Heat Pump and Its Role 

in the "Energy Crisis"* 190 

John A. Mosbo— Effects of Phosphorus Stereochemistry on Pmr 

Coupling Constants in Cyclic Organophosphorus Compounds* . . 190 

Eugene S. Wagner, Lewis Truex— Comparison of the Irreversible 

Binding of Penicillin to Human Serum and Plasma* 191 

Marvin Carmack, Glenn A. Berchtold, Samuel Berkowitz, 
Mohammad Behforouz— The Mechanisms of the Willgerodt- 
Kindler Reactions* 191 

Terry L. Kruger — Some Observations on the Use of an Open-Ended 

Multioption Laboratory for Organic Chemistry* 191 

Mark J. Niebauer and Pang F. Ma— A Study of Adenosine 

Deaminase in Normal and Canerous Human Tissues* 192 

Geraldine Huitink— Studies of the F-Pyrone Nucleus* 192 

Janice L. Strohm and Terry L. Kruger— The Synthesis of Some 

Cycloalkene Carbonitriles* 192 



* Abstract or Note only 



vi Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Marquis Z. Hodes, Robert C. Karn, M. E. Hodes — Detection of 

Nonspecific Phosphodiesterase in Polyacrylamide Gels 194 

Howard Burkett — Dehydration of Chloral Hydrate 198 

Robert F. Romanet and John A. Ricketts — The Hydroloysis of 

Schiff Base Derivatives of p-Phenylazoaniline 207 

Ecology 

Donald E. Miller — Seasonal Distribution of Brown Hydras* .... 213 

Robert S. Benda — Occurrence of Argulus Mississippiensis (Crus- 
tacea: Branchiura) in Indiana* 213 

Max A. Reed — A Study of Site Characteristics and Associated Plant 

Species of the Equisetaceae of Vigo County, Indiana 214 

Byron P. Hollett — Cenococcum Graniforme, A Mycorrhizal Fungus, 
in Relation to the Ecology and Distribution of Fagus Grandi- 
folia* 214 

Ralph D. Kirkpatrick — Status of Former Wildlife Refuges in 

East-Central Indiana* 214 

Harvey J. Von Culin and Alton A. Lindsey — Floristic Change in 

the Ross Biological Reserve, 1950-1971 216 

Marion T. Jackson and William B. Barnes — Analysis of Two 
Old-Growth Forests on Poorly-Drained Clermont Soils in Jen- 
nings County, Indiana 222 

Damian V. Schmelz, James D. Barton, and Alton A. Lindsey — 

Donaldson's Woods: Two Decades of Change 234 

Nicholas G. Schmutte and Phillip A. St. John — Lead Concentra- 
tions in Selected Streams and Fishes of Central Indiana 244 

H. E. McReynolds — Threatened Species: A Review of the Eastern 

National Forests' Studies of These Animals 250 

Engineering 

Aldo Giorgini — Civil Engineering Archaeology in Indiana: Pro- 
grammatic Remarks* 259 

M. T. Lewellen and S. J. Kristof — A Multispectral Satellite Land 

Use Survey of a Small Urban Area, Terre Haute, Indiana* . . . 259 

Henry H. Gray — Bedrock Geology as a Factor in Soil Slides in 

Southern Indiana* 259 

S. J. Kristof and M. T. Lewellen — Multispectral Satellite Data 

Applied to Land Use Studies in Vigo County, Indiana* 260 

Charles D. Moseman and Kwang-Chu Chao — Surface Diffusivities 

on Activated Carbon Absorbing From Liquids* 260 

D. Athanasiou-Grivas and M. E. Harr — Particle Contacts in Dis- 
crete Materials* 261 



* Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents vii 

Page 
Czeslaw P. Kentzer — Isomorphism of Statistical Turbulence and 

Quantum Theory* 261 

Arunachalam Ravindran — Inventory Control of New Product 

Lines* 262 

P. W. Sauer and G. T. Heydt— A Study of the Control of Electric 
Power Interchange in the Kentucky-Indiana Power Pool 
Through the Use of Series Capacitors 263 

Robert Wrightington — Pollutional Load Allocation Study of the 

Grand Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal 276 

Entomology 

John W. Hart — New Records of Indiana Collembola* 283 

J. L. Stein and W. P. McCafferty — The Ensifera (Orthoptera) of 

Indiana* 283 

Leland Chandler — Eusociality in Ceratina Calcarata Robt. (Hy- 

menoptera : Anthophoridae) * 283 

Gertrude L. Ward and Katherine J. Cole — Additions to the Life 
History of Chalybion Zimmermanni Dahlbom (Hymenoptera: 
Sphecidae) * 284 

R. E. Siverly — Blood Meal Identifications of Culex Pipiens Pipiens 
(Northern House Mosquito) Collected During 1972 and 1973 
in Delaware and Henry Counties, Indiana* 284 

Cathy Coyle — Transport of Fungi by Reticulitermes Flavipes 

(Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) * 284 

James C. Tan and Suzanne E. Hamada — The Effect of Tobacco 
Brown Pigments on Tumorigenicity in Drosophila Melanogas- 
ter* 285 

F. T. Turpin — Computer Simulations as a Research Tool for Agri- 
cultural Entomologists* 285 

Vicosa, M. G., Leland Chandler, and Jose A. H. Freire — Ento- 
mological Problems, Programs, and Progress at the Federal 
University of Vicosa* 285 

Darryl Sanders and John Petersen — The Occurrence of the Pigeon 

Fly, Pseudolynchia Canariensis (Macquart) in Indiana 287 

Frank N. Young — Observations on Periodical Cicadas (Brood XIV) 

in Indiana in 1974 (Homoptera-Cicadidae) 289 

W. P. McCafferty — Institutional Insect Collections in Indiana .... 294 

Virgil R. Knapp — Host List of Indiana Aphids (Homoptera: 

Aphididae) 307 

Robert W. Meyer — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic 

Importance in Indiana During 1974 313 

* Abstract or Note only 



viii Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Geography and Geology 

Abdelrahman M. Maarouf, Wilton N. Melhorn — Lithofacies- 
Ratio Slice Maps as an Exploration Method to Delineate 
Aquifers in Glacieated Areas* 323 

Abdelrahman M. Maarouf and Wilton N. Melhorn — Evolution 

of Quaternary Drainage in Tippecanoe County, Indiana* .... 323 

Gianfranco Rinaldi, W. G. Meinschein, and J. M. Hayes — Intra- 
molecular Carbon Isotopic Distribution in Acetic Acid from 
Unpasturized Apple Cider Vinegar* 323 

B. D. Kwon and Albert J. Rudman — Comparative Studies of 

Methods for Continuation and Derivatives of Potential Fields* . 324 

Vincent Mikulski and Albert J. Rudman — Continuation of Poten- 
tial Fields: Model Studies* 324 

Thomas J. Stevens — Recent Trends in Malt Beverage Production 

and Consumption : The Case of the Indiana Brewers* 325 

Chris Larson and Lee Guernsey — Selected Socio-Economic Char- 
acteristics of Recent Residents in Vigo County, Indiana 326 

Henry H. Gray — Geologic Guidelines for Statewide and Regional 

Land-Use Planning in Indiana 330 

J. M. Wilkerson and T. R. West — Application of Geology in De- 
veloping a Master Plan in Boone County, Indiana 336 

Richard L. Powell — Joints in Carbonate Rocks in South-Central 

Indiana 343 

Robert F. Blakely and Madan M. Varma — Probabilities and Re- 
turn Periods of Earthquake Intensities in Indiana 355 

N. K. Bleur and M. C. Moore — Buried Pinchout of Saginaw Lobe 

Drift in Northeastern Indiana 362 

History of Science 

John J. Favinger — Further Indiana Background to the National 

Plant Board* 373 

Arthur E. Hallerburg — House Bill No. 246 Revisited 374 

John F. Favinger, John Patton, Robert Hollingsworth, Burt 
Hamrick, Louis Hasenstab, Robert Jackson, and W. B. 
Barnes — History of Indiana Department of Natural Resources: 
A Symposium 400 

William B. Eberly — History of the Phosphate Detergent Ban in 

Indiana 405 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Thomas A. Cole — Localization of Proteolytic Activity on Low 

pH-Urea, BSA-Included Polyacrylamide Gels* 415 

D. C. Madsen, L. Chang, and B. Wostmann — W-Muricholate: A 

Tertiary Bile Acid of the Wistar Rat 416 



Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents ix 

Page 
Physics 

John Lepera, David Koltenbah, and John Meiser — Progress Re- 
port on Radiocarbon Dating at Ball State* 421 

James Cunningham and Torsten Alvager — Laboratory Experi- 
ments in Nanosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy* 421 

L. Gene Poorman — The Role of College and University Physics De- 
partments in the In-Service Training of Physics Teachers* .... 421 

A. C. Warner, R. L. Place, and P. R. Eddington — The 8 Scuti 
Variable Star HR5329: Preliminaries of a Further Investiga- 
tion* 422 

J. Swez, J. Westgard, and A. Barbee — A Field Emission Electron 

Gun* 422 

S. Mrozowski — Low Temperature Anomalies in Specific Heat in 

Carbons and Graphites* 422 

C. C. Sartain — The Increase in Residual Electrical Resistivity in 
Pure Cu, Ni, Co and Fe Due to Irradiation by Fast Neutrons 
and its Correlation with Electron Scattering Between the s- 
and d- Bands* 423 

Niel Bendsen and R. Cosby — Lithium Precipitation in Fast-Neutros 

Irradiated Germanium* 423 

David Duecker, Mike Gwinnup, Thomas Lyon, and Charles W. 

Miller — A Sulfur Dioxide Survey for Anderson, Indiana* .... 423 

Plant Taxonomy 

George M. Brooks, Thomas R. Mertens — Genetic Isolation in Genus 

Tragopogon* 425 

Christopher H. Haufler and Gerald J. Gastony — Chromosomes 

and Apomixis in the Fern Genus Bommeria* 425 

Judith G. Baroutsis and Gerald J. Gastony — Gametophyte De- 
velopment in the Fern Genus Anogramma* 426 

Hugh Wilson — Experimental Hybridization of the Cultivated 

Chenopods (Chenopodium L.) and Wild Relatives* 426 

Gayton C. Marks — New County Records for Porter and LaPorte 

Counties* 427 

Clifton Keller — Procedures and Problems in the Incorporation of 

Distributional Data into a Computerized Data Bank* 427 

Theodore J. Crovello — FLIP: The Flora Indiana Program — Possible 
Procedures* 428 

Barbara Kays and Jack Humbles — Indiana Plant Distribution 

Records, XXII, 1971-1974* 428 



* Abstract or Note only 



x Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Science Education 

Stanley S. Shimer — Common Problems in the Development of 

Carrel Learning Packets* 431 

Marshall D. Malcolm — Environmental Field Day* 431 

Claire A. Puchy and Gary W. Barrett — Environmental Science: 

A New Direction in Science Education* 432 

John A. Ricketts — The Lecture Demonstration: A Neglected Audio- 
Visual Aid* 432 

Larry R. Yoder and James T. Addis — Let's Put "Audio" into Audio- 
Tutorial Teaching* 433 

Jon R. Hendrix, Thomas R. Mertens, and Jerry J. Nisbet— En- 
hancing Science Education Accountability: A Model for Uni- 
versity Secondary School Corporation* 433 

Harold H. Jaus and Gerald Krockover — Fostering Communication 
and Attitudinal Development in Science Between Elementary 
and Secondary Teachers and Administrators* 434 

Robert F. Caudell — Does the Participation in a Science Methods 
Course Change the Attitudes of a Pre-Service Elementary 
Teacher Toward Science Teaching?* 434 

H. Marvin Bratt — Can Your Attitude Toward Elementary Science 

Instruction Change?* 435 

Kenneth L. Potts and Jerry M. Colglazier — The Evaluation of 
Implementation and Support Procedures in Selected Indiana 
Corporations that Adopted Either SCIS, SAPA, or ESS Ele- 
mentary Science Programs* 435 

H. James Funk and Neil V. Weber — Total Environmental Educa- 
tion: Getting Environmental Education into Indiana Class- 
rooms* 436 

T. G. Luce, S. Fletcher, R. N. Hurst, and T. Frederick— QUICK— 

A Preliminary Report 433 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

D. R. Hendricks — Growth Results of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra) 
Seedlings on Soil Types of East-Central and Southeastern 
Indiana* 443 

Harry Galloway, Joseph Yahner, Donald Franzmeier, and G. 
Srinivasan— Analyzing Indiana's Soil Associations for Future 
Land Uses* 443 

Michael D. Abel and James E. Newman— Air Quality Changes 
Associated with the Atmospheric Transport of Total Suspended 
Particulate in and Around Chicago 444 

Darrell W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers— A Rapid and Accurate 

Procedure for Estimation of Organic Carbon in Soils 456 



* Abstract or Note only 



Table of Contents xi 

Page 
G. C. Steinhardt, D. P. Franzmeier, and J. E. Cipra — Indiana 
Soil Associations Compared to Earth Resources Technology 

Satellite Imagery 463 

Russell K. Stivers — Time of Plowing, Nitrogen Rate, and Cover 

Crop for Corn on Chalmers Silt Loam 469 

Zoology 

C. W. Arave, J. L. Albright — Dominance Rank and Physiological 
Traits as Affected by Shifting Cows from One Group to An- 
other* 475 

Jo Anne Mueller, Wayne Paul Mueller — Behavioral and Phy- 
siological Differences of Mice Grown at 4 C and 21 C* 475 

Harold L. Zimmack — What is the Future for Biological Control 

of Insects?* 476 

Ralph D. Kirkpatrick and Thomas W. Landrum — Preliminary 
Evaluation of a Tooth Wear Aging Technique for the Big 
Brown Bat, Eptesicus Fuscus* 476 

C. Barry Knisley — Phytoseiid Mites of Pease Woods, Johnson 

County, Indiana — A Preliminary Study* 477 

Loren G. Martin, Kim L. Brokaw, and James J. McGrath — Effect 

of Aging on Erythrocytic 2, 3-DPG Concentration* 477 

Joseph M. Poland — A Study of Iron Deficiency Anemia in College 

Females* 478 

Thomas Joseph — Evidence of Possible Superfetation or Delayed 

Implantation in the Opossum Didelphis Virginiana* 478 

Lee Engstrom and Nick Pappas — Studies of a Naturally Occurring 

Rudimentary Gonad Phenocyte in Drosophila Melanogaster* . . 478 

W. J. Eversole — Studies on Experimental Hyptertension in Rats* . . 479 

Gregory Caplinger — STH Maintenance in Hypophysectomized Rana 

Pipiens with a Synergistic Affect* 479 

Dianne Vermillion and William Brett — Blood Clearance and 

Tissue Uptake of AG in the Turtle, Pseudemys Scripta* 480 

Sheri Parr and William Brett — Tissue Uptake, Accumulation, and 

Retention of AG in the Rat, Rattus Norvegicus* 480 

Randall S. Wentsel and James W. Berry — Cadmium and Lead 

Levels in Palestine Lake, Palestine, Indiana 481 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. — Foods of Some Fishes from the White 

River at Petersburg, Indiana 491 

Russell E. Mumford and John O. Whitaker — Seasonal Activity 

of Bats at an Indiana Cave 500 

Instructions for Contributors 508 

Index 511 



* Abstract or Note only 



PART 1 

THE WORK 

OF THE 
ACADEMY 

1974 



Damian Schmelz, President 



INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Officers and Committees for 1974 

OFFICERS 



President Damian Schmelz, Department of Biology 

(1974) St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, IN 47577 

Telephone: 812-357-6580 

President-Elect John B. Patton, Geology Department 

(1974) Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Telephone: 812-337-2862 

Secretary Jerry J. Nisbet, Department of Biology 

(1973-74) Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Telephone: 317-289-6877 

Treasurer Clyde R. Metz, Department of Chemistry 

(1972-74) Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis, IN 46205 

Telephone: 317-635-8661 

Editor Marion T. Jackson, Department of Life Sciences 

(1970-74) Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Telephone: 812-232-6311 

Director of 

Public Relations Clarence F. Dineen, Department of Biology 

(1974) Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 47556 

Telephone: 219-284-4061 

Chairmen Program 

Committee Forst D. Fuller and Donald J. Cook 

(1974) DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 

Telephone: 317-653-9721 

DIVISIONAL CHAIRMEN AND CHAIRMEN-ELECT FOR 1974 

Anthropology 

Chairman Dr. Jack M. Whitehead, Dept. of Anthropology 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Chairman-Elect none reported 

Botany 

Chairman Leland L. Hardman, Dept. of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Chairman-Elect Robert Benda 

Cell Biology 

Chairman Carl W. Godzeski, Research Labs 

Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Chairman-Elect Paul Mahlberg 

3 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Chemistry 

Chairman Stanley L. Burden, 

Box 528, Taylor University, Upland, IN 46989 
Chairman-Elect Eugene P. Schwartz 

Ecology 

Chairman Robert Petty, Department of Biology 

Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Chairman-Elect none reported 

Engineering 

Chairman J. W. Delleur, School of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-Elect J. A. Spooner 

Entomology 

Chairman Darryl P. Sanders, Dept. of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-Elect Robert W. Meyer 

Geography and Geology 

Chairman Robert D. Miles, Dept. of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-Elect William D. Brooks 

History of Science 

Chairman William R. Eberly, Dept. of Biology 

Manchester College, N. Manchester, IN 46962 
Chairman-Elect William E. Edington 

Micro and Molecular Biology 

Chairman . Ralph L. Nicholson, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Chairman-Elect John J. Gavin 

Physics 

Chairman Charles W. Miller, Dept. of Physics 

Anderson College, Anderson, IN 46011 
Chairman-Elect Robert E. Hale 

Plant Taxonomy 

Chairman Thomas R. Mertens, Dept. of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Chairman-Elect Joe F. Hennen 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Chairman Dr. Darrell W. Nelson, Dept. of Agronomy 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-Elect Mr. Frank W. Sanders 

Science Education 

Chairman Mr. Stanley S. Shimer, Science Teaching Center 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Chairman-Elect Mr. Gary E. Huffman 



Officers and Committees 5 

Zoology 

Chairman Charles E. Mays, Harrison Hall 

DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 
Chairman-Elect John Ferris 

Academy Foundation 

William A. Daily, Chairman (1974) The Lilly Research Labs 

Eli Lilly and Co. 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Tel. 317-261-4652 

Frank A. Guthrie (1975) Rose Hulman Institute 

5500 Wabash Avenue 
Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Bonding Committee 

Robert M. Brooker, Chairman (1974) Indiana Central College 

Indianapolis, IN 46227 
Tel. 317-787-6301 

Earl Holmes (1974) St. Mary's College 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Research Grants 

Kenneth E. Nichols, Chairman (1976) . . . Valparaiso University 

Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Tel. 219-462-5111 

Nelson R. Easton (1974) The Lilly Research Labs 

Eli Lilly and Co. 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Winona H. Welch (1975) DePauw University, 

P.O. Box 283 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Robert M. Brooker (1977) Indiana Central College 

Indianapolis, IN 46227 

Charles M. Kirkpatrick (1978) Forestry, Purdue University 

Lafayette, IN 47907 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



Barnes, W. B. 
*Behrens, O. K. 

Brooker, R. M. 

Burden, S L. 

Burton, L. 

Cook, D. J. 

Daily, F. K. 
*Daily, W. A. 
*Day, H. G. 

Delleur, J. W. 

Dhonau, C A. 

DlNEEN, C. F. 



Eberly, W. R. 
*Edington, W. E. 
Fuller, F. D. 
Girton, R E. 
Godzeski, C. W. 

*GUARD, A. T. 

-Guthrie, F. A. 
*Haenisch, E L. 

Hardman, L. L. 
*HOPP, W. B. 

Jackson, M. T. 
*Johnson, W A. 



Kaufman, K. 

* Lilly, E. 
*Lindsey, A. A. 
:!: Markle, C. A. 

Mays, C. E. 
*Mellon, M G. 
Mertens, T. R. 
Metz, C. R. 

* Meyer, A. H. 
*Michaud, H H. 

Miles, R. D. 
Miller, C. W. 



6 Indiana Academy of Science 

*Morgan, W. P. Osgood, D. W. Shimer, S S. 

Moulton, B Patton, J B. St. John, P A. 

MUNSEE, J. R. PETTY, R. 0. *WAYNE, W. J. 

Nelson, D. W. Poorman, L. *Weatherwax, P. 

Newman, J. E. *Postlethwaite, S. N. *Welch, W. H. 

Nichols,' K E. *Powell, H. M. Whitehead, J. M. 

Nicholson, R. L. Sanders, D. P. Winslow, D. R. 

NlSBET, J. J. SCHMELZ, D. V. *YOUSE, H R. 

* Past President of Academy 

BUDGET COMMITTEE 

D. V. Schmelz, President 

J. B. Patton, President-Elect 

W. B. Hopp, Retiring President 

J. J. Nisbet, Secretary 

C. R. Metz, Treasurer 

M. T. Jackson, Editor 

C. F. Dineen, Director of Public Relations 
Lois Burton, Chairman, Library Committee 

D. J. Cook, Co-Chairman, Program Committee 
F. D. Fuller, Co-Chairman, Program Committee 
L. E. Poorman, Director, Junior Academy 

D. R. Winslow, Chairman, Youth Activities 

H. G. Day, Chairman, Science and Society Committee 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 
(The President and President-Elect are ex-officio members of all 
committees) 
Academy Representative to A.A.A.S. Section and Delegate to A.A.S. 

Willis H. Johnson (1974) Department of Biology, 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Tel. 317-362-1400 

Auditing Committee 

C A Dhonau, Chairman Vincennes University 

Vincennes, IN 47951 
Tel. 812-882-3350 

R E. Dolphin 1118 Chestnut St. 

Vincennes, IN 47951 

Youth Activities Committee 

Donald R. Winslow, Chairman & Director, 

Science Talent Search Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 
Tel. 812-337-6352 

Karl Kaufman, Coordinator of Science 

p airs Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46207 



Officers and Committees 7 

Lawrence Poorman, Director, Junior 

Academy of Science Department of Physics 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Jerry Colglazier Office of State Supt. of 

Public Instruction 
120 W. Market Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Floyd Conard Westside High School 

9th and Gerry Streets 
Gary, Indiana 46402 

Keith Hunnings New Haven High School 

900 Prospect Avenue 
New Haven, IN 46774 

Jane Kahle Department of Biological 

Sciences 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 46207 

James Schwengel Harrison High School 

211 Fielding Road 
Evansville, IN 47715 

F. Keith Ault Department of Chemistry 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

Elliot Koyanagi Bloomington High School 

North 
3901 Kinser Pike 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

John Moody Division of Education 

Indiana University Southeast 
New Albany, IN 47150 

Mary J. Pettersen Oliver P. Morton Senior H.S. 

6915 Grand Avenue 
Hammond, IN 46323 

1974 Indiana Regional Science Fairs 
Fair and Director Dates 

Calumet Regional Science Fair 

Mr. P. Vincent Flannery April 5, 6, 7 

3130 Highway Avenue 
Highland, IN 46322 
Tel. 219-838-0499 
Central Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Nicholas Purichia March 21, 22, 23 

Dr. Lewis Sharp 

Marian College 

3200 Cold Spring Road 

Indianapolis, IN 46222 

Tel. 317-924-3291 



8 Indiana Academy of Science 

East Central Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. George W. Welker March 23 

Professor of Biology 
Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 
Tel. 317-288-7542 

Lafayette Regional Science Fair 

Professor Victor Goldschmidt March 23, 24 

School of Mechanical Engineering 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Tel. 317-494-8171 

Northern Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Kenneth Esau April 18, 19, 20 

Professor of Biology, Bethel College 
Mishawaka, IN 46544 

Northeastern Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Arthur W. Friedel April 13 

Purdue University at Fort Wayne 
2101 Colseum Blvd. East 
Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Tel. 219-483-8121 

Northeastern Indiana Tri-State Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Chester A. Pinkham March 15, 16, 17 

Tri-State College, Angola, IN 46703 
Tel. 219-665-3141 

Northwestern Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Professor A. C. Koester March 31 

Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Tel. 219-462-5111 

South Central Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Kenneth D. Laser March 24 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Division of Biological Sciences 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

Tel. 812-337-1070 

Southeastern Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Anthony J. Schaffer April 7 

P.O. Box 679 

New Albany, IN 47150 

Tel. 812-945-2731 Ext. 384 

Tri-State Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Edward C. Susat April 5, 6 

University of Evansville, P.O. Box 329 
Evansville, IN 47701 
Tel. 812-479-2663 



Officers and Committees £ 

West Central Indiana Regional Science Fair 

Dr. Marshall Parks March 30 

Division of Science Training 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Tel. 812-232-6311 Ext. 5848 

Library Committee 

Lois Burton, Chairman Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Tel. 317-633-6425 

Nellie Coats Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 

W. R. Eberly Zoology, Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46962 

Eli Lilly Eli Lilly and Company 

Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Programs Committee 

Co-chairmen 
Donald J. Cook & Forst D. Fuller 
DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 
Tel. 317-653-9721 

Publications Committee 

M. T. Jackson, Chairman Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Tel. 812-232-6311 

W. R. Eberly Zoology, Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46962 

M. F. Baumgardner Agronomy, Purdue Univ. 

Lafayette, IN 47907 

W. N. Melhorn Geosciences, Purdue Univ. 

Lafayette, IN 47907 

J. F. Pelton Botany, Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

B. K. Schwartz, Jr Anthropology, 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

C. F. Dineen Biology, St. Mary's College 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 

W. B. Bunger Chemistry, 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 



10 Indiana Academy of Science 

Newsletter 

Clarence F. Dineen Biology Dept. 

St. Mary's College 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Tel. 219-284-4061 

Membership Committee 

John B. Patton, Chairman Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 
812-337-2862 

Corporation Membership : 

Otto K. Behrens, Ad Hoc Director Eli Lilly and Company 

Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Karl L. Kaufman Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Institutional Membership : 

William B. Hopp, Ad Hoc Director Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Frank A. Guthrie Rose-Hulman Institute 

Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Emeritus Membership: 

Winona H. Welch, Director DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Club Membership : 

Donald R. Win slow, Director Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

Fellows Committee 

Benjamin Moulton, Chairman (1976) . . . Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Tel. 812-232-6311 

Paul H. Gebhard (1974) Anthropology, 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

John Pelton (1975) Botany, Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

R. E. Gorden (1975) Cell Biology, 

Notre Dame University 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

G. F. Hennion (1974) Chemistry, Notre Dame Univ. 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 

James B. Cope (1974) Ecology, Earlham College 

Richmond, IN 47374 

Robert Miles (1975) Engineering, Purdue Univ. 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 
B. Elwood Montgomery (1975) Entomology, Purdue Univ. 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 



Officers and Committees 11 

Charles E. Weir (1976) History of Science, 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

W. H. Headlee (1974) Microbiology, LU.P.U.L 

Indianapolis, IN 46205 

R. L. Conklin (1974) Physics, Hanover College 

Hanover, IN 47243 

Thomas R. Mertens (1976) Plant Taxonomy, 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

John A. Ricketts (1976) Science Education, 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Russell K. Stivers (1976) Soils & Atmos. Science, 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

William R. Eberly (1975) Zoology, Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46962 

Resolutions Committee 

H. R. Youse, Chairman Botany, Depauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 
Tel. 317-653-9721 

William A. Daily The Lilly Research Labs 

Eli Lilly Co. 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

James E. Newman Agronomy, Purdue Univ. 

Lafayette, IN 47907 

Invitations Committee 

Philip A. St. John, Chairman Zoology, Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Tel. 317-283-9411 

Paul R. Quinney Chemistry, Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Necrologist 

Faye K. Daily 5884 Compton Street 

Indianapolis, IN 46220 
Tel.: 317-251-4719 

Parliamentarian 

Paul Weatherwax Botany, Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 
Tel. 812-337-1748 

Science and Society Committee 

Dr. Harry G. Day, Chairman (1974) Chemistry, Indiana Univ. 

Bloomington, IN 47401 
Tel. 812-337-1568 



12 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Robert E. Henderson (1974) Director of Research 

Detroit Diesel, Allison Div. 
General Motors Corporation 
P.O. Box 894 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Dr. Robert L. Mann (1974) The Lilly Research Labs. 

Eli Lilly and Company 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Dr. Howard R. Youse (1974) DePauw Univ., P.O. Box 253 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Dr. Otto K. Behrens (1975) The Lilly Research Labs. 

Eli Lilly and Company 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Prof. Robert D. Miles (1975) Civil Engineering, 

Purdue University 
Lafayette, IN 47907 

Mr. Robert Menke (1975) St. Henry Road 

Huntingburg, IN 47542 

Dr. Oattis Parks (1975) 105 S. Meridian Street 

Indianapolis, IN 46225 

Dr. Donald J. Cook (1976) Chemistry, DePauw Univ. 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Dr. Austin W. Fergusson (1976) Merry Lea Environ. Center 

P.O. Box 263 

Wolf Lake, IN 46796 

Dr. Willis Johnson (1976) Biology, Wabash College 

Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Dr. Geraldine Huitink (1976) Chemistry, I.U. — South Bend 

South Bend, IN 46615 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

Biological Survey Committee 

Jack R. Munsee, Chairman Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Tel. 812-232-6311 

(Other members to be appointed) 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee 

Winona H. Welch, Chairman DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 
Tel. 317-653-9721 

Robert H. Cooper R.R. 9, Box 242, 

Muncie, IN 47302 

Edward L. Haenisch Chemistry, Wabash College 

Crawfordsville, IN 47933 



Officers and Committees 13 

Howard Michaud Forestry, Purdue University 

Lafayette, IN 47907 

Preservation of Scientific Areas Committee 

William B. Barnes, Chairman Division of Nature Preserves 

616 State Office Building 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Tel. 317-633-4164 
R. O. Petty Wabash College 

Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Ray Gutschick Notre Dame University 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Carl Krekeler 360 Mclntyre Court, 

Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Damian Schmelz St. Meinrad College 

St. Meinrad, IN 47577 
Robert Weber 3649 Algonquin Pass 

Fort Wayne, IN 46807 
Winona H. Welch DePauw University 

Greeneastle, IN 46135 
Marion T. Jackson Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 
J. Dan Webster Zoology, Hanover College 

Hanover, IN 47243 
Carrolle Markle (Honorary) Earlham College, 

Richmond, IN 47374 

"Speaker of the Year" Selection Committee 

H. G. Day, Chairman (1974) Chemistry, Indiana Univ. 

Bloomington, IN 47401 
Tel. 812-337-1568 

A. A. Lindsey (1975) Biological Sciences, 

Purdue University 
Lafayette, IN 47907 

Frank A. Guthrie (1976) Chemistry, 

Rose-Hulman Institute 
Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Academy Representative on Indiana Natural Resources Commission 

D. W. Osgood Zoology, Butler University 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Tel. 317-283-9411 



SPRING MEETING 

McCormick's Creek State Park, Spencer, Indiana 



MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

May 3, 1974 

The meeting was called to order by President Damian Schmelz at 
4:15 p.m. in the Conference Room of Canyon Inn, McCormick's Creek 
State Park, Spencer, Indiana. The minutes of the Executive Committee 
and of the General Session of the Fall, 1973 meeting of the Academy 
were approved. The following reports were accepted by general consent 
unless a specific motion is recorded. 

Treasurer: Clyde Metz made a financial report for the period Jan- 
uary 1 through April 30, 1974. The summary from this report follows: 



Academy 
Accounts 



Administered 
Accounts 



Total 



Balance: January 1, 1974 $8,727.21 

1974 Income 3,334.42 

1974 Expenditures 6,531.48 

Balance: April 30, 1974 5,530.15 



$20,103.72 


$28,830.93 


2,853.00 


6,187.42 


4,066.94 


10,598.42 


18,889.78 


24,419.93 



The Treasurer also reported that AAAS will make available grants 
totaling $768 ($384 for 1973 and $384 for 1974) to the Indiana Academy 
of Science for the support of high school or college student research 
projects. This grant is calculated on the basis of $1.00 for each person 
who is a member of AAAS and who is also a member of IAS. 

Representative to Association of Academies of Science (AAS) : Willis 
Johnson reported on past and present relationships between AAAS and 
state academies of science. Mr. Johnson's recommendations to realign 
our relationships with AAAS were formulated in the following motion: 

That the Indiana Academy of Science enroll in Section X as 
an affiliate of AAAS and that our representative be appointed 
for a 3-year, renewable term, and 

that the Indiana Academy of Science change its constitution to 
provide for the appointment of one of our representatives to 
AAS to serve also as our representative to Section X for a 
3-year, renewable term, and 

that the Executive Committee authorize transportation costs 
and a per diem allowance ($25.00 per day) for the Academy 
representative to attend the annual AAAS meeting. 
Seconded and passed. 

Science and Society Committee: Harry Day summarized activities 
relative to the Indiana Academy of Science' sponsorship of legislative 
action which would establish a Science and Technology Advisory Council 

14 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 15 

in Indiana. The committee will continue its efforts to seek passage of 
this legislation. 

Membership Committee: John Patton reported that the committee is 
developing a more extensive list of college and university scientists who 
are potential members. Karl Kaufman, Otto Behrens, and John Patton 
have been appointed to a committee to study ways and means of encour- 
aging corporations to join the Academy. 

Emeritus Membership Committee: Winona Welch reported on re- 
quests and eligibility for emeritus membership and then made the follow- 
ing motion: 

That the following individuals be elected to Emeritus Membership: 

Alton A. Lindsey 
Marion A. Rector 
Walter I. Brumbaugh 
Nathan E. Pearson 
Gerald L. Alexander 

Seconded and passed. 

A discussion was held concerning a proposed substitution for "Ar- 
ticle II Membership" of the constitution of the Academy. The follow- 
ing actions were taken: 

Motion: That the concept of not considering Emeritus Members 
for Academy offices be rejected. 

Seconded and passed. 

Motion: That the title Fellow be awarded strictly as an honor, 
that the dues structure be independent of the title, and 
that the membership category "Fellows" be eliminated. 

Seconded and passed. 

The Fellows Committee was charged with the task of redefining 
the concept of "Fellow" in light of the Executive Committees' action, 
and with bringing a report of the Executive Committee at the Fall, 
1974 meeting. 

Motion: That the membership categories Annual Membership and 
Senior Membership be retained. 

Seconded and passed. 

Motion: That the membership class "Annual Member" be changed 
to "Member". 

Seconded and passed. 

Motion: That the following proposed and amended version of Ar- 
ticle II Membership be substituted for Article II Mem- 
bership of the Constitution of the Academy. 

Article II. Membership 

Sec. 1. The membership of the Academy shall consist of: Mem- 
bers, Student Members, Senior Members, Sustaining Members, Life 
Members, Club Members, Institutional Members, Corporate Members, 



16 Indiana Academy of Science 

Emeritus Members, and Honorary Members. Nomination for member- 
ship in any one of these classes shall be submitted to the Executive 
Committee, and those approved by this committee shall be referred to 
the membership present at any annual or spring meeting, where those 
nominees receiving a majority vote shall be declared elected to mem- 
bership. The privileges and obligations of members of each class shall 
be determined by the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 2. Members. Any person interested in any aspect of science 
and in accord with the objectives of the Academy may be elected to 
Annual Membership. 

Sec. 3. Student Members. Any graduate or undergraduate college 
or university student may be elected to Student Membership. The ten- 
ure of this class of membership shall be limited to five years. 

Sec. 4. Senior Members. Any person interested in science may, 
on making payment of dues established by the Executive Committee, 
elect Senior Membership. 

Sec. 5. Sustaining Members. Any person interested in science 
may, on making payment of dues established by the Executive Commit- 
tee, elect Sustaining Membership. 

Sec. 6. Life Members. Any member of the Academy in good 
standing may, by making the single payment of dues established by 
the Executive Committee, elect Life Membership. 

Sec. 7. Club Members. Any junior or senior high school science 
club in Indiana may, on recommendation of the Director of the Junior 
Academy of Science, be elected to Club Membership. 

Sec. 8. Institutional Members. Any college, university or other 
non-profit organization in Indiana may be elected to Institutional Mem- 
bership. 

Sec. 9. Corporate Members. Any corporation organized and op- 
erated for profit in Indiana may be elected to Corporate Membership. 

Sec. 10. Emeritus Members. Any member who, at the time of 
professional retirement and after being a member for 25 years, peti- 
tions the Emeritus Membership Selection Committee may, on approval 
of that committee, be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Sec. 11. Fellows. Any member of the Academy may, on recom- 
mendation of the Committee on Fellows, be elected a Fellow of the 
Academy. The title is awarded as an honor and is independent of the 
class of membership. 

Sec. 12. Honorary Members. For exceptional recognization, any 
member may be elected to Honorary Membership. 

Publications Committee: Marion Jackson reported that reprints for 
Vol. 82 of the Proceedings have been circulated. A hardcover binding 
will not be available for Vol. 83 because of the reduction in State sup- 
port for publication. The Committee has recognized the Indiana State 
Museum as an outlet for Academy monographs. The following motion 
was made concerning financial arrangements with the Museum : 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

That a 20% discount be allowed to the Indiana State Museum 
in recognition of savings in handling costs when lots of ten 
(10) or more copies of the same monograph are placed. 
Seconded and passed. 

Special Reports Related to Publications: Clyde Metz reported that 
the Academy has obtained an attorney's ruling that the Academy will 
not endanger its tax-free status by entering into sales of its mono- 
graphs or by raising charges for its publications. 

William Eberly has made inquiries about reprinting Natural Fea- 
tures of Indiana. Two options are currently being considered: a com- 
mercial press will produce the book for the Academy at a cost of $3.00 
per copy if 2,000 copies are ordered; and the Indiana University Press 
has expressed interest in reprinting and handling sales of the book in 
which case a royalty would be paid to the Academy. 

Otto Behrens reported that we have not yet been successful in 
obtaining a satisfactory response in our effort to encourage the State 
to provide additional funding to defray publication costs for the 
Proceedings. 

Comments by the President: Damian Schmelz reported that discus- 
sions have been held concerning the possible establishment of a new 
Computer Sciences Section of the Academy. Inquiries concerning the 
reactivation of the Mathematics Section have not been fruitful as yet. 

The President reminded the Executive Committee that several 
amendments to the Constitution have not been acted on by the Acad- 
emy membership. 

Preservation of Scientific Areas Committee: William Barnes reported 
that 150 natural areas (17,497 acres) were recommended for preserva- 
tion in the volume on Natural Areas in Indiana. Since the volume was 
printed, 25 more areas (3,000 acres) have been added to the list. To 
date, 28 Nature Preserves (5,517 acres) have been dedicated in the 
State. This year the State Legislature appropriated $300,000 for ac- 
quisition of new areas. 

Adjournment: The meeting was adjourned at 6:15 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jerry J. Nisbet, Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

May 3, 1974 

The meeting was called to order by President Damian Schmelz at 
9:15 p.m. in the Canyon Inn, McCormick's Creek State Park, Spencer, 
Indiana. 

Announcements: (1) Damian Schmelz announced the proposed 
changes in classes of membership which will be submitted to the mem- 
bership at the Fall, 1974 meeting. 

(2) The Academy is making plans to become involved in the Bi- 
centennial Celebration. Ben Swartz will coordinate anthropological col- 
lections for Indiana Museums. 

(3) Reprinting of Natural Features of Indiana is being consid- 
ered. 

(4) This year the State appropriation for supporting publication 
of the Proceedings was $1,200. A committee consisting of Otto Behrens, 
John Patton and Lois Burton has been appointed to work on the issue 
of how the State's traditional allocation of $4,000 for support of the 
publication may be reinstated. 

(5) Vol. 83 of the Proceedings is to be issued in soft cover. 
Following discussion of announcements the membership took the 

following actions: 

Motion: That the Publications Committee pursue the options of 
reprinting Natural Features of Indiana and report recom- 
mendations to the President and to the Executive Council 
prior to taking action if a decision in the best interest 
of the Academy is needed prior to the Fall, 1974 meeting 
of the Academy. 

Seconded and passed. 

Motion: That the Academy reconsider its action to have the Pro- 
ceedings published in softcover and that Vol. 83 and fu- 
ture issues be published in hardcover. 

Substitute Motion: That the Publications Committee investigate 
the charges for hardcovers and report to the Executive 
Council. The Executive Council is authorized to make a 
decision about the type of cover to be used. 

The substitute motion was seconded and passed. 

Adjournment: The meeting adjourned at 10 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jerry J. Nisbet, Secretary 



18 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

October 31, 1974 

The meeting was called to order by President Damian Schmelz at 
7:30 p.m. in Room 120 of the Science and Mathematics Center, DePauw 
University, Greencastle, Indiana. The minutes of the Executive Com- 
mittee Meeting and of the General Session of the Spring 1974 meeting 
of the Academy were approved. The following reports were accepted 
by general consent unless a specific motion is recorded. 

Treasurer: Clyde Metz made a financial report for the period Jan- 
uary 1, 1974 through October 23, 1974. The summary from this report 
follows : 



Academy 


Administered 




Accounts 


Accounts 


Total 


$8,727.21 


$20,103.72 


$28,830.93 


8,514.77 


19,467.30 


27,982.07 


8,067.52 


21,582.13 


29,649.65 


9,174.46 


17,988.89 


27,163.35 



Balance: Jan. 1, 1974 

1974 Income 

1974 Expenditures 

Balance: Oct. 23, 1974 

Motion: That the Treasurer's Report be accepted. Seconded and 
passed. 

Trustees of the Academy Research Endowment Fund: William Daily 
reported that the market value of the original Foundation Fund is 
$14,589.00. The total income from the John S. Wright Fund is $34,- 
135.87 and disbursements from the John S. Wright Fund amounted to 
$21,135.87. The market value of all securities dropped from $778,000.00 
in 1973 to $499,233.00 which reflects deterioration in the current market. 

Bonding Committee: No report 

Motion: That the Executive Committee approve renewing the bond 
for the Treasurer for another three years. Seconded and 



Auditing Committee: No report 

Research Grants Committee: Kenneth Nichols reported that research 
grants totaling $7,521.00 had been awarded to 15 individuals. Three 
science club activity grants totaling $600.00 were also awarded during 
the year. 

Representative to A AS: No report 

Youth Activities Committee: Donald Winslow presented a status re- 
port on the activities of the three youth activity programs sponsored 
by the Academy: the Science Talent Search, the Indiana Junior Acad- 
emy of Science, and the Science Fair program. Efforts to evaluate and 

19 



20 Indiana Academy of Science 

to better coordinate Youth Activities programs is underway. Gene 
Poorman reported on progress being made in establishing a regional 
organizational structure for the Junior Academy. 

Recommendation: that the Academy recognize and/or present awards 
to scientists who have made unusual contributions in the area of youth 
activities during the last 25-30 years. 

Raymond F. Lichtenhan, Chairman of the Junior Academy Con- 
stitution Committee reported on a proposed new constitution for the 
Junior Academy. 

Changes in the status of the Junior Academy may require amend- 
ment of the constitution of the Senior Academy. Recommendations for 
any relevant modifications of constitution of the Indiana Academy of 
Science should be presented to the Executive Committee at a Spring 
meeting so that ratification by the membership can be considered at a 
subsequent Fall meeting. 

Library Committee: Lois Burton described the collection in the John 
Shepherd Wright Memorial Library and summarized the categories of 
users. During the year, 50 new titles were received and arrangements 
for new exchanges of publications were made with foreign and United 
States institutions. Volume 82 of the Proceedings was received from 
the printer in January, 1974, and was mailed to 1,070 members and to 
science clubs, universities, public libraries in the state, and to exchange 
agencies. 

Publications Committee: Marion Jackson reviewed ways of reprint- 
ing "Natural Features of Indiana." President Schmelz asked that the 
Publications Committee identify one person to handle matters, related 
to reprinting of the volume. President Schmelz also instructed the 
Treasurer to obtain an attorney's ruling on royalty income and IRS 
status relative to reprinting the volume. Preliminary materials are 
under study for a monograph on Odenata. 

State Appropriations Ad Hoc Committee: Otto Behrens reported on 
procedures followed by the committee in attempting to reinstate a 
higher level of state support for printing the Proceedings. 

Membership Committee: John Patton reported that 200 brochure- 
application forms have been mailed to prospective members. A list of 
approximately 2,000 additional scientists has been compiled and bro- 
chures will be mailed to these individuals. 

Emeritus Membership Committee: Winona Welch reported that since 
the 1974 Spring Meeting three individuals had requested and had been 
certified as eligible for Emeritus Membership. 

Motion: That the following individuals be elected to Emeritus 
Membership in the Academy: 

Irving W. Burr 
Arthur T. Guard 
Elwood B. Montgomery 
Seconded and passed. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 21 

Fellows Committee: Benjamin Moulton reported that credentials 
for Fellow nominees had been received. 

Motion: That the following- individuals be elected Fellows of the 
Academy: 

Marion F. Baumgardner 
Philip A. Orpurt 
Richard L. Powell 
Claude F. Wade 
Seconded and passed. 

Director of Public Relations: Clarence Dineen reported that the 
November Newsletter would contain membership information and an 
application form. Members of the Executive Committee were encour- 
aged to submit items for Newsletters. 

Necrologist: No report 

Resolutions: No report 

Science and Society Committee: Harry Day reported that the com- 
mittee met seven times during the year. The principal concerns of the 
committee were on (1) furthering the concept of establishing a council 
on science and technology for the state, (2) reorganizing and strength- 
ening the Speakers Bureau, and (3) increasing the use of mass media 
to increase public understanding of science. 

Speaker-of -the- Year Committee: Harry Day reported that Ralph A. 
Llewellyn, Chairman of the Department of Physics, Indiana State Uni- 
versity, had been selected Speaker-of-the-Year. 

Invitations Committee: A report from Philip St. John was read by 
Damian Schmelz. Invitations to host Academy meetings have been ac- 
cepted from Butler University for 1975, from Valparaiso University 
for 1976, from IUPUI for 1977, and from Anderson College for 1978. 

Scientific Areas Committee: Marion Jackson reported for the com- 
mittee. Since the 1974 Spring meeting, three more nature preserves 
have been dedicated by action of the Natural Resources Commission. 
These are Hornbeam Nature Preserve, Swamp Rose Nature Preserve, 
and Bitternut Woods Nature Preserve. 

Academy Representative on Natural Resources Commission: A re- 
port from David Osgood was reviewed by Damian Schmelz. During the 
year the commission implemented (1) flood plain management guide- 
lines, and (2) the Scenic & Recreational Streams Act. A 55-mile stretch 
of the Blue River was designated as Indiana's first scenic stream. 

Biological Survey Committee: Jack Munsee pointed to the advan- 
tage of making survey data available for environmental impact state- 
ments. A comprehensive plan for accumulating and storing biological 
survey information is needed. 

Bicentennial Ad Hoc Committee: A report from John Favinger was 
received. Each division may be asked to prepare a history of its activi- 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

ties for inclusion in the program for the 1975 Annual Meeting of the 
Academy. The papers may be collected and published during 1976. 

President's Remarks: Damian Schmelz reported the establishment 
of the President's Council. The present president and the last three 
presidents of the Academy constitute the membership of this resource 
group. 

In checking past actions of the Academy, no record can be found 
of Membership action to confirm two amendments passed by the Execu- 
tive Committee in 1967. These actions deal with the establishment of 
the Preservation of Natural Areas Committee and of the Emeritus 
Membership Selection Committee. In 1968, the Executive Committee 
passed an amendment to Article One, Section One, of the By-Laws. No 
record can be found that the Membership approved this amendment 
which deals with procedures for advanced payment of dues, billings, 
January 31st cut-off date, Proceedings recipients, and reinstatement 
procedures. A discussion was held concerning whether or not action 
should be taken on these items at the 1975 Business Meeting. 

Adjournment: The meeting was adjourned at 10:00 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jerry J. Nisbet, Secretary 



MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 



November 1, 1974 

The Business Session of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Academy 
was called to order by President Damian Schmelz at 2:55 p.m. in the 
Auditorium of the Science and Mathematics Center, DePauw Univer- 
sity, Greencastle, Indiana. 

John R. Anderson, Assistant to the Dean, DePauw University, wel- 
comed the Academy on behalf of DePauw University. 

The Secretary, Jerry Nisbet, presented a summary of committee 
reports and informed the membership of official actions taken by the 
Executive Committee on May 3, 1974 and on October 31, 1974. 

Motion: That 108 new applicants for membership be approved. 

Seconded and passed. 

The names of individuals who were elected 1975 Chairmen and 1975 
Chairmen-elect includes : 



Anthropology 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



Robert E. Hahn" 
Thomas P. Myers 



Botany 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



Dr. Robert S. Benda 
Dr. Roger F. Boneham 



Cell Biology 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



Dr. Paul Mahlberg 
Dr. Lee F. Ellis 



Chemistry 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect 



Eugene P. Schwartz 
John H. Meiser 



Ecology 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



Dr. William B. Crankshaw 
Dr. J. 0. Whitaker, Jr. 



Engineering 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



Dr. John A. Spooner 
Dr. Aldo Giorgini 



Entomology 

Chairman: 
Chairman-elect 



Robert W. Meyer 
Virgil R. Knapp 



Geology and Geography 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect: 



Dr. William D. Brooks 
Dr. Neil V. Weber 



History of Science 

Chairman : 
Chairman-elect : 



J. Bennett Olson 
William R. Eberly 



23 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Chairman: Dr. David C. Madsen 

Chairman-elect: Dr. Ralph L. Nicholson 

Physics 

Chairman: Richard L. Conxlin 

Chairman-elect: Robert Hale 

Plant Taxonomy 

Chairman: Joe Hennen 

Chairman-elect: Orland J. Blanchard 

Science Education 

Chairman: Leon Bernhardt 

Chairman-elect: Dr. Harold H. Jaus 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Chairman: Frank W. Sanders 

Chairman-elect: Harry M. Galloway 

Zoology 

Chairman: Dr. John M. Ferris 

Chairman-elect: Dr. Thomas Joseph 

The Necrologist, Fay Daily, reported the deaths of two members, 
Frank L. Kern and Matthew F. Taggart. 

The Chairman of the Membership Committee, John Patton, reported 
on activities underway to contact potential new members. A constitu- 
tional amendment concerning new membership categories was discussed. 
This amendment was approved by the Executive Committee at the 1974 
Spring Meeting. 

Motion: That the Academy adopt the following substitute for "Ar- 
ticle II. MEMBERSHIP" in the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Article II. Membership 

Sec. 1. The membership of The Academy shall consist of: Mem- 
bers, Student Members, Fellows, Club Members, Emeritus Members, 
Life Members, Senior Members, Honorary Members, Sustaining Mem- 
bers, Corporate Members, and Institutional Members. Nomination for 
membership in any one of these classes shall be submitted to the Execu- 
tive Committee, and those approved by this committee shall be referred 
to the membership present at any annual or spring meeting, where those 
nominees receiving a majority vote shall be declared elected to member- 
ship. The privileges and obligations of members of each class shall be 
determined by the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 2. Members. Any person interested in any aspect of science 
and in accord with the objectives of The Academy may be elected to 
Membership. 

Sec. 3. Student Members. Any graduate or undergraduate college 
or university student may be elected to Student Membership, but the 
tenure of this class of membership shall be limited to five years. 



Minutes of the General Session 25 

Sec. 4. Senior Members. Any person interested in science may be 
elected to Senior Membership. 

Sec. 5. Sustaining Members. Any person interested in science 
may, on payment of substantially higher dues, be elected to Sustaining 
Membership. 

Sec. 6. Club Members. Any junior or senior high school science 
club in Indiana may, on recommendation of the Director of the Junior 
Academy of Science, be elected to Club Membership. 

Sec. 7. Life Members. Any member of the Academy in good 
standing may, by making a substantial single payment of dues, be 
elected to Life Membership. 

Sec. 8. Fellows. Any member of The Academy may, on recom- 
mendation of the Committee on Fellows, be elected a Fellow of The 
Academy. The title is awarded as an honor and is independent of the 
class of membership. 

Sec. 9. Emeritus Members. Any member who, after 25 consecu- 
tive years of membership, is 65 years of age or retired, petitions the 
Emeritus Membership Selection Committee may, on approval of that 
committee, be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Sec. 10. Honorary Members. In exceptional cases any person may 
be elected to Honorary Membership. 

Sec. 11. Corporate Members. Any corporation organized and op- 
erated for profit in Indiana may be elected to Corporate Membership. 

Sec. 12. Institutional Members. Any college, university or non- 
profit organization in Indiana may be elected to Institutional Member- 
ship. 

Seconded and passed. 

The Secretary read the report of the nominating committee and 
placed the following slate of officers for 1975 in nomination: 

President: John B. Patton — 1975 

President-elect: Donald J. Cook — 1975 

Secretary: Roberta E. Van Atta— 

1975, 76, 77 
Treasurer: Clyde R. Metz — 1975, 76, 77 

Editor: Benjamin Moulton — 

1975, 76, 77 
Trustee of Academy Accounts: William B. Daily — 1975, 76 
Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker — 

1975, 76 
Bonding Committee: Earl Holmes — 1975, 76 

Research Committee: Donald R. Brannon — 

1975, 76, 77, 78 and 79 

The nominations were closed and a unanimous ballot was cast for 
the slate of officers. 

The Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, Howard Youse, pre- 
sented the following two resolutions which were adopted by the assem- 
blage: 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

I. Whereas : State government needs unbiased scientific and techno- 
logical counsel in dealing with many of the problems 
facing government and society today; and 

Whereas: Many competent scientists and engineers in this state 
have expressed an interest in assisting the Governor 
and General Assembly in matters that involve their 
particular competence, be it therefore 

Resolved: That the Indiana Academy of Science urges the Gover- 
nor and General Assembly to establish a council with 
responsibilities and means for thorough and in depth 
study of problems in which scientific and engineering 
knowledge have relevance. 

II. That the Academy members here assembled express their appreci- 
ation to Dr. William E. Kerstetter, President of DePauw Univer- 
sity, for all the courtesies which have been extended the member- 
ship of the Academy during this meeting. We are particularly 
grateful to Professors Donald J. Cook and Forst D. Fuller who 
were Co-chairmen of the Program Committee for their fine work 
in the preparation of the program. The arranged facilities for all 
programs at this annual meeting were excellent. Further the Acad- 
emy members are appreciative of the address of Dr. Ralph A. 
Llewellyn, Indiana Academy of Science Lecturer-of-the-Year. 
Seconded and passed. 
The President made the following announcements : 

(1) Robert Henderson, Chairman of the Indiana Academy of Sci- 
ence Speakers Bureau can provide interested groups with a 
list of individuals who are registered with the Speakers 
Bureau. 

(2) Personnel responsible for the Hoosier National Forest request 
assistance from scientists who can provide knowledge about 
endangered species in the Forest. This information is needed 
for the development of management and protection programs. 

Harry Day introduced the Speaker-of-the-Year, Ralph A. Llewellyn 
who presented a lecture on, "Indiana's Energy Future: What are the 
Options?" 

John Patton introduced the following individuals, Captain R. L. 
McArthy, Harry G. Day, Robert Henderson, and Senator Patrick Car- 
roll, who participated in a panel discussion on "Search for Better Ways 
to Utilize Scientific and Technological Advisory Resources in Indiana." 

The meeting was recessed at 5:00 p.m. and was reconvened at 6:30 
p.m. with John Patton presiding at the annual banquet held in the 
DePauw Student Union Building Ballroom. 

The Presidential Address titled, "Roots in the Soil and Water and 
Sky" was presented by Damian Schmelz. The multi-media program was 
highly inspirational and enjoyable. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jerry J. Nisbet, Secretary 



FINANCIAL REPORT 
JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1974 



I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 



Income 



Expenditure 



Budgeted 



Dues $ 6,137.00 $ 

Reprints: Vol. 82 2,616.26 

Vol. 81 101.95 

Interest 1,112.96 

Miscellaneous 0.00 

Secretary 

Clerical 

Office 

Treasurer 

Clerical 

Office 

General Office 

Travel, AAS Dues, etc. 

Membership Committee 

Transfer to Administered Accounts 

Junior Academy 

Science and Society 

Natural Areas 

Library Binding 

Proceedings: Publication 

Proceedings : Mailing 

President's Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year 

Honorarium 

Administrative Expenses 

Program Committee 

Chairman's Local Expenses 

Printing 

Mailing 

Publications Editor's Expenses 

Youth Activities 

Public Relations 

Section Chairman Expenses 

CPA Fees, etc. 

CPA 

Tax Fees 

Attorney Fees 



384.00 
0.00 



35.00 
125.73 



100.00 

300.00 

0.00 

1,000.00 

1,000.00 

250.00 



500.00 
0.00 

195.60 
422.83 
276.35 



525.00 
10.00 

178.00 



2,580.78 



384.00 



160.73 



241.72 

211.80 

11.84 

2,650.00 



28.18 
415.28 
500.00 



894.78 



500.00 

36.72 

13.30 

0.00 

713.00 



($ 6,000.00) 
(150.00 
difference) 
( 1,050.00) 

650.00 



275.00 



250.00 

225.00 

100.00 

2,650.00 



100.00 
575.00 
550.00 



750.00 



500.00 

50.00 

50.00 

150.00 

600.00 



$ 9,968.17 



>,342.13 



$ 7,475.00 
(7,200.00) 



27 



28 



Indiana Academy of Science 



II. ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 



January 1 
Balance 



1974 
Income 



1974 December 31 

Expenditures Balance 



Junior Academy $ 448.61 $ 500.00 $ 501.33 $ 447.28 

Science Talent Search 1,918.33 2,032.00 1,608.08 2,342.25 

Science Fairs 2,444.90 0.00 2,444.90 0.00 

Science and Society 1,873.70 313.30 771.38 1,415.62 

Research 399.07 8,100.00 8,121.00 378.07 

Natural Areas 1,026.50 0.00 0.00 1,026.50 

J. S. Wright Library 134.28 0.00 0.00 134.28 

Lilly III Library 2,632.76 0.00 0.00 2,632.76 

Lilly V Library 7,520.70 0.00 2,647.50 4,873.20 

Library Binding 45.55 1,000.00 1,023.35 22.20 

Publications: 

Proceedings 891.98 7,680.00 7,425.56 1,146.42 

Mailing of Proceedings 339.32 250.00 0.00 589.32 

Monographs 428.02 565.00 0.00 993.02 

Natural Features 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 



$20,103.72 $20,440.30 $24,543.10 $16,000.92 



III. SUMMARY 



Academy 
Accounts 



Administered 
Accounts 



Total 



Balance: January 1, 1974 $8,727.21 $20,103.72 $28,830.93 

1974 Income 9,968.17 20,440.30 30,408.47 

1974 Expenditures 9,342.13 24,543.10 33,885.23 

Balance: December 31, 1974 9,353.25 16,000.92 25,354.17 



IV. BANK BALANCES 

First Bank and Trust Company, Indianapolis, Indiana $ 6,792.43 

Great Western Savings and Loan, Los Angeles, California 13,327.53 

First Western Savings and Loan, Las Vegas, Nevada 5,234.21 

$25,354.17 



V. SUMMARY OF TRUST FUNDS 

Foundation Account (00430-00-0) 

Income cash balance (1/1/74) 

Total dividends and interest for 1974 

Disbursements for 1974 

Research grants $ 300.00 

Transfers to principal cash 1,000.00 

$ 1,300.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/74) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/74) 

Total receipts for 1974 

Total disbursements for 1974 

Principal cash balance (12/31/74) 

Market value of investments (12/31/74) 

Total value of account (12/31/74) 

♦Carrying value is $19,225.91 



$ 353.04 
1,057.88 



1,300.00 



110.92 $ 110.92 



$ 362.57 

5,000.00 

—4,667.43 

$ 695.14 $ 695.14 
$ 16,045.25* 



$ 16,851.31 



Financial Report 



29 



John S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 

Income cash balance (1/1/74) $ 2,889.07 

Total dividends and interest for 1974 14,681.29 

Disbursements for 1974 

INB fee $ 2,525.91 

Transfer to 00430-02-8 15,000.00 

$17,525.91 —17,525.91 

Income cash balance (12/31/74) $ 44.45 

Principal cash balance (1/1/75) 212.47 

Total receipts for 1974 60,490.00 

Total disbursements for 1974 —60,269.88 

Principal cash balance (12/31/74) $ 432.59 

Market value of investments (12/31/74) _ 

Total value of account (12/31/74) 

♦Carrying value is $330,771.56 

John S. Wright Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 

Income cash balance (1/1/74) $ 493.33 

Total interest for 1974 1,293.44 

Disbursements for 1974 

Research grants $ 400.00 

Transfers to principal 1,000.00 

$1,400.00 —1,400.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/74) $ 386.77 

Principal cash balance (1/1/74) $ 25.15 

Total receipts for 1974 40,000.00 

Disbursements for 1974 

Purchase of investments $26,000.00 

Research grants 7,200.00 

Proceedings, vol. 82 6,650.00 

$39,850.00 —39,850.00 

Principal cash balance (12/31/74) $ 175.15 

Market value of investments 

Total value of account 

Funds committed : Proceedings, vol. 83 

Actual value 



5 432.59 
591,061.30" 



$591,538.34 



386.77 



175.15 
17,000.00 



$ 17,561.92 
—9,000.00 



$ 8,561.92 



VI. NOTES 



Membership Dues: 

According to the 



Treasurer's records, the current status may be summarized as 
follows : 

1036 paid, emeritus, life, honorary and paid club members 
144 on file from 1973, but not yet paid for 1974 
113 new members for 1974 (included in above totals) 

25 previous members reinstated during 1974 (included in above totals) 
102 members and clubs dropped for nonpayment of 1973 dues 



Dues Structure for 1974 : 

$6.00 for regular and club memberships 
3.00 for student memberships 
8.00 for family memberships 

1.00 initiation and reinstatement fee for regular, club or student memberships 
2.00 initiation and reinstatement fee for family memberships 



30 Indiana Academy of Science 

Savings: 

The treasurer, from the total assets of both Academy and Administered accounts, has 
maintained sufficient funds in the checking account to pay current bills throughout 
the year ; the remaining funds have been invested in savings certificates. 

Certificates redeemed in 1974 

1. (FWSL) $5,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1972 ; April 1974 redemption value 
$5,638.73. 

Certificates current 

1. (GWSL) $5,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1973; 31 December value $5,552.58; 
maturity at April 1975. 

2. (GWSL) $7,000.00 invested at 6.00% April 1973; 31 December value $7,774.95; 
maturity at April 1975. 

3. (FWSL) $2,000.00 invested at 6.50% April 1974; 31 December value $2,091.98; 
maturity at April 1975. 

4. (FWSL) $3,000.00 invested at 6.75% April 1974; 31 December value $3,142.23; 
maturity at October 1976. 

Reprints : 

Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 81 have been collected giving a net profit to the 
Academy of $251.21 in excess of printing costs. Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 
82 are being collected with one billing outstanding for a total of $65.35 giving a net 
profit to the Academy of $100.83 in excess of printing costs. 

Attorney Fees: 

Ice, Miller, Donadio & Ryan of Indianapolis have been representing the Academy in 
clarification of our tax-exemption status. The Academy was informed in 1972 by 
the Internal Revenue Service and by the State of Indiana of favorable classifications, 
but a listing of exempt organizations published by the IRS in January, 1973 did not 
include the Academy. The Academy has been included in supplemental printings. 
The Academy is seeking information on reprinting and roles of various publications. 
The executive committee voted at the Fall Meeting of 1973 to delay the reimburse- 
ment of $4,226.87 for attorney fees to the Academy operating funds from the J. W. 
Wright fund until these funds are needed for operating expenses. 

Publications : 

Sales include $30.00 for Proceedings and $565.00 for Monographs. The actual cost 
for publishing Vol. 82 of the Proceedings was $11,425.56 of which the State of 
Indiana paid $4,000.00 leaving a balance of $7,425.56 to be paid from the trust funds. 

Newsletter : 

By mail ballot, members of the budget committee approved an increase from 
$225.00 to $575.00 for this item in the 1974 budget. 

Research Grants: 

Funds totalling $7,521.00 have been awarded to E. D. Albrecht (Biology), J. W. 
Berry (Zoology), R. F. Blakely (Geology), J. M. Davis (Anthropology), D. Frey 
(Zoology), L. R. Ganion (Physiology and Health Science), C. H. Haufler (Plant Sci- 
ence), W. B. Lutz (Chemistry), P. A. Mahlberg (Plant Sciences), D. W. Osgood 
(Zoology), P. A. St. John (Zoology), D. V. Schmelz (Biology), R. H. Shaver 
(Geology), B. N. Storhoff (Chemistry), and C. E. Wier (Geology). Grants totalling 
$600.00 have been awarded to Terre Haute North Vigo High School, Terre Haute 
South Vigo High School and Paoli Community Jr.-Sr. High School. Of the total 
amount granted, $8,200.00 came from the trust funds and $200.00 from an AAAS 
grant. 



Financial Report 31 

vii. budget for 1975 

The following burget was approved by the Budget Committee at their meeting at the 
Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, on December 14, 1974 : 
Academy Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Dues, Initiation and Reinstatement Fees 

(110@$2, 550@$5, 440@$10, 50@$0) $ 7,370.00 

Interest on Savings 1,100.00 

Reprint Charges to Authors 3,000.00 

$11,470.00 
Budgeted Expenditures 

Secretary $ 600.00 

Treasurer 250.00 

General Office 250.00 

Officer Travel, AAA Dues 225.00 

Membership Committee 150.00 

President's Contingency Fund 100.00 

Newsletter 550.00 

Speaker of the Year Honorarium 500.00 

Program Committee 1,000.00 

Publication Editor's Expenses 500.00 

Youth Activities 50.00 

Biological Surveys Committee 50.00 

Representative to AAAS Meeting 250.00 

Reprint Charges to Academy 2,750.00 

Public Relations 100.00 

Section Chairmen Expenses 150.00 

CPA Fees for Tax Return Preparation 550.00 

Lawyer's Fees 200.00 

Miscellaneous 100.00 

Transfers to Administered Accounts 3,800.00 

Junior Academy 400.00 

Science and Society Committee 200.00 

Natural Areas Committee 0.00 

Library Binding 1,000.00 

Proceedings: Publication 1,500.00 

Proceedings: Mailing 200.00 

Publications: Clerical 500.00 

$12,125.00 
Endowment Funds 

Anticipated Income 

IAS Foundation $ 300.00 

JS Wright Investment Income 14,700.00 



$15,000.00 
Budgeted Expenditures 

Bank Fee $ 2,500.00 

Research Grants ($5,000— $350 AAAS) 4,650.00 

Publications 

Proceedings, Vol. 84 ($12,000— 

$1,200 Ind— $1,500 transfer) 9,300.00 

Monograph #4 ($12,000— $6,000 Wright 

balance from 1974— $1,000 sales = $5,000) 0.00* 

$16,450.00 
* Suggest waiting until late 1976 for more Wright balance, sales, and income from 

Natural Features. 

Restricted Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Research Grants Committee (AAAS) $ 350.00 

Science Talent Search (Tri Kappa) 2,000.00 



32 Indiana Academy of Science 

Publications 300.00 

Proceedings 50.00 

Monographs and Nat. Feat. 250.00 



Budgeted Expenditures 

Research Grants Committee 

Science Talent Search 

Publications 

Proceedings 50.00 

Monographs 250.00 



Respectfully submitted, 
Clyde Metz, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy 
of Science for the year 1974 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 
January 21, 1975 

Curtis A. Dhonau 
Robert E. Dolphin 



$ 2,650.00 

$ 350.00 

2,000.00 

300.00 


$ 2,650.00 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
ANNUAL REPORT 

The regionalization of the Junior Academy of Science is progress- 
ing at a rate which is about what the council had predicted. Following 

is a report of the year's activities between annual meetings of 1973 and 

1974. 

November 15, 1973 — Evansville Region VII Joint Meeting with the 
Evansville-Vanderburgh County Science Teachers Association. 47 
teachers met for an orientation regarding the Youth Activities 
Program. 

December 14, 1973— Region VIII— Dr. John Moody— IU-SE at New Al- 
bany. 18 teachers met on a very snowy day to plan activities. 

May 11, 1974 — Hammond Morton High School Northeast Region I. 17 
teachers and 39 students met with Dr. Petterson to organize and 
develop plans for Junior Academy programs. 

April, 1974 — New Haven High School. 11 teachers and 53 students met 
with Mr. Keith Hunnings to plan activities for Region II. 

March, 1974 — Joint meeting with Muncie Science Fair. Over 200 stu- 
dents and teachers met with Dr. Keith Ault and were oriented in 
Youth Activities Programs. (Region IV). 

March, 1974 — Organizational meeting in Crawfordsville High School 
with Mr. Stephen Thompson. 7 teachers and 15 students. Region V. 

July, 1974 — 5 Council members, 7 students, and 5 senior academy mem- 
bers met in Indianapolis to hold executive session and finalize the 
constitution. 

October 18, 1974 — Region II, New Haven High School. 15 teachers and 
70 students held a regional meeting. 

October 25, 1974— Region VIII— Meeting at New Albany. IU-SE: 12 
teachers and 75 students. Thirty papers given. 

November 1, 1974 — Annual Meeting — DePauw University. 83 students 
and 12 teachers. 9 student papers given — Mr. Jon Huppenthal, 
Michigan City, IN, Marquette High School was awarded the best 
paper presenter award — a trip to the American Junior Academy 
of Science Meeting in New York, January 27 and 28, 1975. 

Four students were adjudged Outstanding Junior Scientists and 
will receive one-year memberships to A.A.A.S. Jon Huppenthal and 
Cassius Scott, Michigan City, IN, Marquette High School; Laura 
Fisher, Gary, IN, Lew Wallace High School; Ricky King, Paoli, IN, 
Paoli High School. 

Mr. Brian McElwee — Marquette High school, was elected Presi- 
dent and Mr. Bruce Robinson of Crawfordsville was elected Secretary 
for 1975. 

In this one year period, approximately 100 teachers and 400 stu- 
dents have attended Junior Academy of Science Sessions. Over 50 pa- 
pers have been given by students. This is a dramatic increase in par- 
ticipation over the past several years. 

33 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY COMMITTEE REPORT— 1973-1974 

Jack R. Munsee, Chairman, Indiana State University 

Gayton C. Marks Willard F. Yates, Jr. 

Valparaiso University Butler University 

Russell E. Mumford Frank N. Young 

Purdue University Indiana University 
Winona H. Welch 
DePauw University 

(A, B, or C accompanying title refer to: Publication; Thesis on file; 
or Work in progress, respectively.) 



Tracheophyta: 



Protozoa: 



Abrell, D. Brian, and Marion T. Jackson. Indiana State Univ. 

An analysis of growth rates and changes in species attributes of 

tree species in Hoot Woods, Owen County: 1965-1975. (C). 

Crovello, T. J., and C. Keller. 1973. Uses of computerized 

fioristic data of Indiana for plant geography. Proc. Indiana Acad. 

Sci. 83:399-406. (A). 

Helms, Ronald, and Marion T. Jackson. Indiana State Univ. 

Spatial distribution of tree species in Dobbs Park Natural Area, 

Terre Haute, Indiana. (C). 

Hollett, Byron P. 1974. The role of mycorrhizae in the 

ecology and distribution of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. M. A. Thesis. 

Indiana State Univ. (B). 

Schmelz, D. V., J. D. Barton, and A. A. Lindsey. Donaldson's 

Woods: two decades of change. (Submitted: Proc Indiana Acad., 

Sci. for Vol. 84. 1975). (C). 

Berger, James D. 1973. Nuclear differentiation and acid systhesis 
in well-fed exconjugants of Paramecium aurelia. Chromosoma 
42:247-268. (A). 

. 1973. Selective inhibition of DNA systhesis in macronuclear 

fragments in Paramecium aurelia exconjugants and its reversal 
during macronuclear regeneration. Chromosoma 44:33-48. (A). 

. 1974. Selective autolysis of nuclei as a source of DNA 

precursors in Paramecium aurelia exconjugants. J. Protozool. 21 : 
145-152. (A). 

Byrne, Bruce C. 1973. Mutational analysis of mating type in- 
heritance in syngen 4 of Paramecium aurelia. Genetics 74:63-80. 
(A). 

Grimes, G. W. 1973. Differentiation during encystment and excyst- 
ment of Oxytricha fallax. J. Protozool. 20:92-104. (O. fallax Stein, 
from Bloomington, Monroe County, Ind.). (A). 

. 1973. Origin and development of kinetosomes in Oxytricha 

fallax. J. Cell Sci. 13:43-53. (A). 

Haggard, Bruce. 1974. Interspecies crosses in Paramecium aurelia 
(syngen 4 by syngen 8). J. Protozool. 21:152-159. (A). 
Simon, E. M., and M. V. Schneller. 1973. The preservation of 
ciliated protozoa at low temperature. Crybiol. 10:421-426. (A). 
Tamar, Henry. 1974. Further studies on Halteria. Acta protozoo- 
logica. 13:177-191. (A). 

Whittle, J. R. S. 1973. An analysis of the determinative differ- 
ence between singlets and couplets of Oxytricha fallax. Genet. Res. 
Camb. 21:57-66. (O. fallax Stein, from Bloomington, Monroe Co., 
Ind.). (A). 

34 






Biological Survey Committee 



35 



Crustacea: 



Shan, R. Kuo-cheng. 1974. Reproduction in laboratory Pleuroxua 
(Chydoridae, Cladocera) under the influence of photo-period and 
light intensity. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. S9(5) :643-666. (P. den- 
ticulatus Birge and P. procurvua Birge, Martin Lake, La Grange 
Co., Ind.). (A). 



Arachnida: 1. Fain, A., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1974. Gliricoptea zapus sp. n. 

(Acari: Myocoptidae) from Washington and British Columbia. J. 
Parasitol. 60:1022-1024. (A). 

2. and et al. 1974. Listrophorus synaptomys a new 

species from Synaptomys and Lemmus. Acarologia 16:319-324. (A). 

3. Whitaker, John O. Jr., and N. Wilson. 1974. Host and distri- 
bution lists of mites (Acari), parasitic and phoretic, in the hair 
of wild mammals of North America, north of Mexico. Amer. Mid- 
land Natur. 91:1-67. (A). 



Insecta: 



10. 



Hilsenhofp, W. L. 1974. The unusual larva and habitat of Agabus 
confusus (Dytiscidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 67 (4) :703-705. 2 figs. 
(A). 

Keith, J. H. Seasonal fluctuations in a polulation of Pseudanoph- 
thalmus tenuis (Coleoptera: Carabidae in Murray Spring Cave: 
A preliminary report. (Submitted: Internat. J. Speleology. 1975). 
(In press). (C). 

Knapp, Virgil R. Host list of Indiana Aphididae. (Submitted: 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. Vol. 84). (C). 

Lee, Thomas M., and R. E. Siverly. 1974. Evaluation of 
ALTOSID SL-10 in controlling mosquito populations in an indus- 
trial waste lagoon complex. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:215. Abstr. 
(A). 

and . 1974. A preliminary study of autogeny in 

stenogamous and non-stenogamous strains of Culex pipiens pipiens 

(Northern house mosquito). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:215. 
Abstr. (A). 

Sabath, Michael D. 1974. Niche breath and genetic variability 
in sympatric populations of drosophilid flies. Amer. Midland 
Natur. 108:(962) :533-540. (Diptera : Drosophilidae, Indiana). (A). 
Siverly, R. E., and John Joyner. 1974. Notes on identification 
and biology of Bufolucilia silvarum (Meigen) (Diptera, Calli- 
phoridae) in East-Central Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
83:214. Abstr. (A). 

. 1974. Observations on the biology of Mansonia perturbans 

(Walker) (Diptera, Culicidae) in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 83:216. Abstr. (A). 

and Donald A. Shroyer. 1974. Illustrated key to the geni- 
talia of male mosquitoes of Indiana. Mosquito Systematics: 6(3) : 
167-200. (A). 

Smetana, A. 1974. Revision of the genus Cymbiodyta Bed. (Coleop- 
tera: Hydrophilidae) Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada No. 93:113, illus. 
(Cymbiodyta chamberlaini described in part from Brown, Monroe, 
Jennings, and Tippecanoe Counties, Ind.). (A). 

Spangler, Gregory L., and R. E. Siverly. 1974. A preliminary 
report of mosquito population sampling methods in Delaware 
County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:213. Abstr. (A). 



Pisces: 



1. Dial, N. A. Indiana State Univ. Effects of methylmercury on 
embryos of the Japanese medaka. (C). 

2. Martin, F. D., and R. C. Richmond. 1973. An analysis of five 
enzyme-gene loci in four etheostomid species (Percidae: Pisces) 
in an area of possible integration. J. Fish. Bol. 5:511-517. 2 pis. 
(A). 



36 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Amphibia: 



Aves: 



Mammalia: 



3. Schlueter, Raymond A. Indiana State Univ. Effects of thermal 
effluents on reproduction of minnows in the White River, Indiana. 
(O. 

1. Dial, Norman A. Indiana State Univ. Effects of methylmercury 
on Rana pipiens embryos. ( C ) . 

2. Labanick, G. M. Indiana State Univ. The food and feeding be- 
havior of Acris crepitans Baird (Anura: Hylidae). (C). 

1. Morgan, Fred. 1968. A field study of avifauna on an old farm in 
northeastern Indiana. Univ. Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
One vol. 399 pp. Ph.D. Thesis. (In press). (B). 

2. Mumford, R. E., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1974. Black Vulture 
nesting in Crawford County, Indiana. Indiana Audubon Quart. 
52:67-69. (A). 

3. Nolan, Val Jr. 1974. Notes on parental behavior and development 
of young in the wood thrush. Wilson Bull. 86:144-155. (Indiana). 
(A). 

1. Barrey, R. E., Jr. Indiana State Univ. Comparative morphology 
of gastrointestinal tracts of small mammals as related to food 
habits. (C). 

2. Ford, Steven D. Indiana State Univ. Range distribution and 
habitat of the western harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis, 
in Indiana. (C). 

3. Jones, Gwilym S. 1974. Notes on the mammals of a stripmined 
area in Pike County, Indiana. Indiana Audubon Quart. 52(1): 19-32. 
(A). 

4. Reising, Johnny W. Indiana State Univ. Evansville 1974. Mam- 
mals of the Huntington Reservoir, Huntington and Wells Counties, 
Indiana. M. S. Thesis. (B). 

5. Smith, Ronald J., and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1973. Microclimatic 
measurements and use of artificial shelter by confined cottontails. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:146-154. (A). 

6. Stormer, Fred A., et al. 1974. Assessment of population levels of 
white- tailed deer on N.A.D. Crane, Indiana. Purdue Univ. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 910. (A). 

7 Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. 1974. Physiological, morphological, and 
behavioral adaptions of wild herbivorous mammals to a sodium- 
deficient environment. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

8. Whitaker, J. O., JR., and L. L. Schmeltz. 1974. Food and ex- 
ternal parasites of the Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticua, from 
Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:478-481. (A). 

9. and Easterla, D. A. Ectoparasites of bats from Big Bend 

National Park, Texas. (Submitted: Southwest Nat. In press). 
(C). 



Biota: 



1. Frey, D. G. 1974. Paleolimnology. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 
20:95-123. 18 figs. (Indiana references). (A). 

2. Schmelz, Damian V., St. Meinrad College. Sulfates and pH as 
limiting factors upon biota in three stripmine lakes, Spencer 
County, Indiana. (C). 



NECROLOGY 



Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Murvel R(iley) Garner 



Marion, Indiana Richmond, Indiana 

October 29, 1896 November 16, 1974 

Dr. Murvel R. Garner, the son of a farmer-school teacher, was 
born in Grant County, Indiana, near Marion, October 29, 1896. His 
early education was obtained in that farm community, Fairmount Acad- 
emy and Marion Normal School. His interest in teaching probably be- 
gan with the influence of some very fine teachers at the Academy. He 
taught in one-room country schools of Grant County for five years 
(1916 to 1921) before going to Earlham College. There, he prepared 
to teach Latin American History until his senior year when he was 
asked to return to Earlham the next year to teach Biology. He received 
an A.B. degree in 1923 and began teaching in the Earlham Biology 
Department that same year as an instructor. From 1924 to 1933, while 
working toward a Ph. D. degree at Chicago University, he was an as- 
sistant professor. With summer study and a year and one-half leave 
spent on campus, he received the Ph. D. degree in Zoology from Chicago 
University in 1933. 

Upon receiving his doctorate, Dr. Garner was made Professor of 
Biology at Earlham, and was also head of the department for many 
years. He was the first to institute rotation of the department chair- 
manship. Landrum Boiling, former President of Earlham College, de- 
scribed Dr. Garner as follows: "In the best sense, Murvel Garner was 
an old-fashioned naturalist, an out-of-doors field study man. In that 
respect, he was part of a great Earlham tradition that went back to 
the second president of the college, Joseph Moore." In order to study 
plants and animals where they grow, Dr. Garner was instrumental in 
the establishment of the David Worth Dennis Biological Station at De- 
wart Lake, Indiana, in 1946. This is a center for undergraduate in- 
struction and research in Limnology. He served as director until his 
retirement in 1962. A visitor had to be impressed (as I was) with the 
atmosphere of friendship, cooperation, comradery and industriousness 
generated among the students there by this friendly man. 

37 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

During several summers, he taught or served in other capacities. 
He taught at New Mexico Normal University in 1934 and 1938; was 
a Field Naturalist with the Roosevelt Wild Life Station, New York, 
in 1935 and 1936; and taught Aquatic Biology at the University of 
Wyoming Science Summer Camp in 1950. 

Dr. Garner was a member of the Society of Friends and a life- 
long pacifist. Due to this philosophy, he spent a year and one-half 
directing a Civilian Public Service Camp at Bowie, Maryland, during 
World War II (June, 1942 to October, 1943). He also served on many 
Friend's Committees and was a part-time pastor. 

In recognition of his "sympathetic understanding and helpfulness", 
the Earlham Class of 1939 dedicated its yearbook to him. He was 
awarded a National Science Research Grant in 1957 and during 1961 
and 1962 held a Biology Teacher's Summer Institute funded also by 
the National Science Foundation. Dr. Garner was also the first recipi- 
ent of the Ira Doan Distinguished Teacher Travel Award established 
by Earlham. This prestigious award in 1958 provided Dr. Garner with 
funds for summer travel in Mexico. In 1959 to 1960 on a sabbatical 
leave, he and Mrs. Garner returned to Mexico with a group of stu- 
dents, some of whom studied at the University of Veracruz and others 
at the University of the Americas in Mexico City. In 1953, Dr. and 
Mrs. Garner directed a work camp in Puerto Rico, and supervised Earl- 
ham College students in the project. Dr. Garner returned to Mexico 
in 1969 and served as Director of the Villa Jones International Cul- 
tural Center in Mexico City. 

After retirement from Earlham in 1962, Dr. Garner taught at these 
institutions: Blackburn College, Carlinville, Illinois; Nebraska Wes- 
leyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska; and Wells College, Aurora, New 
York. He also devoted time to writing and research. 

In 1925, Dr. Garner joined the Indiana Academy of Science while 
an assistant professor at Earlham College. That year, he attended the 
spring Academy meeting at Clifty Falls, Madison, Indiana. Through 
the years, he presented a number of papers at fall sessions which in- 
cluded: limnological studies, ecology of the milliped, Pleuroloma butleri 
and soil invertebrates; occurrence of the freshwater Medusa near Rich- 
mond, Indiana; and regeneration of heads on both ends of long, excised 
planarian segments. At the Indiana Sesquicentennial symposium of in- 
vited papers for the History of Science Division in 1966, Dr. Garner 
gave a history of Zoology in Indiana. He was chairman of the Zoology 
Division for 1949; served on the Fellows Committee during 1963 and 
1964, Membership Committee from 1951 to 1961; and was chairman of 
the Committee on Undergraduate Research in Biology in 1957. He was 
honored as a Fellow in 1935. He was also a member of the Ecological 
Society of America, American Soil Science Society, Whitewater Valley 
Audubon Society, Richmond Photographic Society, Richmond Arts Coun- 
cil, Eastern Indiana Gem and Mineral Society, Sigma Xi and Agronomy 
Society. He is listed in American Men of Science, Who's Who in Indi- 
ana, and Indiana Scientists. 



Necrology 39 

While walking near the Earlham campus November 16, 1974, Dr. 
Garner collapsed and died leaving an empty place in the lives of many; 
for probably, his most memorable characteristic was a genuine interest 
in people — students, colleagues, neighbors and others with whom he came 
in contact in his various activities — church, hobby and volunteer. 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 

Frederic C(owles) Schmidt 

New Haven, Connecticut Bloomington, Indiana 

February 19, 1904 November 18, 1974 

Dr. Frederic C. Schmidt was a distinguished teacher of chemistry 
at Indiana University where he taught from 1947 until retirement in 
1969. He was highly esteemed and a popular teacher introducing more 
than 17,000 students to college chemistry. Some of his classes had more 
than 500 students who were impressed by his ability, notwithstanding, 
to remember many of their names and to retain a continuing interest 
in their achievements in later years. He was co-author with a col- 
league, Professor William Nebergall, of a successful chemistry text, 
General Chemistry (1959) which reaches tens of thousands of readers 
each year and College Chemistry (1957). 

Dr. Schmidt was born at New Haven, Connecticut, February 19, 
1904. He was educated at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, 
receiving a B.S. in 1927, M.S. in 1928 and Ph.D. in physical chemistry 
in 1931. His professional career began as Research Chemist with Old- 
bury Electrochemical Company in Niagara Falls, New York, and also 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York. He returned to 
Brown University to do research from 1931 to 1932. He began his 

teaching career as an Instructor of Organic Chemistry at Union College, 
Schenectady, New York, from 1932 to 1947. He was an assistant profes- 
sor from 1937 to 1943, associate professor from 1943 to 1947 and pro- 
fessor in the affiliate, Albany College of Pharmacy from 1944 to 1945. 
In the summer of 1946, he also taught at Yale University. 

Dr. Schmidt came to Indiana in 1947 as an associate professor at 
Indiana University and became professor in 1951. He was honored for 
his excellence as a teacher in 1961 when he received the Herman F. 
Lieber Award for Distinguished Teaching from the Indiana University 
Foundation. He taught at the University of Hawaii as Visiting Professor 
of Physical Sciences during the summer of 1957. 

The next year (1948), after Dr. Schmidt came to Indiana, he joined 
the Indiana Academy of Science. He was elected Chairman of the 
Chemistry Division for 1962. He was co-author of several papers pre- 
sented at fall meetings which usually dealt with the physical chemistry 
of anhydrous ethylenediamine solutions, and he spoke on Preparation 
for College Chemistry. He also conducted research on heat of solution 
and heat of reaction involving anhydrous liquid ammonia which was 
supported by the Atomic Energy Commission. He received Grants-in-Aid 
from Sigma Xi and the American Academy of Science. Further inten- 
sive research was carried out during sabbatical leave at the University 
of California, Berkeley Campus, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- 
tute. 

In addition to Academy membership, Dr. Schmidt was a member 
of the American Chemical Society (Chairman of the Southern Indiana 
Section, 1952), New York Academy of Science, Alpha Chi Sigma, 



Necrology 41 

Hawaiian Academy of Science, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Sigma Xi and was 
a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
He is listed in American Men of Science, Who's Who in Indiana, Indiana 
Scientists, and Who's Who in the Midwest. A biographic article about 
him was also published in the Indiana Alumni Magazine (V. 33, No. 2, 
p. 24, 1969). 

Dr. Schmidt directed annual summer institutes for high school 
teachers of chemistry supported by the National Science Foundation. 
He was also sponsor of the Indiana University ham radio club for 
many years and had been a ham operator since 1926. The license for 
the campus station K9IU was in his name for several years. He was 
known widely among ham operators as "Jerry", the nickname favored 
by those who knew him best. 

Still energetic and ebullient at 65 years of age, Professor Schmidt 
retired early in 1969 to be able to spend more time in his reseacrh 
laboratory. He died in Bloomington Hospital November 18, 1974. 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

Matthew F(rancis) Taggart 

South Bend, Indiana Niles, Michigan 

May 27, 1893 December 18, 1973 

Mr. Matthew F. Taggart was born in South Bend, Indiana, May 
27, 1893. Undoubtedly, his family had a great influence on his choice 
of career and philosophy of life. His grandfather, Dr. McClung (M.D.), 
provided a scientific interest, his maternal grandmother was a re- 
spected counsellor in his boyhood and work in his father's business in 
early life prepared him for a business career. 

He attended South Bend public schools and Central High School. 
At Purdue University, he obtained a B.S. degree with more than 
enough subjects to meet requirements. After graduation, he started 
work for the Aluminum Company of America in East Saint Louis, 
Illinois. While there, he attended classes in business law at Washington 
University. 

In 1922, he returned to Indiana to work for the O'Brien Varnish 
Company in South Bend. In 1926, he founded his own company, The 
Taggart Varnish Company. After five successful years (1932), he was 
asked to return to the O'Brien Corporation (as it was then known) as 
Director of Research. 

During the 1930's Mr. Taggart became interested in the National 
Farm Chemurgic Council of New York and through it his interest ex- 
tended to the increased use of farm products through chemistry. He did 
research on the improvement of the paint properties of Soya Oil and 
was finally successful by applying a heat treatment to a combination 
of Soya and Tung Oil so that the beneficial properties of both oils 
complemented each other. The process was announced at a Chemurgic 
Conference in 1938 and he was thus propelled into prominence in this 
field. He served on the Board of Governors of the Council for many 
years. He became an international authority on paints, varnishes and 
enamel developing a non-yellowing white enamel and studied the paint 
properties of several other oils including safflower and citrus. His articles 
in this field appeared chiefly in the Chemurgic Digest and Paint and 
Varnish Magazine. He had many speaking engagements. 

During World War II, Mr. Taggart applied his knowledge of paint 
properties to camouflage. He developed coatings which were flat to give 
as little light reflection as possible during blackouts and coatings which 
could be removed quickly after the blackout need ended. 

Mr. Taggart also used his camera to support his science hobbies. 
He wrote, " — I have enjoyed studying the skies and have repeatedly 
found solutions to my vocational problems while in the mental calmness 
of deep reverie." His fascination with the physical properties of paints 
and light refraction in nature had a common bond. He impressed the 
world of astronomy with a technical explanation and movies of a low 
horizon sun phenomenon over water, a mirage-like image of sunrise 
and sunset above the water line. He also studied the moon phases, sun 
and stars, publishing some of his research in Sky Telescope. Other 



Necrology 43 

studies included fidelity of colors under different photographic condi- 
tions, shells of Florida, tropical fish, and he was consultant at the 
Shedd Aquarium at Chicago. Some of the titles to his movies and slides 
are poetic-gray silhouettes at dawn, seascape with rhythmic rollers, fog 
tongues in the cold spring air, etc. 

Mr. Taggart joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1927 while 
owner of the Taggart Varnish Company at South Bend, Indiana, and 
was interested in the Chemistry Division. He was an Emeritus Member 
at death. 

He was also a member of the Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Izaak 
Walton League of America; Y.M.C.A.; Shriner; Rotary Club; Elks (Life 
member); 50 year member of the American Chemical Society; Emeritus 
Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists; Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, London, England; life member of the Gulf Stream Astronomical 
Association, Incorporated; American Soybean Association; and Chain 
O'lakes Gun Club. He was Commodore of the Diamond Lake Yacht 
Club. Biographic sketches are published in American Men of Science 
and Chemurgic Digest (V. 9, No. 4). 

A little-known side of Mr. Taggart was his generosity and charity in 
providing a number of young people with a complete college education. 

Mr. Taggart retired from the O'Brien Corporation after 35 years 
(1967). However, before that, he had been on a part-time basis in order 
to spend more time with his family. After his first wife died, he re- 
married and soon had a daughter in whom he took great pride. For 
many years, they spent their time divided between a winter home in Fort 
Lauderdale, Florida (which provided the environment for many of his 
nature studies) and home in Michigan located on Diamond Lake at 
Cassopolis, 22 miles northeast of South Bend, Indiana. He was on call 
at the O'Brien Corporation, though, at all times and returned to South 
Bend as the need arose. 

Mr. Matthew F. Taggart died December 18, 1973, in the Pawating 
Hospital, Niles, Michigan, after an extended illness. He had enjoyed 
success in both basic and applied scientific research with the pursuit of 
one aiding in the pursuit of the other. 



NEW MEMBERS— INDIANA ACADEMY OF 
SCIENCE— 1974 

Prof. Gerald L. Alexander, 701 Alden Road, Muncie, IN 47304, ZLE 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph K. Allamong, 1217 Brentwood Lane, Muncie, IN 47304, ORB 
Dr. Herbert L. Archibald, Department of Forestry and Conservation, Purdue Univer- 
sity, Wesfc Lafayette, IN 47907, LZ 
Mr. Leslie D. Arihood, 1819 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, IN 46202, NGL 
MR. Douglas E. Bell, Holmstedt Hall, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 

47809, ORC 
MR. William R. Bensch, 4510 N. Central Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46205, ORD 
Dr. Orland J. Blanchard, Biology Department, Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374, 

TBE 
Mr. Ronald J. Bockelman, P. O. Box 100, Aquatic Control, Inc., Seymour, IN 47274, 

LTB 
DR. Donald R. Brannon, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, 

IN 46206, CRO 
MR. John A. Bremer, 464 Van Avenue, Shelbyville, IN 46176, ALG 
MR. Steven C. Bremer, 464 Van Avenue, Shelbyville, IN 46176, ABL 
Mr. and Mrs. Lee Bridges, 721 E. Seminary St., Apt. 1A, Greencastle, IN 46135, LEZ 
Mr. Alan Brittain, Department of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, 

GBS 
Mr. Peter Calengas, GRC V-103, Bloomington, IN 47401, GLS 
Mr. Ben Cerimele, Sr. Systems Associate, Lilly Research Lab, Indianapolis, IN 46506, 

AOD 
Dr. T. P. Chang, Indiana State Board of Health, 1330 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, 

IN 46202 
Dr. Kwang-Chu Chao, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907, NLP 
MR. Daniel O .Chase, Indiana State Highway Commission, Division of Materials and 

Test, 120 S. Shortridge Rd. Indianapolis, IN 46219, GSL 
Mr. Phillip D. Clem, 111 Alden Dr., Vincennes, IN 47591, ZLD 
Mrs. Della C. Cook, Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 

47401, AGL 
Dr. William S. Courtis, Department of Biology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46205, BOZ 
Mr. Gale M. Craig, Sr. Project Engineer, Guide Lamp Div., Anderson, IN 46011, PNL 
Mr. Richard T. Crane, 1936 Indian Trial Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906, ORZ 
Dr. Jack K. Crissman, Jr., Department of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 

47933, ORD 
Miss Ruth Ann Dickey, R. R. No. 3, Box No. 258, Oakland City, IN 47660, LET 
Mr. Erold R. Diller, Lilly Research Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46206, OC 
Sr. M. Rosaleen Dunleavy, Department of Biology, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556, RO 

Mr. Stan Eisen, Zoology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, LZS 

Dr. Paul R. Errington, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, 
Muncie, IN 47306, PND 

MR. David E. Euler, Department of Physiology, Loyola University Medical Center, May- 
wood, IL 60153, OCZ 

Miss Cathleen LaVern Farney, R. R. No. 1, Lynnville, IN 37619, CLR 

Dr. Roger J. Ferguson, 197 W. Maplewood Drive, Clarksville, IN 47130, AG 

Mr. Richard G. France, 3120 E. 30th St., Indianapolis, Zoological Society, Indianapolis, 
IN 46218, ZDL 

45 



46 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Larry R. Ganion, Department of Physiology and Health Science, Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, IN 47306, ORZ 
Mr. John Gardlik, 535 Mahoning Court, Columbus, OH 43210, C 
MR. Thomas D. Gehring, Box 225, R. R. No. 1, Lawrenceburg, IN 47025, LBZ 
Dr. Thomas H. Gieske, 1825 Northside Blvd., Indiana University, South Bend, IN 

46615, OZR 
Dr. Aldo Giorgini, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907, N 
Mrs Mary A. Gossard, 29 W. 49th, Indianapolis, IN 46208, LBO 
Mr. Phillip J. Graves, 1431 S. Greenmeadow Rd., Evansville, IN 47715, NAP 
Dr. Robert D. Hall, 925 W. Michigan, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46202, GLS 
Dr. Milton E. Harr, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907, NGH 
Mr. Colin C. Hastie III, 101 N. Martin St. Muncie, IN 47303, AGT 
Mr. Christopher Haufler, Department of Plant Sciences, Jordan Hall, Bloomington, IN 

47401, BT 
G. D. and S. L. Hegeman, 2219 Rock Creek Drive, Bloomington, IN 47401, ROC 
Dr. Joe F. Hennen, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. G. T. Heydt, 2932 Indiana Rt. 26W, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Earl A. Holmes, Department of Biology, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556, 

ZEO 
Aolad Hossain, Indiana State Board of Health, 1330 W. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, 

IN 46202 
Dr. Don M. Huber, Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907, BR 
Dr. M. Ishaq, Department of Anatomy, I. U. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Dr. Andrew O. Jackson, Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907, BRE 
Dr. Mohinder S. Jarial, Department of Physiology and Health Science, Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, IN 47306, OZA 
Dr. Nils I. Johansen, M.I.R.L., University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99701, GNS 
Mr. Paul E. Johnson, Agr. Engineering Department, Purdue University, West Lafay- 
ette, IN 47907, NDP 
Mr. Don D. Jones, Agr. Engineering Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907, NSP 
Dr. Florence Juillerat, Department of Biology, IUPUI, 1201 E. 38th St. Indianapolis, 

IN 46205, ORD 
Mr. Walter Kalisz, Geography Department, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, 

HGL 
Mr. Clifford Keller, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556, T 
Dr. Clare B. Kenaga, Department Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, IN 47907, BRD 
Dr. Czeslaw P. Kentzer, Aero, and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907, NPH 
Mr. James R. Lafevers, Department of Geography, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, IN 47809, GLH 
Dr. Ronald S. Lenox, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
MR. David Lesniak, P. O. Box 161, Terre Haute, IN 47808, OCR 

Mr. Michael T. Lewellen, LARS/Purdue, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 
47906, G 

MR. Michael S. Loden, P. O. Box 100, Aquatic Control Inc., Seymour, IN 47274, ZLE 

Dr. John W. McFarland, Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, Greencastle, 
IN 46135, C 



New Members 47 

Dr. John R. McGregor, Department of Geography, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, IN 47809, GL 
MR. Lawrence J. McShane, 955 Dover Drive, Greenwood, IN 46142, CZL 
Dr. David C. Madsen, Lobund Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 

46556, RZO 
Mr. Marshall Day Malcolm, 203 Education Building, Purdue University, West Lafay- 
ette, IN 47907, DGZ 
Mr. David W. Miller, Bionucleonics Department, School of Pharmacy, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, IN 47907, PLN 
Dr. John A. Mosbo, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, 

C 
Dr. Craig E. Nelson, Jordan Hall 018, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, LZ 
Mrs. Margaret K. Nelson, Geology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 

47401, GLZ 
DR. Jerry Neufeld, Chemistry Department, Anderson College, Anderson, IN 46011, CDP 
Mr. and Mrs. James Nowacki, 120 S. Shortridge Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46219, GNS 
Dr. John E. Oliver, Department of Geog/Geol, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809, GLS 
Dr. Dallas Oswalt, Life Science Building, Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 

47907, BLD 
Mr. Dennis J. Paulson, Box 318, Jones Hall, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 

47804, Z 
DR. PAUL C. Pecknold, Plant Pathologist, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907, BRL 
Miss Wanda Pindell, R. R. No. 2, Elizabeth, IN 47117, ZBD 
Dr. Chester A. Pinkham, Tri-State State College, Angola, IN 46703, CD 
Mr. Richard C. Polen, Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 

47401, GLP 
Dr. Kenneth L. Potts, Science and Math Curriculum Center, 618 Franklin Square, Jef- 

fersonville, IN 47130, DGL 
Dr. John F. Quay, 8950 Carriage Lane, Indianapolis, IN 46256, ORC 
Dr. Paul C. Radich, Department of Biology, Indiana Central College, Indianapolis, IN 

46227, RBZ 
Mr. .Richard Rowlands, Zoology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 

47401, ZEL 
MR. Peter W. Sauer, 2515 Derbyshire Court, West Lafayette, IN 47906, NPD 
Dr. Roger E. Schirmer, Eli Lilly and Company, 307 E. McCarty Street, Indianapolis, IN 

46206, CPR 
MR. Ralph C. Simon, Grissom Hall Library, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47906, 

BN 
Mr. H. Raymond Sinclair, Jr. Soil Conservation Service, 5610 Crawfordsville Rd., Indi- 
anapolis, IN 46224, SGL 
Mr. David E. Snyder, 1268 State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906, E 
MR. Edwin J. Spicka, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, IN 47809, ZEL 
Dr. G. Srinivasan, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907, 

LDS 
Dr. Frank R. Steldt, Indiana University at Kokomo, 2300 S. Washington St., Kokomo, 

IN 46901, PDL 

Mr. Frank E. Strehl, Box 582, Upland, IN 46989, OZH 

Dr. Lawrence E. Strong, Department of Chemistry, Earlham College, Richmond, IN 
47374, DRC 

Miss Diane Suchomel, Geology Department, Indiana University Box 65, Bloomington, 
IN 47401, GZB 

Mrs. Loraze B. Suer, Cavanaugh 437, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46205, M 

Mrs. Iris L. Sun, 800 Sparta Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906, ORC 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Martin J. Sweeney, 5853 Eastview Ct., Indianapolis, IN 46250, ORG 

Mr. Gary Tieben, 1506 Plum Street, Terre Haute, IN 47809, Z 

Ms. Julie VanHorn, Plant Science Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 

47401, T 
Dr. Richard J. Vetter, Bionucleonics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907, PDL 
Dr. James Vorst, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
MR. Darrel A. Webb, P. O. Box 100, Aquatic Control, Inc., Seymour, IN 47274, LZR 
Dr. Phyllis M. Webb, Department of Microbiology, University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, IN 46556, RO 
Mr. Randall S. Wentsel, 230 Grovewood Place, Apt. B, Beech Grove, IN 46107, LZO 
Mr. Dennis H. Williams, 3532 Washington St., Apt. 4, Gary, IN 46408, ORZ 
Dr. Gene R. Williams, Department of Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

IN 47401, BOR 
Mr. Robert Wrightington, 5241 Bay Rd., North Cornwells Heights, PA 19020, ALN 
Mr. Michael L. Yanner, 119 Wayne Terrace, Lafayette, IN 47904, NGP 

Science Clubs 

Blazer Science Club, Marquette High School, c/o Dean G. Christakas, Michigan City, 

IN 46360 
Physical Science Club, c/o Harold Heckman, Indiana Creek Senior High School, 

Trafalgar, IN 46181 
Science Club, c/o Mr. Wade, Lakeland High School, Lagrange, IN 46761 



PART 2 

ADDRESSES 

AND 

CONTRIBUTED 

PAPERS 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
October 31-November 2, 1974 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

The address, "Roots in the Soil and Water and Sky" was presented 
by retiring president, Dr. Damian V. Schmelz, Department of Biology, 
St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Indiana 47577, at the annual Fall 
Meeting dinner at the DePauw Student Union Building Ballroom, 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, on Friday, November 1, 1974. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



ROOTS IN THE SOIL AND WATER AND SKY 

Damian Schmelz, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, Indiana 47577 

A full moon, with a few wisps of clouds drifting across its face, 
lighting up the landscape golden and bright, quiets our spirits and en- 
riches our lives for the moments or hours we lie on a hillside on an 
autumn night. Beautiful from more than 200,000 miles away, the Apollo 
missions have shown how drab and barren the moonscape really is. 
On the other hand, NASA photographs have revealed the incredible 
beauty of the earthscape, the deep blue of the oceans under puffed 
and swirling silvery clouds, an exciting and vibrant thing. This new 
perspective should awaken us to perceive and appreciate those things 
about our earth, close enough to touch, that account for the difference. 
Many questioned the value of the whole program to explore the moon, 
whether by man or machine: what practical use can we ever make of it? 
Unhappily, that is the same question man still asks of his own planet. 

We are at the summit of nature surely, dominant and becoming 
ever more so, convinced that technology in time will place nearly total 
control over nature in our hands. Necessarily, in becoming human, the 
species has injected its will onto the earth and all it holds, giving new 
form, marshalling energy and materials for the purposes and pleasures 
of its growing and demanding population. With neither the perspective 
of distance or time nor the wisdom to understand past or future, we 
have come to prefer our plasticized and metallic world, with its ready 
cash and easy convenience, even though it means the now familiar 
scarred and plundered land, sluggish and dirty water, and poisoned and 
noisy air. 

All the while, and especially now when in sheer numbers we press 
upon one another and compete almost viciously for what we want and 
need, from somewhere inside we feel the urge to return to an earlier, 
simpler life, to escape what we have made, to rediscover our roots in the 
soil and water and sky. We are no longer as sure that the land is 
meant merely to provide plots for our buildings and pits for our wastes, 
the water meant simply to sprinkle our lawns and dilute our sewage, 
the air only to carry our jets and blow away our smoke. 

Increasingly, there is a surge to parks where there are trees and 
grass and flowers, waterfalls and paths along streams, and clean, open 
sky. Leaving crowded campgrounds to be alone, soothed by the quiet and 
the green, we sense that somehow we belong, as a part, to all around us. 
Our renewed peaceful sanity tends to erase any lingering doubt that the 
earth is our mother and that our biological-mental being has emerged 
from her. Adaptations built into the human species during a million 
years or more of evolution in response to her stimuli seem to have 
fitted us better for this real world than for the artificial one we have 

51 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

created in a few thousand years. We seem to have inherited a human 
need for natural beauty as much as for food and love. 

Man must intervene, of course, with nature to satisfy his multiple 
needs. He can do so respectfully and creatively, manipulating: nature 
while loving- her for herself. And sensing a sacred relationship to the 
whole earth, he wisely will leave some areas untouched, and quietly 
worship their beauty. Spring- Mill State Park near Mitchell illus- 
trates both such a creative intervention by man and his reverent preser- 
vation of nature s own work. 

A Canadian, Samuel Jackson, came to the area in 1814 and built 
himself a log cabin and a grist mill along a stream in a cove of the 
rugged hills. Finding life on the frontier strange and a little fright- 
ening-, he sold his land and moved back east. In 1817, Cuthbert 
and Thomas Bullitt built the three-story mill of stone, remarkably 
preserved today, with its 24 foot diameter overshot water wheel and 
flume of hewn tulip beans. Seven years later William and Joseph 
Montgomery bought the mill and 1400 acres of adjoining land. Several 
stone houses, a distillery, and a tavern became part of the growing 
village. Beginning in 1832, Hugh and Thomas Hamer, the next own- 
ers, added a blacksmith shop, loom house, pottery shop, apothecary, 
tannery, hattery, cabinet shop, cobbler shop, limekiln, and post-office. 
Other residences sprang up, as well as a church and school. For about 
three decades Spring Mill Village was a thriving commercial and 
social center of the region. But then in the 1850's, the railroads came 
to Indiana and by-passed the village sheltered in the hills, taking busi- 
ness and people away. The village slowly died, and by the mid-1880's 
was silent and abandoned. 

The charm of pioneer settlements has been caught in the restored 
village. A piece of humanized landscape, the transformation conveys a 
sense of fitness. Some areas — the Grand Canyon, the Rockies, the Red- 
wood groves — overwhelm us with their magnitude and splendor, and 
man's presence only detracts. Here, the pioneers, limited to materials 
of the immediate area and to methods of the day, seem to have identified 
with nature and to have added to its beauty. 

Since it was established as a park in 1927, there have been added 
an inn and cabins, camping and picnic sites, hiking and bridle 
trails, a lake for swimming and boating and fishing, a pony 
ride and a boat trip inside Twin Cave. These have not all added 
to the beauty of the area so much as accommodated the thousands 
who visit the park annually, some of whom bring their artificial worlds 
with them, many of whom are trying to escape what they have at home 
yet expect to find the same here, a few of whom are honestly, even if 
unconsciously, searching for some return to their roots. 

Our roots in the soil are best embodied here in the tract of virgin 
timber known as Donaldson's Woods, the legacy of a wealthy and 
eccentric Scotsman, George Donaldson, who would tolerate neither hunt- 
ing nor woodcutting. Here one feels small, hiking the marked trail 
in the shade of giant oaks and hickories and beech and sugar maple, 
and sees the largest tulip in Indiana. Here in a primeval stand, 



Presidential Address 53 

now incorporated into the State's System of Nature Preserves, one 
sees dead and windthrown trees slowly giving up their nutrients 
to the soil with the help of plant and animal decomposers. Here, 
except for the badly placed bridle trail, man's presence is not allowed 
to detract. Here, too, a natural transformation has been detected. 
Since 1954, when a tree-by-tree scale map was made of 20 acres of 
the woods, the oaks and hickories have been declining in importance 
while beech and sugar maple have been gaining. 

Our roots in the soil can be felt throughout the park in the lesser 
plants: maple leaf viburnum and spice bush; the ferns — maidenhair, 
grape, and walking; true and false Solomon-seals; may apple, jack- 
in-the-pulpit, spiderwort and dwarf ginseng; squaw root and beech 
drops; the violets; and dozens of others. The beauty is there, perhaps 
especially for a little girl. One hears the birds singing but generally 
does not see the other animals, yet they are there. 

Our roots in the water are found in the streams that pour from 
limestone caves and flow down the deep valleys and through the village. 

Our roots in the sky are seen in the blue-bright day and the starlit 
night, and in an especially contemporary way at the Virgil Grissom 
Memorial, a witness of man's daring adventure into space. 

Genesis speaks both of man's dominion over the rest of nature and 
his responsible stewardship. Having managed her so poorly for so long 
and desecrated her so frequently, we have endangered our natural rela- 
tionship with our mother earth, who nurtures us still. In rediscovering 
our roots in the soil and water and sky, we contact our distant origins 
and so better understand our own nature, discovering at the core of our 
being that we are part of the whole earth, that it is biologically impera- 
tive for us to create beauty in the landscape when altering it for our 
purposes, that we are right to the extent of how much natural beauty we 
can afford to let alone. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Jack M. Whitehead, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

R03ERT E. Henn, 4121 Gail Drive, 

Evansville, Indiana 47712 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Middle Woodland Cultural Traditions of the Wabash Lowlands. Robert 
E. Pace, Department of Anthropology, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809. Four Middle Woodland traditions are identified 

in the Wabash Lowlands. Three of these are intrusive, including the 
Havana Tradition of the central Illinois River Valley, the Crab 
Orchard Tradition of southern Illinois, and the Scioto Tradition of 
southwest Ohio. A fourth, herein called the Wabash Tradition, had 
local roots and a distinctive Wabash character. Culture traits reaching 
the Ohio Valley from the Southeast were selectively adapted, but the 
intrusive traditions had remarkably little impact upon the Wabash 
Tradition. 

The Leonard Site: An Interim Report. Gilbert C. Apfelstadt, and 
Robert E. Henn, Indiana State University Evansville, Evansville, Indi- 
ana 47712. The 1971 Indiana State University Evansville field school 

continued excavations of the Leonard Site, designated 12-Po-20. The 
site is located in southwest Posey County, less than one mile from the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers. 

The site appears to be of the village-cemetery type. Excavations 
have uncovered a wall trench house North of the cemetery region. The 
assemblages recovered seem to indicate the presence of two cultural 
components. Diagnostic traits of this Middle Mississippian to early 
historic site include both shell and non-shell tempered pottery, hump- 
backed knives, and thumb-nail end-scrapers. 

Exploratory Investigations at the Mounds' Bluff Site, Madison County, 
Indiana. David V. Ellis and B. K. Swartz, Jr., Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Exploratory excavation was undertaken at the 

Mounds' Bluff Site during June and July 1974. The site is located on 
a moderately steep bluff east of the White River and north of the main 
complex of earthworks in Mounds State Park, Anderson, Indiana. The 
site has been tentatively identified as a temporary campsite. Cultural 
remains recovered during the course of the excavation were sparse 
and it is not possible to assign the site to a particular culture. 

To derive maximum information from the site, an experimental and 
intensive analysis of all recovered lithic remains is being undertaken. 
Seven variables of physical configuration of all tool-manufacture 
debitage have served as the basis for initial study of variance of tech- 
nological elements in spatial distribution. The results of the study and 
application of appropriate statistical tests have revealed that no signifi- 

55 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

cant differences exist in the spatial distribution of techniques of 
manufacture of stone tools within the site area. This primary explana- 
tion suggests occupation of the site either by the same cultural group 
or by different groups with similar technology. These hypotheses will 
be tested through further analysis of technological traits in the temporal 
perspective. 

Folk Medicine and Faith Healing In A Rural Southern Community. 

Colin C. Hastie III, Ball State University, Municie, Indiana 47306. 

This report is a portion of a research project which was conducted 
during 1973 and 1974 in a rural community in the Piedmont zone of 
South Carolina. 

Faith healing is still a prominent part of rural southern tradition. 
The faith healer is viewed with high esteem for his ability to talk 
warts off, stop bleeding cuts, cure poison oak and ivy "plotches" and to 
relieve the pain from burns. In some cases, cures are brought about by 
the faith healer repeating selected Biblical verses to himself; in other 
cases cures are effected without the use of Biblical verses. 



Notes on the Lowe Flared Base Projectile Point 

Gerald W. Kline 

Department of Anthropology 

Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 

and 

Gary A. Apfelstadt 

Department of Anthropology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The Lowe Flared Base projectile point type was initially identified by Winters as 
a diagnostic feature of the Allison and LaMotte cultures of the Wabash River Valley. 
This paper reports the analysis of formal and functional characteristics of a sample 
of Lowe points from five Allison and LaMotte sites in the Wabash River drainage area. 
The sample is analyzed by replicating Winters' scheme of metric and geometric ob- 
servations. These facilitate comparison with Winters' description and with other es- 
tablished types of the expanding base form. Patterning in microscopically observable 
traces of wear damage indicate the existence of multiple uses for this point type. 

Introduction 

Howard Winters, in 1963, denned the Lowe Flared Base projectile 
point type as a diagnostic feature of the Allison and LaMotte cultures 
of the Central Wabash Valley. Like many other Middle to Late Woodland 
cultures of Eastern North America, the Allison and LaMotte had an 
expanding base projectile form in their tool inventory. Salient features 
of the type were characterized as, 

"... a markedly flaring, straight-sided stem; straight (rarely 
concave or convex) base; beveling of all edges of the sides of the 
stem; frequent grinding of the sides of the stem; beveling of the 
base; frequent beveling of the edges of the blade; high incidence 
of hexagonal and lenticular cross sections; and a lanceolate or 
triangular blade." (16) 

Winters also stated that, "Once the attributes of these points have 
been learned, we doubt that there would be any possibility of confusing 
Lowe points with other expanding stem types." (16) 

This study serves to replicate Winters' metrical and geometrical 
analysis; to compare metrical characterizations of selected expanding 
point types; and to observe artifact alterations of functional signifi- 
cance. The specimen are from two site excavations, the Daugherty- 
Monroe Site, and the Kuester Site, and from three surface collections, 
Remmel, Darwin and Sandy Ridge sites. Recently, carbon-14 tests have 
dated Allison and LaMotte occupations between A.D. 1 and A.D. 600, 
Apfelstadt (2), Pace (11), and Stephens (14). 

Formal Analysis 
Methods 

The methods employed consist of the metric and geometric measure- 
ments of length, width, thickness, and form. These characteristics are 

57 



58 



Indiana Academy of Science 



further subdivided to include maximum length, blade length, stem 
length, maximum width, basal width, stem width, and maximum 
thickness (Figure 1). Geometric observations include blade edge form, 



























/ BD \ 


■ 


1 

L 


) , 


BP 

\ f / 






C 

1 


); :( 








i — e — l 




d 





Figure 1. Units of separation and measurement; S. stem, haft element, BP. proximal 

blade segment, BD. distal blade segment, a. maximum length, b. blade length, c. stem 

length, d. maximum width, e. basal width, f. stem width. 



blade form, basal edge form, shoulder form and cross section. The 
definition of, and the method for measurements replicate the analytical 
schemes presented by Ahler (1), Binford (3), and Winters (17). 



Results 

Tables 1 through 3 are constructed to compare similar analyses of 
expanding base projectile point samples with this analysis. Table 1 
compares sample size (N), mean value (X), and range for the metrical 
units of maximum length, maximum width, and maximum thickness 
from Winters' analysis (17), Montet-White's analysis (10), Prufer's 
analysis (12), Freeman's analysis (6), each separate ISU site sample, 
and their composite, listed as ISU Survey. Table 2 presents a comparison 
of the blade length, stem length, basal width, and stem width cate- 
gories for the individual site samples, their composite, Winters' analysis, 



Anthropology 



59 



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60 Indiana Academy of Science 

and Freeman's analysis. Table 3 aids the comparison of the geometric 
attributes by showing the percentage of occurrence for each form. 

As seen in this analysis, the Lowe Flared Base projectile point 
type exhibits an average length of 4.73 cm with a range from 2.97 cm 
to 7.93 cm. Mean width is 2.26 cm, and the average thickness is 0.65 
cm. (Table 1). The type has a markedly flaring straight-sided stem; 
most frequently a straight basal edge, although convex forms are not 
rare; shoulders are most often sloped; a high incidence of biconvex 
cross section, and; a tendency toward a more frequent utilization of 
lanceolate preforms (Table 3). 

Even though Winters' initial characterization requires some modi- 
fication, his formal description is tentatively confirmed by this subse- 
quent analysis. The discrepancies between his observations and those 
recorded during this study may be due in part to differing sample 
sizes, differing methods of observation, or possibly the samples reflect 
differences in the preparation and utilization of the specimen. 

Discussion 

Over a large portion of Eastern North America, expanding base 
point forms occur within approximately the same time period. There 
has been a tendency to establish different type names which may 
obscure what are possibly significant similarities. For the Expanding 
Stem (6), Lowe Flared Base (17), Steuben-stemmed (10), and Chessar 
Notched (12) point types, there is a greater metrical variation within 
the types than between them. Morse defined the Steuben-stemmed point 
type for Middle to Late Woodland occupations in the central Illinois 
River Valley (9). Freeman (6) noted possible relationships to Illinois 
River point types, for his Expanding Stem type from the Middle 
Woodland Millville Site in southwestern Wisconsin. From a Late 
Woodland phase site in southeastern Ohio, Prufer designated a group 
of expanding base points as the Chessar Notched type (12). The 
Bakers Creek point, an expanding base type, has been identified for 
the Alabama and Tennessee area (4), and Fitting has recently analyzed 
a sample of expanding base points from a Woodland occupation level in 
east-central Michigan (5). Thus, agreeing with Winters (15), ". . . we 
doubt that there would be any possibility of confusing Lowe points 
with other expanding stem types," if the specimen are found in the 
central Wabash River Valley. 

Functional Analysis 
Methods 

Ahler's study of point forms and functions provides not only the 
methodological base but also several specific interpretations of use 
wear patterns which could be tested against our data. Chipped stone 
artifacts have received the most concentrated attention in functional 
(i.e., use wear) studies, and though significant progress has been made 
(e.g., Ahler [1], Frison [7], Keller [8], Semenov [13], and Wilmsen 
[15]). Much work remains to be done. It is hoped that the methods of 
analysis employed are sufficiently explicit and systematic to facilitate 
comparison with others engaged in similar work. 



Anthropology 61 

A total of eighty-six complete points was used in this analysis, 
fifty-one came from the Remmel Site, twenty-one from the Daugherty- 
Monroe Site, nine from the Kuester Site, three from the Sandy Ridge 
Site, and two from the Darwin Site, all located in southwestern Indi- 
ana. The majority of these were of blue-gray "Harrison County" 
flint. For analytical purposes each specimen was divided into two 
segments: 1) haft element and 2) blade element (Figure 1), with a 
total of thirteen discrete observations made: six on the haft element 
and seven on the blade element. In essence these qualitative observa- 
tions tend to lump wear traces into gross categories and gross areas of 
occurrence. Six of the observations were recorded simply as either 
present (P) or absent (X), and six (all referring to edge or facial 
wear) were recorded as smoothed (S), roughened (R), or absent (X). 
Smoothed was defined as the result of a fine abrasive action resulting 
in a worn surface smoother in texture and finish than the natural 
unworn surface of the raw material, while roughening was defined as 
coarse abrasive action resulting in a worn surface rougher in texture 
and finish than the natural unworn surface of the raw material. The 
final observational attribute (blade edge retouch) was recorded as 
either slight (SL) or abrupt (A). This was largely intuitive as no 
parameters were established through objective measurement. A stereo- 
zoom microscope, with a magnification range of 8X to 40X, was used 
and it should be noted that no special surface treatment such as 
staining or powdering was used. 

Results 

The six specific observations made on the haft element and the 
results of those observations in terms of relative frequencies are as 
follows: 1. Basal edge damage: 

2. Lateral edge damage: 

3. Facial damage: 

4. Basal thinning: 

5. Basal edge bevel: 

6. Lateral edge bevel: 

Basal thinning, basal edge bevel, and lateral edge bevel were attributes 
observed by Winters (17). He observed basal thinning in 97%, basal 
edge bevel in 92%, and lateral edge bevel in 100% of his sample 
which, except for basal thinning, represents a marked difference from 
the above percentages. Due to the extreme nature of the differences, 
the lack of specific definition of terms, and the inability to examine 
Winters' sample, it seems more reasonable at this time to assume 
that the differences stem from something other than a real difference 
between the populations from which the two samples were drawn. 

The blade element of each specimen was divided into proximal and 
distal halves, in relation to proximity to the haft element, in order to 
more precisely specify the area of particular kinds of wear damage. 
The result of this procedure was a list of seven blade element observa- 
tions, four of which were specific to either the proximal or distal 
halves and three of which were not. These observations and the results 
were as follows: 



S= 35% 


R= 19% 


X= 46% 


S= 40% 


R= 43% 


X= 17% 


S= 31% 


R= 00 


X= 69% 


P= 84% 


X= 16% 




P= 21% 


X= 79% 




P= 10% 


X= 90% 





S= 36% R= 45% 


X= 19% 


S= 27% R= 00 


X= 73% 


S= 52% R= 30% 


X= 17% 


S= 29% R= 00 


X= 71% 


SL= 70% A= 30% 




P= 26% X= 74% 




BCV= 67% HX= 16% 


R= 03% 


PLCV= 13% 





62 Indiana Academy of Science 



1. Proximal edge damage: 

2. Proximal facial damage: 

3. Distal edge damage: 

4. Distal facial damage: 

5. Edge retouch: 

6. Point impact fracture : 

7. Blade cross section: 



A one sample chi-square test was applied to each of the above thirteen 
variables with the result that in every case the value obtained was 
significant at the .01 confidence level or greater. 

Given the above characterization of localized wear damages and 
other attributes thought to have functional significance the next step 
was to see how if at all, the various attributes were associated. 
Unfortunately, the necessary computer facilities for such a cross 
correlation were not available and therefore this portion of the research 
remains largely incomplete. Despite this, some initial headway has 
been made. Both the haft element and the blade element were investi- 
gated in terms of edge damage patterning under the assumption that 
edge damage is of prime functional significance. The results of cor- 
relating haft element edge damage (i.e., basal edge damage with 
lateral edge damage) showed that 17% exhibited smoothing of both 
basal and lateral edges; 15% exhibited smoothing of the basal edge 
with roughening of the lateral edges; 2% showed smoothing of basal 
edge with no lateral edge damage; 12% showed roughening of the basal 
edge combined with smoothing of the lateral edges; 6% exhibited the 
combination of roughening of both basal and lateral edges; 1% had 
basal edge roughening and no damage to lateral edges; in 10% no 
damage to the basal edge was combined with smoothing of the lateral 
edges; 22% exhibited no damage to the basal edge combined with 
roughening of the lateral edges; and finally 14% exhibited no damage to 
either basal or lateral edges. Though little more can be said at this 
time, there appear to be four patterns represented and indeed a chi- 
square test of these data yielded a value significant at between the 
.01 and .001 confidence level. 

Correlation of proximal with distal blade edge confidence yielded 
the following results (the first letter designates proximal damage type, 
the second distal): SS= 34%, SR= 01%, SX= 01%, RS= 15%, 
RR= 29%, RX= 01%, XS= 03%, XR= 00, XX= 15%. Although 
it would be tempting to interpret these data as indicative of three or 
four distinct functional classes (e.g., a class of heavy duty scraping 
and cutting implements, another of light duty slicing and cutting 
implements, and another representing actual projectile points) such 
interpretations must await the results of other studies. A chi-square 
test applied to the combinations of proximal and blade edge damage 
yielded a value significant at the .001 confidence level. 

Finally, experimental studies completed by Ahler (1) seemed to 
indicate that specimens used specifically as projectiles might tend to 
show a consistent association of point impact fractures, distal blade 



Anthropology 63 

edge smoothing and little or no damage to the proximal blade areas. 
Correlation of these attributes within this sample however did not 
suggest any such association, indeed only one specimen in the entire 
sample exhibited this particular combination of attributes. Interestingly 
enough though, the combination of blade edge attributes on specimen 
showing point impact fractures seemed to indicate again the possibility 
of the existence of three or four distinct classes: 23% of point 
impact fracture specimen exhibited smoothing on both proximal and 
distal blade edges, 27% showed roughening of both proximal and 
distal blade edges, and 18% exhibited roughening of the proximal 
bladge edge with smoothing of the distal, while 23% exhibited no 
damage to either proximal or distal blade edges. This also suggests 
that "point impact" fractures may be produced on specimens that 
were used for purposes other than projectiles. 

Discussion 

Although this report has considered only a few of the possible 
manipulations of data and the possibilities of patterning in wear 
damage attributes, it has shown a strong probability that patterns do 
exist. Admittedly little has been said in the way of interpretation, 
yet until a more thorough cross correlation of attributes can be com- 
pleted and until adequately controlled experimental studies are com- 
pleted, we are hardly in a position to offer anything more than a 
strictly subjective interpretation. 

Conclusions 

This paper has reported the analysis of formal and functional 
characteristics of a sample of Lowe Flared Base projectile points 
from five Allison and LaMotte occupations in the lower half of the 
Wabash River Valley. It largely confirms Winters' initial characterization 
of the point type; suggests the possibility of significant similarities 
among regionally established point types, and; shows the strong 
probability that distinct classes of wear damage patterns exist, re- 
sulting from multiple uses made of the single tool type. 



Literature Cited 

Ahler, S. A. 1970. Projectile Point form and Function at Rodgers Shelter, Mis- 
souri. Missouri Archaeological Society Series, No. 8. Univ. of Missouri-Columbia. 
146 pp. 

Apfelstadt, G. A. 1973. Preliminary Investigations at Kuester Site. Proceedings, In- 
diana Academy of Science. 84:86-90. 

Binford, L. R. 1963. A Proposed Attribute List for the Description of Projectile 
Points. In White, A. M., et. al. (eds. ). Miscellaneous Studies in Typology and 
Classification. Anthropological Papers, No. 19. Mus. of Anth., Univ. of Mich. Ann 
Arbor, pp. 193-221. 

Faulkner, C. H. and J. B. Graham. 1966. Highway Salvage in the Nickajack 
Reservoir. Misc. Paper No. 12. Tenn. Arch. Society. Knoxville. 96 pp. 
Fitting, J. E. 1972. Lithic Industries of the Schultz Site. In Fitting, J. E. (ed.). 
The Schultz Site of Green Point, A Stratified Occupation Area in the Saginaw 
Valley of Michigan. Memoirs of the Mus. of Anth., No. 4. Univ. of Mich. Ann 
Arbor, pp. 191-224. 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

6. Freeman, J. E. 1969. The Millville Site, A Middle Woodland Village in Grant 
County Wisconsin. In The Wisconsin Archeologist (New Series). 50, 2:37-87. 

7. Frison, G. 1968. A Functional Analysis of Certain Chipped Stone Tools. American 
Antiquity. 33:149-155. 

8. Keller, C. M. 1966. The Development of Edge Damage Patterns on Stone Tools. 
Man. 1:501-511. 

9. Morse, D. F. 1963. The Steuben Village and Mounds, A Multi-Component Late 
Hopewell Site in Illinois. Anthropological Papers, No. 21. Mus. of Anth., Univ. 
of Mich. Ann Arbor. 134 pp. 

10. Montet-White, A. 1968. Lithic Industries of the Illinois Valley in the Eearly 
and Middle Woodland Period. Anthropological Papers, No. 35. Mus. of Anth., 
Univ. of Mich. Ann Arbor. 200 pp. 

11. Pace, R. E. 1973. Archaeological Salvage, Daugherty-Monroe Site: Island Levee 
Protection Project, Sullivan County, Indiana. In fulfillment of Contract No. CX- 
4000-3-00-65 and Contract No. CX-4000-4-0028, 1974-75. Northeast Region, Nat. 
Park Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior. 55 pp. 

12. Prufer, O. H. 1967. Chessar Cave: A Late Woodland Phase in Southeastern Ohio. 
In Prufer, O. H. and D. H. McKenzie, (eds.). Studies in Ohio Archaeology. 
Western Reserve Univ. Press. Cleveland, pp. 1-12. 

13. Semenov, S. A. 1964. Prehistoric Technology. Barnes and Knoble, Inc. London. 
206 pp. 

14. Stephens, D. n.d. personal communication. 

15. Wilmsen, E. M. 1970. Lithic Analysis and Cultural Inference: A Paleo-Indian 
Case. Anth. Papers, No. 16. Univ. of Arizona. Tucson. 

16. Winters, H. D. 1963. An Archaeological Survey of the Wabash Valley in Illinois. 
Reports of Investigations, No. 10. Illinois State Museum Publication. Spring- 
field. 95 pp. 

17. Winters, H. D. 1963. Appendix IV: Lowe Flared Base Projectile Points of the 
Tamms Type Cluster. In Winters, H. D. 1963. An Archaeological Survey of the 
Wabash River Valley in Illinois. Reports of Investigations, No. 10. Illinois State 
Museum Publication. Springfield. 95 pp. 



Prairie Creek: A Stratified Site in Southwestern Indiana 

Curtis H. Tomak 
Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology- 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

This is a report of some of the results of a test excavation conducted during the 
fall of 1973 at the Prairie Creek Site located in Daviess County, Indiana. The area 
tested consists mostly if not entirely of water-laid deposits which are exposed along the 
creek bank. The work was undertaken to obtain a stratified sample of the organic 
materials known to be present in the deposits and to determine if the location was an 
Indian site. Indian artifacts were found in 2 and probably 3 strata. These are the 
units discussed. The uppermost of these produced bone and antler artifacts and a 
quantity of organic remains which includes the bones of extinct peccary (Mylohyus) 
and giant beaver (Castoroides) . There are radiocarbon dates of 2535 ± 75 B.P. and 
3535 ± 90 B.P. from this stratum. The evidence indicates that this deposit is mixed. 
A bone artifact and part of the shell of an armadillo were present in a lower unit, and 
a possible worked bone and Mylohyus were recovered from one below it. Unfortunately 
there is the likelihood that they too are mixed. However, unmixed areas may be present, 
and the site could prove significant. 

The purpose of this report is just to present some of the results of 
an archaeological excavation conducted at the Prairie Creek Site, 
12Da9. 

The site is located in southwestern Indiana in Daviess County 
approximately 3 miles north of the city of Washington. It is exposed 
along the southernmost bank of Prairie Creek which flows in a south- 
westerly direction out of a former glacial lake-marshland area known 
as Thousand Acre Woods. The site is about 1 mile below the lower end 
of Thousand Acre Woods and some 6 miles from where the creek enters 
the West Fork of White River. 

The location was reported to the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of 
Archaeology in the spring of 1972 by an individual who had found 
mastodon bones exposed along the creek bank. At that time we visited 
the area and spent part of a day recovering the exposed mastodon. It 
was observed that the deposits were stratified and contained well 
preserved botanical and faunal remains. In addition, a few pieces of 
chert were found on the eroded bank. Their original context could not 
be determined. 

In order to recover a stratified sample of the organic remains and 
to determine if an Indian site was present, the author undertook a 
test excavation at the location. This was done on weekends during 
September and October of 1973. The work consisted basically of a pit 
whose dimensions were about 5 by 5 by 5 feet. The pit extended south- 
east into and perpendicular to the stream bank. Many of the strata 
tested produced organic material, sometimes in quantity. In addition, 
Indian artifacts were found in 2 and probably 3 strata. 

The area excavated consists mostly if not entirely of water-laid 
deposits (Fig. 1). Fifteen strata were segregated. Each is composed 

65 



66 



Indiana Academy of Science 



of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay. In terms of texture they are sands 
with the exception of Strata 1 and 2a which are silts. 

The vertical extent of the lowest stratum tested, Stratum 12, was 
not ascertained. Although there is the possibility that it was water 
deposited, it may well represent a buried sand dune (Henry H. Gray, 
personal communication). In any event it appears that a stream channel 
had been cut into Stratum 12 and filled with alluvial deposits. Stratum 
1 does not represent the original surface. Part of the deposits had been 
removed by a channelization project. 

5W-> 





2a 



11 



1 2 



Figure 1. 



'1 ft.' r 

SE Wall of Test Pit; Strata Numbered. 



Analysis has been concentrated on Stratum 7, the uppermost arti- 
fact bearing unit. It was selected because it also produced a quantity of 
material which included the bones of extinct animals. Stratum 7 is a 
water-laid sand containing beds and areas of dark clayey sand. Its 
maximum thickness was about 1 foot. 

The items recovered from Stratum 7 include 3 pieces of oxidized 
sandstone, 2 pieces of coal, a diabase pebble, 27 chert flakes, a utilized 
flake, an antler point with a hollowed-out base, a worked deer 



Anthropology 



67 



metatarsal, a carbonized acorn, 3 pokeberry (Phytolacca americana) 
seeds which probably represent a recent intrusion, Quercus of the red 
oak group, ash (Fraxinus sp.) , and Acer of the soft maple group. 
The fauna identified from Stratum 7 are given in Table 1. 



Table 1. Fauna from Stratum 7. 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 
Mylohyus sp. 
Castoroides sp. 
Odocoileus virginianus 
Procyon lotor 
Ondatra zibethicus 
Mustela vison 
Amia calva 
Lepisosteus sp. 
Ictalurus sp. 
Micropterus salmoides 
Chrysemys pi eta 
Sternotherus sp. 
Chelydra/Macrochelys group 
Pseudemys/Graptemys group 
Anas platyrhynchos 
Anas sp. 
Podilymbus podiceps 



COMMON NAME 

long-nosed peccary (extinct) 

giant beaver (extinct) 

white-tailed deer 

raccoon 

musk rat 

mink 

bowfin 

gar 

catfish 

largemouth bass 

painted turtle 

musk turtle 

snapping turtle/alligator snapping turtle 

pseudemyd turtles/map and sawback turtles 

mallard 

duck 

pied-billed grebe 



Two radiocarbon determinations have been made on wood from 
Stratum 7. A carbonized piece of maple produced an age of 2535 ± 75 
B.P. (ISGS-269). An uncarbonized sample of ash dated 3535 ± 90 
B.P. (ISGS-270). 

It was hoped that an early deposit had been located in which 
artifacts were associated with extinct animals and that the materials 
from the stratum were contemporary. However, the magnitude of the 
dates and the difference between them, the presence of animals that 
became extinct earlier during the early part of the Postglacial, and 
the fact that the materials were recovered from a stream deposit, 
indicate that Stratum 7 is mixed. 

Artifacts were also recovered from a lower unit which is composed 
of Strata 9 and 9a. These are sandy stream deposits containing lamina- 
tions and areas of dark clayey sand. 

The contents of this unit include 4 pieces of oxidized sandstone, 5 
chert flakes, a bone fish-hook, some wood, and bones of fish, turtles, 
birds, and mammals. The material has not been completely analyzed but 
it does include the remains of 2 animal species not identified from 
Stratum 7. There is an upper molar that is like that of a marten 
(Martes americana) except that the archaeological specimen is notice- 
ably larger. It may represent a fisher (Martes pennanti). In addition, 
part of the shell of an armadillo was found. 

To the author's knowledge this is the first armadillo reported for 
Indiana. The location is on the northern extremity of their range. The 
latitude of the Prairie Creek Site is 38 degrees 43 minutes N. Armadillo 
(Dasypus) remains are reported for Organ-Hedricks Cave, West Vir- 
ginia, 37 degrees 42 minutes N. (1) and for Cherokee Cave, Missouri, 
38 degrees 40 minutes N. (1, 2). 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

One chert flake and a piece of mammal bone which appears to 
have been worked were present in Stratum 11. This is a water-laid 
sand having inclined beds and areas of dark clayey silty sand. 

Stratum 11 also produced 14 pieces of coal, some wood, many 
mollusc shells, and the bones of fish, turtles, birds, and mammals. The 
analysis of this material has not been completed but it does include 
the remains of an extinct long-nosed peccary (Mylohyus) and 2 animals 
not identified from Stratum 7. They are a frog and the American coot 
(Fulica americana). 

Unfortunately since the lower artifact bearing units are stream 
deposits, there is the likelihood that they too are mixed. 

Although mixture was encountered, unmixed areas may exist at 
the location. In view of the stratigraphy, the depth of the deposits, and 
the possibility for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, Prairie Creek 
could prove to be an important site. Work at the location is being 
pursued by the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology. 

Acknowledgements 

The author wishes to thank the excavation crew consisting of 
Gretchen Burkett, Craig Kinnaman, Michael Lobo, John Richardson, 
Duane Riggs, and David Sonner, all Indiana University anthropology 
students, for volunteering their time to the project; William R. Adams 
of the Department of Anthropology at Indiana University and B. Miles 
Gilbert of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Mis- 
souri for the identification of faunal material; William J. Wayne of 
the Department of Geology at the University of Nebraska who is 
presently studying the mollusc shells; the Forest Products Laboratory 
of the United States Department of Agriculture at Madison, Wisconsin, 
for identifying wood specimens; Richard I. Ford of the Museum of 
Anthropology at the University of Michigan for the identification of 
seeds; Donald R. Whitehead of the Division of Biological Sciences at 
Indiana University for aid with an attempted palynological study; 
Cornells Klein, Jr., of the Department of Geology at Indiana University 
for identifying some of the lithic material; Henry H. Gray of the Indi- 
ana Geological Survey for an analysis of the composition of the de- 
posits and for aid with the geological interpretation of the site; 
Michael C. Roberts of the Department of Geography at Indiana Uni- 
versity for aid with the geological interpretation; Richard K. Leininger 
of the Indiana Geological Survey for chemical and spectrographic 
analyses of a bone sample; the Illinois State Geological Survey for 
providing two radiocarbon dates; and the Glenn A. Black Laboratory 
of Archaeology at Indiana University for the use of equipment and 
facilities. 



Literature Cited 

1. Guilday, J. E., and A. D. McCrady. 1966. Armadillo remains from Tennessee and 
West Virginia caves. Bull. Nat. Spel. Soc. 28:183-184. 

2. Simpson, G. G. 1949. A fossil deposit in a cave in St. Louis. Amer. Mus. Novitates, 
No. 1408, 46 p. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: Leland L. Hardman, Department of Biology, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Robert S. Benda, Department of Biology, 

Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Species Importance and Apportionment within Virgin and Timbered 
Beech-Maple Forest Ecosystems. Diana L. Adams and Gary W. Bar- 
rett, Department of Zoology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056. 
A virgin forest, Hueston Woods in southwestern Ohio, and a selec- 
tively-cut forest, Lewis Woods in east central Indiana, were sampled 
by a modified point-quarter method in order to evaluate the impact 
of timbering on community structure. Timbering occurred in Lewis 
Woods in 1910, 1925, and 1955. Specifically, importance values and 
MacArthur's broken-stick model for contiguous non-overlapping niches 
were computed for each species encountered (> 1 dbh) within each 
study area in order to determine the timbering impact on species-rank 
importance and apportionment, respectively. 

Hueston Woods was clearly dominated by sugar maple (Acer 
saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) with importance 
values of 132.6 and 117.3, respectively. Lewis Woods was characterized 
by more even importance distribution patterns, although sugar maple 
and American beech were still found to be of greatest importance 
with values of 120.8 and 76.8, respectively. Sixteen species were 
encountered in Lewis Woods as compared to 13 species for Hueston 
Woods. Both study areas differed significantly (P ^ .05) from the 
expected importance values as generated by the broken-stick model. 
However, the model does appear to be a potential tool for evaluating 
man-made stress on natural forest ecosystems; stressed communities 
appear to fit the expected apportionment model better. 

Foliar Morphology of Platanus, Julie Van Horn and David L. Dilcher, 
Department of Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47401. The monotypic family Platanaceae is an ancient angiosperm 

family which has a world-wide distribution. The foliar morphology of 
Platanus is under active investigation. Gross form, venation and epi- 
dermal features have been studied, using cleared leaf material and 
cuticular preparations for light microscopy and scanning electron micros- 
copy. Both mature leaves and various developmental stages of leaves 
of several species were used. Developmental studies have been carried 
out on leaves of seedlings and growing shoots of mature trees. The 
gross leaf form, of the various species recognized, differs in number 
of lobes, depth of sinuses, and nature of the margin. The toothtype 
appears to be unique to this family and genus. The venation of mature 
leaves is predominately palmate except for one Asian species. In the 

69 



70 Indiana Academy of Science 

seedling and growing shoots on mature trees, a developmental sequence 
from pinnate to palmate venation pattern was observed at successively 
older nodes. Five types of trichomes were recognized on mature and 
seedling leaves. The trichome types appear to be characteristic of 
maturation stages and individual species. The appearance of the 
stomatal aparatus (exterior leaf surface), as viewed in scanning elec- 
tron microscopy, is diagnostic and consistent in the family. It is char- 
acterized by a raised striated ring of cuticle. The organization of the 
mature stomatal complex is unique. Each guard cell is slightly ele- 
vated in relation to the 2-4 lateral subsidiary cells which subtend it. 
The development of the stomatal apparatus has been investigated with 
the aid of Paragon stain. It is mesoperiginous. 



A Compilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1974 

Paul C. Pecknold, Walter R. Stevenson, Donald H. Scott 
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology- 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A compilation of those plant diseases and disorders which were diagnosed at the 
Purdue Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic from January 1 through September 30, 1974, 
is presented. Anthracnose was the dominant disease of shade trees ; iron chlorosis and 
leaf scorch were major disorder problems. On fruit trees crown rot, scab and rust 
were apple diseases most commonly observed. Of the vegetable specimens received 
fusarium wilt and downy mildew were widespread on cantaloupe. Black Dot root 
rot, identified for the first time this year in Indiana, and scab were major diseases of 
potato. 

Diseases accounted for an approximate 30% reduction in Indiana's 1974 wheat yields, 
representing a loss of over 15.5 million bushels and a 46.5 million dollar loss to 
Indiana agriculture. Disease losses were attributed mainly to take-all, scab and 
septoria leaf blotch. Wheat spindle streak virus was confirmed for the first time in 
Indiana. Barley yellow dwarf virus was prevalent on oat, wheat, barley and various 
grasses. Stewart's blight was widespread on dent corn. Sorghum downy mildew oc- 
curred in approximately the same areas of Posey County as first reported in 1973. 
Rhizoctonia root rot of soybeans continued to increase in incidence. Races III and IV 
of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae were reported in four and one counties re- 
spectively. 

Introduction 

This paper is a compilation of those plant diseases and disorders 
which were diagnosed at the Purdue Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic 
from January 1 through September 30, 1974. The purpose of this 
compilation is to show which diseases and disorders are now present 
in Indiana, their degree of occurrence, and, in conjunction with future 
compilations, tendencies toward increasing or decreasing occurrence. 
Ultimately, comparison of yearly disease-disorder problems will serve 
to better recognize those problems where control efforts should be 
placed; provide information for recommending plant varieties best 
suited for Indiana; and give additional insight to plant diseases and 
disorders in the past, present and future. 

Methods 

Plant specimens were submitted to the Plant Disease Diagnostic 
Clinic from County Agents, homeowners, growers, nursery operators 
and others. The specimens were diagnosed visually or by culturing of 
the pathogen on selected media; once diagnosed, appropriate control 
measures were given. A breakdown of the total number of specimens 
handled from January 1 through September 30, 1974 is given in 
Table 1. 

Results 

Tables 2-8 show the host plant, the disease or disorder diagnosed, 
the pathogen or cause of disorder, and the number of samples received. 
Diseases and disorders are listed in order of decreasing occurrence on 

71 



72 



Indiana Academy of Science 



respective host plants. The sample numbers listed in Tables 2-8 do 
not equal the sample numbers shown in Table 1 since samples diagnosed 
as insect damage were not included in Tables 2-8, other samples were 
inadequate and could not be diagnosed. 



Table 1. 



Total Number of Specimens Handled From January 1 
Through September 30, 197b. 



Plant Species 



Number of Samples 



Corn 73 

Soybeans 42 

Small Grain 151 

Trees — Shade and Ornamental 388 

Ornamentals 132 

Forage Grasses and Legumes 23 

Vegetables 156 

Tree Fruit 51 

Small Fruit 48 

Flowers 22 

Turf 19 

House Plants 13 

Plant Identification 4 

Miscellaneous 10 

Total 1132 



Table 2. Shade and Ornamental Trees — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 
Diseases and/or Disorder 



Causal Agent 



Number of 
Samples 



Abies (FIR) 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Poor Vigor 

Herbicide Injury 
Acer (MAPLE) 

Anthracnose 

Wilt 

Canker 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Scorch 

Dieback 

Bark Shedding 

Herbicide Injury 

Frost Injury 

Frost Crack 

Chlorosis 
Albizia (SILK TREE) 

Wilt 
Betula (BIRCH) 

Dieback 

Canker 

Miscellaneous Disorders 
Dieback 
Sooty Mold 
Herbicide Injury 



Stress factors (s) 
Spray drift 

Gloeosporium apocryptum 
Verticillium albo-atrum 
Steganosporium piriforme 

Heat, wind and drought 

Stress factor (s) 

Natural 

Spray drift 

Spring freeze 

Winter temperature extremes 

Manganese deficiency 

Fusarium sp. 

Melanconium betulinum 
Dothiorella sp. 
Fusicoccum sp. 

Stress factors (s) 

Insect honeydew secretions 

Spray drift 



Botany 73 

Table 2. Shade and Ornamental Trees — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 



Host plant 
Diseases and/or Disorder 



Causal Agent 



Number of 
Samples 



Carya (HICKORY) 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Decline 
Catalpa (CATALPA) 

Wilt 
Celtis (HACKBERRY) 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Scorch 

Sooty Mold 
Cercis (REDBUD) 

Canker 

Wilt 

Leafspot 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Herbicide Injury 

Frost Injury 

Dieback 
Cornus (DOGWOOD) 

Spot Anthracnose 

Crown Canker 

Root Rot 

Canker 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Scorch 

Dieback 

Herbicide Injury 
Cotinus (SMOKE-TREE) 

Wilt 
Crataegus (HAWTHORN) 

Cedar-Quince Rust 

Cedar-Hawthorn Rust 

Leaf Blight 
Elaeagnus (RUSSIAN-OLIVE) 

Canker 

Wilt 
Fagus (BEECH) 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Trunk Sunscald 
Fraxinus (ASH) 

Anthracnose 

Canker 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Air Pollution Injury 

Scorch 

Dieback 
Gleditsia (HONEY LOCUST) 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Cold Injury 

Dieback 
Juglans (WALNUT) 

Anthracnose 

Bacterial Blight 
Juniperus virginiana (RED CEDAR) 

Cedar-Apple Rust 

Cedar-Quince Rust 

Twig Blight 



Soil grade change 
Verticillium albo-atrum 



Heat, wind and drought 
Insect honeydew secretions 

Botryosphaeria ribis chromogena 
V erticillium albo-atrum 
Unidentified fungus 

Spray drift 

Spring freeze 

Heat, wind and drought 

Stress factors ( s ) 

Elisnoe corni 
Phytophthora cactorium 
Armillaria mellea 
Steganosporium sp. 

Heat, wind and drought 
Stress factor ( s ) 
Spray drift 

Verticillium albo-atrum 

Gymnosporangium clavipes 
Gymnosporangium globosum 
Fabraea maculata 

Fusicoccum elaeagni 
Verticillium albo-atrum 



Winter temperature extremes 

Gloeosporium aridum 
Unknown 

Sulfur dioxide 

Heat, wind and drought 

Stress factor (s) 



Low Temperature 
Stress factors (s) 



Gnomonia leptostyla 
Xanthomonas juglandis 



Gymnosporangium junipcri-virginianae 3 
Gymnosporangium clavipes 2 

Phomopsis juniperovora 2 



74 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. Shade and Ornamental Trees — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Diseases and/or Disorder 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Koelreuteria (GOLDENRAIN TREE) 






Canker 


Nectria cinnabarina 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Herbicide Injury 


Spray drift 


1 


Liquidambar (SWEETGUM) 






Bleeding Necrosis 


Botryosphaeria dothidea 


1 


Leaf Spot 


Cercospora liquidambaris 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


2 


Liriodendron (TULIP TREE) 






Leaf Spot 


Unidentified 


2 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


3 


Leaf Yellowing 


Natural 


3 


Sooty Mold 


Insect honeydew secretions 


2 


Magnolia (MAGNOLIA) 






Leaf Spot 


Phyllosticta cookei 


1 


Canker 


Nectria sp. 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Winter Damage 


Desiccation 


2 


Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


2 


Herbicide Injury 


Spray drift 


1 


Malus (CRABAPPLE) 






Scab 


Venturia inaequalis 


3 


Powdery Mildew 


Podosphaera leucotricha 


1 


Canker 


Phoma mali 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Cold Injury 


Low temperatures 


1 


Picea (SPRUCE) 






Canker 


Cytospora kunzei 


4 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Dieback 


Stress factor (s) 


2 


Chemical Injury 


Improper use 


2 


Air Pollution Injury 


Fluoride 


1 


Pinus (PINE) 






Tip Blight 


Diplodia pinea 


5 


Needle Cast 


Lophodermium pinastri 


4 


Needle Blight 


Dothistroma pint 


2 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Decline 


Poor drainage-stress factor (s) 


6 


Air Pollution Injury 


Air pollutants 


3 


Winter Damage 


Desiccation 


2 


Needle Tip Burn 


Heat, wind and drought 


1 


Sooty Mold 


Insect honeydew secretions 


1 


Dropsy (Edema) 


Unknown 


1 


Platanus (SYCAMORE) 








Gnomonia veneta 


2 


Populus (POPLAR, ASPEN, COTTONWOOD) 




Rust 


Melampsora sp. 


1 


Canker 


Unidentified fungus 


1 


Quercus (OAK) 






Anthracnose 


Gnomonia quercina 


10 


Oak Wilt 


Ceratocystis fagacearum 


4 


Canker 


Not identified 


4 




Fusicoccum sp. 


1 




Dothiorella sp. 


1 


Leaf Blister 


Taphrina coerulescens 


1 


Leaf Spot 


Actinopelte dryina 


1 



Botany 75 

Table 2. Shade and ma-mental Trees — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Diseases and/or Disorder 


Cadsal Agent 


Samples 


Powdery Mildew 


Phyllactinia corylca 


1 


Rot Rot 


Armillaria mellea 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Chlorosis (Pin Oak) 


Iron deficiency 


20 


Dieback 


Soil grade change 


3 




Stress factor (s) 


2 


Sooty Mold 


Insect honeydew secretions 


1 


Robinia (LOCUST) 






Canker 


Unknown 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


1 


Chlorosis 


Iron deficiency 


1 


Salix (WILLOW) 






Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


2 


Dieback 


Stress factor (s) 


1 


Sorbus (MOUNTAIN ASH) 






Canker — Sunscald Complex 


Cytospora sp. 


4 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


4 


Chlorosis 


Iron deficiency 


1 


Herbicide Injury 


Spray drift 


1 


Tsuga (HEMLOCK) 






Miscellaneous Disorders 






Dieback 


Stress factor (s) 


2 


Winter Damage 


Desiccation 


1 


Ulmus (ELM) 






Dutch Elm Disease 


Ceratocystis ulmi 


5 


Phloem Necrosis 


Virus 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorder 






Dieback 


Stress factor (s) 


1 



Shade and Ornamental Trees 

Diseases: Anthracnose was the dominant disease this year as in 
past years (Table 2) (5). Maple, oak, ash and sycamore were most 
commonly affected. The yearly reoccurrence of anthracnose, especially 
on sycamore, has resulted in progressive dieback and eventual mortality 
of numerous trees throughout Indiana. Verticillium wilt ranked second 
in occurrence, being especially prevalent on maples. Dutch elm disease 
and oak wilt continue to occur sporadically resulting in further elimina- 
tion of elm and oak. 

Disorders: Leaf scorch, primarily due to a combination of heat, 
wind and drought, was excessive this year; the extreme drought experi- 
enced the past summer being the main cause of scorch. A gradual 
decline of maples continues to occur throughout Indiana. The cause 
of the decline is not known, probable causes indicate it may be related 
to unfavorable environmental conditions. Iron deficiency was the major 
problem of oak and was confined mainly to pin oak. The severity 
of iron chlorosis on pin oak resulted in many cases of dieback and 
extreme poor growth. The advisibility of recommending pin oak as 
a landscape tree is becoming questionable in those areas of Indiana 
where soil pH is high. 



76 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 3. Ornamentals — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 
Disease and/or Disorder 



Causal Agent 



Number of 
Samples 



Bauhinia (ORCHID TREE) 

Leaf Spot 
Begonia (BEGONIA) 

Root Rot 
Berberis (BARBERRY) 

Wilt 
Cotoneaster (COTONEASTER) 

Fireblight 
Chrysanthemum (CHRYSANTHEMUM) 

Powdery Mildew 
Delphinium (LARKSPUR) 

Bacterial Collar Rot 
Enonymus (BURNING BUSH) 

Crown Gall 

Powdery Mildew 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Dieback 
Forsythia (GOLDEN BELLS) 

Crown Gall 
Hedera helix (ENGLISH IVY) 

Bacterial Leaf Spot 

Leaf Spot 
Hibiscus (ROSE-OF-SHARON) 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Herbicide Injury 
Ilex (HOLLY) 

Leaf Spot 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Scorch 

Seedling Dieback Complex 

Winter Damage 

Spine Spot 

Chlorosis 
Juniperus (JUNIPER) 

Twig Blight 

Cedar-Apple Rust 

Cedar-Quince Rust 
Lonicera (HONEYSUCKLE) 

Leaf Blight 
Lupinus (LUPINE) 

Leaf Spot 
Pachy sandra (PACHYSANDRA) 

Leaf Blight 
Paeonia (PEONY) 

Red Spot (Measles) 

Root Rot 
Pelargonium (GERANIUM) 

Rust 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Scorch 

Edema 



Pyracantha (FIRETHORN) 
Scab 



Leptosphaeria sp. 
Pythium ultimum 
Verticillium albo-atrum 
Erwinia amylovora 
Erysiphe eichoracearum 
Erwinia carotovora 



Agrobacterium 
Not identified 



tumefaciens 



Stress factor (s) 

Agrobacterium tumefaciens 

Xanthomonas hederae 
Amerosporium trichellum 



Spray drift 

Phyllosticta spp. 

Heat, wind and drought 
Heat plus ammonia toxicity 
Desiccation 
Spine punctures 
Iron deficiency 

Phomopsis juniperovora 
Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae 
Gymno sporangium clavipes 

Herpobasidium deformans 

Alternaria sp. 

Volutella pachysandrae 

Cladosporium paeoniae 
Rhizoctonia solani 

Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis 

Heat, wind and drought 
High soil moisture-retarded 
transpiration 



Fusicladium pyracanthae 
Rhododendron (AZALEA and RHODODENDRON) 

Crown Rot Phytophthora spp. 



Botany 77 

Table 3. Ornamentals — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 

Host Plant Number of 

Disease and/or Disorder Causal Agent Samples 

Miscellaneous Disorder 

Winter Scorch Desiccation 2 

Rosa (ROSE) 

Powdery Mildew Sphaerotheca pannosa 2 

Blackspot Diplocarpon rosae 2 

Rust Phragmidium sp. 1 

Canker Unidentified 1 

Miscellaneous Disorder 

Cold Injury Low temperatures 1 

Schefflcra (AUSTRALIAN UMBRELLA TREE) 

Leaf Spot Unidentified fungus 1 

Ring Spot Virus 1 

Miscellaneous Disorder 

Root Rot Overwatering 3 

Syringa (LILAC) 

Powdery Mildew Microsphaera alni 2 

Bacterial Blight Pseudomonas syringae 1 

Canker Phoma sp. 1 

Miscellaneous Disorders 
Scorch Heat, wind and drought 2 

Herbicide Injury Spray drift 1 

Taxus (YEW) 

Root Rot-Dieback Phytophthora-poor drainage complex 4 

Miscellaneous Disorders 

Herbicide Injury Spray drift 2 

Winter Damage Desiccation 3 

Root Rot Poor drainage 2 

Viburnum (VIBURNUM) 
Wilt Verticillium albo-atrum 1 

Miscellaneous Disorder 

Scorch Heat reflection 2 

Yucca (YUCCA) 
Leaf Spot Coniothyrium concentricum 1 

Zinnia (ZINNIA) 

Powdery Mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum 1 



Ornamentals 

Diseases: No single disease was dominant on ornamentals (Table 
3). Rust, leaf spots, powdery mildew and twig blight were present as 
in past years (5). Of interest was geranium rust, Puccinia pelargonii- 
zonalis, which had not previously been reported in Indiana. 

Disorders: Winter injury of evergreens due to desiccation was 
prominent but not severe. The severe summer drought period resulted 
in scorching of foliage, however scorch was less severe than that 
seen on trees. Herbicide spray drift was frequently observed indicating 
improper and/or careless application and the increasing use of herbi- 
cides by both commercial grower and homeowner. 

Turf grass 

Diseases: Turf grass diseases were not prominent this year (Table 
4). Helminthosporium leaf spot was the most commonly observed dis- 
ease as it has been in the past (5). 



78 Indiana academy of Science 

Table 4. Turf grass — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Diseases and/or Disorder 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Poa pratensis (BLUECRASS) 






Leaf Spot 


H elminthosporium spp. 


7 


Fusarium Blight 


Fusarium roseum complex 


3 


Dollar Spot 


Sclerotinia homoeocarpa 


2 


Stripe Smut 


Ustilago striiformis 


2 


Flag Smut 


Urocystis agropyri 




Rhizoctonia 


Rhizoctonia solani 




Powdery Mildew 


Erysiphe graminis 




Rust 


Puccinia graminis 


1 


Slime Mold 


Physarum cinereum 





Fruit Trees 

Diseases: Crown rot, apple scab and rust were the apple diseases 
most commonly received and observed (Table 5). The prevalence of 
crown rot was due, in part, to wet spring weather and increased plant- 
ing of the more susceptible dwarfing rootstocks. Severe infections of 
apple scab occurred throughout Indiana resulting from numerous wet 
weather periods in late spring. Extreme rust infection was prevalent 
from the middle of Indiana southward. Fireblight was moderate in 
occurrence, no severe outbreaks were reported. Infrequent reports of 
powdery mildew were confined mainly to the middle and southern 
portions of Indiana; however, a mild outbreak was reported in northern 
Indiana, apparently due to infected nursery stock. Other diseases of 
pome and stone fruits were scarce. This was mostly due to late spring 
freezes which killed flower buds resulting in less fruit and less 
diseases. 

Disorders: Problems of cold injury and leaf scorch on tree fruits 
were similar to those observed on shade trees and ornamentals. 

Small Fruits 

Diseases: Black root rot was the most serious disease of straw- 
berries (Table 6). A complex of several soil fungi and Pratylenchus sp. 
nematodes along with winter injury seems to be the cause (3). Rasp- 
berry anthracnose was prevalent as in past years (5). Mummyberry 
of blueberry was severe in areas of northern Indiana resulting in 
significant reductions in yields. 

Disorders: Herbicide spray drift injury to grape was prevalent 
in home yards where lawn herbicides were applied. 

Vegetables 

Diseases: Specimens of curcurbit crops, potato, and tomato com- 
prised the bulk of vegetable crops received (Table 7). Diseases of 
cucurbit crops that represent important and continuing problems 
include Fusarium wilt, downy mildew, and Alternaria leaf spot. Of 
interest were the four cucurbit specimens with mosaic symptoms 
indicating virus infection. Blossom end rot of tomato was primarily 



Botany 



79 



attributed to wide spread drought-like conditions. These same condi- 
tions contributed to relatively few foliar diseases of most crops. Of 
great interest was the identification of Colletotrichum coccodes — the 
causal agent of potato black dot root rot — in 10 potato specimens 
from 6 widely dispersed Indiana counties. This was the first identifica- 
tion of this pathogen in Indiana. Further studies of this disease are 
being undertaken. 

Disorders: An unusually high number of samples were examined 
where the disorder was diagnosed as chemical injury. The majority of 
these specimens originated in home gardens exposed to herbicide drift 
from a variety of sources. 

Agronomic Crops 

Diseases: Damaging weather conditions were directly or indirectly 
related to an increased severity of several agronomic crop diseases 



Table 5. Fruit Trees — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Disease and/or Disorder 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Malus sylvestris (APPLE) 






Crown Rot 


Phytophthora cactorum 


5 


Scab 


Venturia inaequalis 


4 


Cedar-Apple Rust 


Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae 3 


Fire Blight 


Erwinia amylovora 


3 


Powdery Mildew 


Podosphaera leucotricha 


2 


Bot Rot 


Botryosphaeria ribis 


1 


Frogeye Leaf Spot 


Physalospora obtusa 


1 


Canker 


Phoma sp. 


1 


Sooty Blotch 


Gloeodes pomigena 


1 


Flyspeck 


Microthyriella rubi 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Fruit Crack 


Water fluctuation extremes 


2 


Dieback 


Stress factor (s) 


2 


Measles 


Manganese toxicity 


1 


Chemical Injury 


Improper use 


1 


Frost Crack 


Winter temperature extremes 


1 


Prunus americana (PLUM) 






Black Knot 


Dibotryon morbosum 


2 


Brown Rot 


Sclerotinia fructicola 


1 


Leafspot 


Coccomyces prunophorae 


1 


Plum Pockets 


Taphrina communis 


1 


Prunis avium (CHERRY) 






Cherry Leaf Spot 


Coccomyces hiemalis 


2 


Prunis persica (PEACH) 






Brown Rot 


Sclerotinia fructicola 


2 


Bacterial Spot 


Xanthomonas pruni 


2 


Leaf Curl 


Taphrina deformans 


2 


Perennial Canker 


Leucostoma cincta 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorder 






Cold Injury 


Low temperatures 


1 


Pyrus communis (PEAR) 






Fireblight 


Erwinia amylovora 


3 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


4 


Chemical Injury 


Improper use 


1 



80 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 6. Small Fruits — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Diseases and/or Disorder 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Fragaria grandiflora (STRAWBERRY) 






Black Root Rot 


Specific pathogen (s) not known 


4 


Leaf Scorch 


Diplocarpon earliana 


3 


Leaf Blight 


Dendrophoma obscurans 


2 


Gray Mold Rot 


Botrytis cinerea 


2 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Scorch 


Heat, wind and drought 


2 


Cold Injury 


Late freezes 


2 


Tip Burn 


Fluctuating temperatures 


1 


Chemical Injury 


Improper use 


1 


Rubus (RASPBERRY) 






Anthracnose 


Elsinoe veneta 


4 


Cane Gall 


Agrobacterium rubi 


2 


Orange Rust 


Gymnoconia peckiana 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Cold Injury 


Late freezes 


2 


Fasciation 


Unknown 


1 


Vaccinium (BLUEBERRY) 






Mummyberry Fungus 


Sclerotinia vaccinii-corymbosi 


3 


Vitis (GRAPE) 






Black Rot 


Guignardia bidwellii 


2 


Powdery Mildew 


Uncinula necator 


1 


Spot Anthracnose 


Elsinoe ampelina 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Herbicide Injury 


Spray drift 


4 


Cold Injury 


Low temperatures 


2 



(Table 8). Wheat yield was reduced by over 30% due to a combina- 
tion of various diseases; take-all, scab and Septoria leaf blotch were 
the most damaging diseases noted. Wheat in the southern portion of 
Indiana suffered the greatest loss from diseases; however, diseases 
and subsequent wheat loss were felt throughout the state. Take-all 
was the most damaging disease. It was especially severe in southern 
Indiana and on lighter or nitrogen deficient soils in northern Indiana. 
The increased occurrence of scab was due to wet and cool 
weather during the flowering period. Septoria leaf blotch developed 
to epiphytotic proportions in many northern Indiana wheat fields but 
was not severely damaging in southern Indiana. 

Wheat spindle streak virus was confirmed for the first time in 
Indiana (2). Symptoms of this disease were evident throughout the 
state but most noticeable in the southern half of Indiana. The wide- 
spread occurrence of this disease suggests that the virus has been 
present in the state for several years. 

Stewart's disease of corn was more widespread in 1974 than in 
1973, due to the third successive mild winter and the resulting high 
flea beetle populations. The wilt phase of this disease caused economic 
losses in some fields of young corn in eastern Indiana. Generally, 
Stewart's disease did not cause economic losses, except in fields 
planted with highly susceptible dent or popcorn hybrids. Sorghum 
downy mildew of corn occurred in approximately the same area of 



Botany 

Table 7. Vegetables — Diseases and Disorders. 



81 



Host Plant 
Diseases and/or Disorder 



Causal Agent 



Number of 
Samples 



Allium cepa (ONION) 

Black Mold 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Seedling Dieback 
Beta vulgaris (BEET) 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Chemical Injury 
Brassica nigra (MUSTARD) 

White Rust 
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (CABBAGE 

Black Rot 

Yellows 

Wirestem 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Chemical Injury 
Brassica rapa (TURNIP) 

Root Lesion 

Root Soft Rot 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Chemical Injury 
Capsicum frutescens (PEPPER) 

Bacterial Spot 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Fruit Injury 

Chemical Injury 
Citrullus vulgaris (WATERMELON) 

Fusarium Wilt 

Mosiac 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Chemical Injury 

Blossom End Rot 
Cucumis melo (CANTALOUPE) 

Fusarium Wilt 

Downy Mildew 

Leaf Spot 

Bacterial Wilt 

Mosiac 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Chemical Injury 
Cucumis sativus (CUCUMBER) 
Miscellaneous Disorder 

Chemical Injury 
Lycopersicon csculentum (TOMATO) 

Leaf Spot 

Early Blight 

Transplant Soft Rot 

Verticillium Wilt 

Buckeye Rot 

Gray Mold 

Stem Canker 

Fusarium Wilt 

Bacterial Wilt 
Miscellaneous Disorders 

Chemical Injury 

Blossom End Rot 

Walnut Wilt 



Aspergillus niger 1 

Water damage 3 

Spray drift 

Albugo Candida 

) 

Xanthomonas campestris 

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. 

conglutinans 
Rhizoctonia solani 

Spray drift 

Alternaria sp. 

Unidentified bacterial isolate 

Spray drift 

Xanthomonas vesicatoria 

Sunscald 
Spray drift 

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivcum 3 

Unidentified virus 2 



Spray drift 
Insufficient moisture 



Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubensis 5 

Pseudoperonospora cubensis 5 

Alternaria cucumerina 4 

Erwinia tracheiphila 2 

Unidentified virus 2 

Spray drift 4 



Spray drift 3 

Septoria lycopcrsici 4 

Alternaria solani 4 

Unidentified bacterial isolate 3 

Verticillium albo-atrum 3 

Phytophthora sp. 3 

Botrytis cinerea 3 

Rhizoctonia solani 2 

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopcrsici 2 

Pseudomonas solanaccarum 1 



Spray drift 
Physiological 
Walnut tree excretions 



82 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 7. Vegetables — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 



Host Plant 




Number of 


Diseases and/or Disorder 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Leaf Necrosis 


Wind injury 


2 


Corky Root 


Cause unidentified 


2 


Fruit Injury 


Sunscald 


1 


Phaseolus vulgaris (SNAP BEAN) 






Root Rot 


Rhizoctonia solani 


3 


Root Rot 


Fusarium sp. 


1 


Root Rot 


Pythum sp. 


1 


Anthracnose 


Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 


1 


Rust 


Uromyces phaseoli var. typica 


2 


Sooty Mold 


Unidentified fungus 


1 


Miscellaneous Disorders 






Chemical Injury 


Spray drift 


6 


Leaf Damage 


Wind injury 


2 


Rheum spp. (RHUBARB) 






Leaf Spot 


Alternaria sp. 


1 


Gray Mold 


Botrytis cinerea 


1 


Crown Rot 


Unidentified 


1 


Solarium tuberosum (POTATO) 






Root Rot 


Colletotrichum coccodes 


10 


Scab 


Streptomyces scabies 


8 


Black Leg 


Erwinia atroseptica 


4 


Miscellaneous Disorder 






Chemical Injury 


Spray drift 


2 


Solarium melongena (EGGPLANT) 






Wilt 


Verticillium albo-atrum 


1 



Table 



Agronomic Crops — Diseases and Disorders. 



Host Plant 
Diseases and/or Disorder 



Causal Agent 



Number of 
Samples 



Triticum (WHEAT) 

Root Rot — see below 
Take-All 
Fusarium Root Rot 

Wheat Spindle Streak 

Barley Yellow Dwarf 

Septoria Glume Blotch 

Scab 

Septoria Leaf Blotch 

Ergot 
Rhizoctonia Sharp Eye 

Rust (leaf) 

Rust (stem) 

Bunt 

Loose Smut 
Avena (OAT) 

Barley Yellow Dwarf 
Hordeum (BARLEY) 

Scald 

Barley Yellow Dwarf 
Zea (DENT CORN) 

Stewarts Blight 

Ear Rots — see below 
Gib Ear Rot 



Various — (see below) 


45 


Ophiobolus graminis 


(40) 


Fusarium spp. 


(5) 


Wheat Spindle Streak Virus 


23 


Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus 


14 


Septoria nodorum 


11 


Gibberella zeae 


11 


Septoria tritici 


10 


Claviceps purpurea 


3 


Rhizoctonia solani 


2 


Puccinia rubigo-vera f. sp. tritici 


1 


Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici 


1 


Tilletia foetida 


1 


Ustilago tritici 


1 



Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus 

Rhynchosporium secalis 
Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus 

Erwinia stewartii 
Various — (see below) 
Gibberella zeae 



5 

1 

17 
7 
(2) 



Botany 83 

Table 8. Agronomic Crops — Diseases and Disorders — Continued. 



Host Plant 
Diseases and/or Disorder 





Number of 


Causal Agent 


Samples 


Fusarium moniliforme 




(2) 


Diplodia maydis 




(1) 


Niprospora oryzae 




(1) 


Colletotrichum graminicola 




(1) 


Various — (see below) 




5 


Gibberella zeae 




(2) 


Diplodia maydis 




(2) 


Macrophomina phaseoli 




(1) 


Collectotrichum graminicola 




3 


Sclcrophthora macrospora 




2 


Helminthosporium turcicum 




2 


Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus 




2 


Maize Chlorotic Dwarf Mosaic 


Virus 


2 


Helminthosporium carbonum (race II) 


1 


Ustilago maydis 




1 


Puccinia sorghi 




1 


Sclerospora sorghi 




1 


Helminthosporium maydis (race 0) 


1 



Fusarium Kernel Rot 

Diplodia Ear Rot 

Cob Rot 

Anthracnose 
Stalk Rots — see below 

Gib Stalk Rot 

Diplodia Stalk Rot 

Charcoal Rot 
Anthracnose 
Crazy Top 

Northern Corn Leaf Blight 
MDM 
MCDM 

Northern Corn Leaf Spot 
Common Smut 
Common Rust 
Sorghum Downy Mildew 
Southern Corn Leaf Blight 
Miscellaneous Disorders 
Various Problems 
Chemical Injury 
Glycine (SOYBEAN) 
Rhizoctonia Root Rot 
Phytophthora Root Rot 



Bacterial Blight 
Pod & Stem Blight 
Downy Mildew 
Powdery Mildew 
Brown Stem Rot 
Miscellaneous Diseases and Disorders 
Chemical Injury 
Chlorosis 



Environmental factors 
Wet Weather 



Rhizoctonia solani 


14 


Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae 




(races III or IV) 


4 


Phytophthora megasperma var. sojoe 




(race II) 


3 


Pseudomonas glycinea 


2 


Diaporthe phaseolorum var sojoe 


2 


Peronospora manshurica 


1 


Erysiphe polygoni 


1 


Cephalosporium gregatum 


1 


Various causes 


10 


Potash deficiency 


5 



Posey County as first reported in 1973 (4). The disease was not as 
severe as in 1973, however, shatter cane and sorghum were heavily 
infected in those areas where the disease occurred. 

Rhizoctonia root rot of soybeans was more widespread this year 
than last. While this disease has continued to increase over the past 
few years, economic losses have been small. Phytophthora root rot 
was moderately severe in some northern and northeastern fields. Races 
III and IV of the pathogen, Phytophthora megasperma var, sojae were 
reported (1). Powdery mildew, downy mildew, bacterial blight and 
brown spot were widespread but not damaging. 

Disorders: Excessively wet spring weather followed by a severe 
dought and one of the earliest killing frosts on record resulted in 
substantial crop damage in 1974. Poor root development, especially 
on corn, was a frequent occurrence in the northern two-thirds of the 
state. This condition was due to the excessive spring rainfall which 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

resulted in saturated and /or flooded fields and was compounded in 
severity by the following summer drought. 



Literature Cited 

1. Athow, K. L., F. A. Laviolette and T. S. Abney. 1974. Reaction of Soybean 
Germplasm Strains to Four Physiologic Races of Phytophthora megasperma var. 
sojae. Plant Dis. Rptr. 58:789-792. 

2. Jackson, A. O., C. E. Bracker, D. M. Huber, D. H. Scott and G. E. Shaner. 
1974. Wheat Spindle Streak Virus in Indiana. Plant Dis. Reptr. (in Press) 

3. Ramsdell, D. C, C. W. Laughlin, J. B. Tatter and H. J. Belter. 1973. Straw- 
berry Soil Fumigation for Black Root Rot Control, Michigan State University. 
Plant Disease Report 25:17-18. 

4. Warren, H. L., D. H. Scott and R. L. Nicholson. 1974. Occurrence of Sorghum 
Downy Mildew on Maize in Indiana. Plant Dis. Reptr. 58:430-432. 

5. Wolf, S. C. 1972. Plant Diseases in Indiana in 1972. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

82:101-108. 



Effect of Power Plant Passage on Algal Primary Productivity 

Robert S. Benda, Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506 

John Gulvas, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan 48823 

Thomas Neal, Consumers Power Company, Jackson, Michigan 49201 

Abstract 

The effect of condenser passage on phytoplankton was studied for an 18-month 
period at the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant near Covert, Michigan. 

Fifty-two sets of 14 C samples were collected on 25 separate days. If the samples 
are averaged collectively for the entire study period (using samples showing increases 
and decreases in discharge primary productivity over intake samples), but divided 
up into effects of a heated discharge and a non-heated discharge the average loss for 
the heated discharge was 32.7 percent and the average loss for the non-heated dis- 
charge was 17.9 percent, indicating that mechanical stress caused approximately one- 
half the decrease in primary productivity. 

Introduction 

Carbon 14 tests were conducted to determine the effects on photo- 
synthetic activity of algae exposed to the once-through cooling process 
used at the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant. 

The plant is located in Van Buren County on a 487-acre site on 
the eastern shore of Lake Michigan in the southwestern part of Michi- 
gan. The site is approximately 4Y2 miles south of South Haven and 
16 miles north of Benton Harbor and St. Joseph. 

The Palisades facility, which has a rated capacity of about 700 
megawatts electric (MWe) with an ultimate electrical output up to 
821 MWe, began operations at 60 percent of rated power early in 
1972. The plant utilized a pressurized water nuclear reactor system and 
the steam was condensed by means of a once-through condenser cooling 
system using Lake Michigan water to dissipate the waste heat. The 
waste heat at rated capacity increased the cooling water temperature 
a maximum of 25 °F above ambient at the intake. The intake is sub- 
merged offshore about 3,300 feet at a minimum depth of about 25 
feet. The heated discharge entered Lake Michigan directly at the 
shoreline. The total flow rate through the once-through cooling system 
was about 405,000 gallons per minute (gpm). This system was used 
until completion of mechanical draft evaporative cooling towers in 
early 1974. These towers converted the circulating water system to 
essentially closed cycle cooling with only a small blowdown discharge 
to the lake which is not more than 5°F above ambient lake temperature. 

Methods 

Samples of surface water were collected from the intake bay near 
the plant, and 90 seconds later from the discharge at the shoreline. 
Residence time in the plant was approximately 90 seconds. It was 
assumed the intake and discharge samples represented the same water 
mass, differing only in respect to passage through the plant. 

85 



86 Indiana Academy of Science 

Relative photosynthetic rates were measured with 14 C; following 
in general the light and dark bottle procedure described by Strickland 
and Parsons (6). Each sample set included two light bottles, one 
control bottle, and one dark bottle from the intake and the discharge. 
The dark bottles were wrapped in extra-heavy duty aluminum foil. 
Both sample sets were incubated 4 hours in a glass 20-gallon aquarium 
at intake water temperature after the addition of 2 ml of 14 C solu- 
tion of 2 microcuries strength. All sample bottles were wrapped in 
double layered hardware store nylon screening to eliminate direct 
sunlight inhibition of photosynthesis, and were illuminated in incident 
sunlight. 

After incubation each sample was filtered in a darkened area 
using a HAWP 0.47-/X membrane filter. After filtration the apparatus 
and filter were washed with 50 ml of distilled water to remove any 14 C 
adhering to the cell surfaces. The filters were placed in 1 dram vials, 
dissolved in 5 ml of laboratory grade acetone to break down the filter 
and organic matter and then prepared for counting on a Packard-Bell 
liquid scintillation counter. 

After counting the two light samples, counts were averaged, 
adjusted for background count, and corrected for uptake in the dark 
bottle. A percentage reduction of photosynthetic activity was calculated 
using the following formula as presented by Hamilton, et al. (3). 

_. , :. .. mean of effluent rates . iAA 

% reduction = (1 — _ . , . z ) 100 

mean of intake rates 

Results 

The dominant algal groups observed in the intake water samples 
were primarily diatoms, especially Asterionella formosa, Cyclotella sp., 
Fragillaria crotonensis, Melosira sp., Tabellaria sp., and Diatoma sp. 
Figure 1 and Table I show the results of 52 sets of samples collected 
on 25 separate days from May 24, 1972 to August 27, 1973. When no 
heat was present (17 sets of samples), change in productivity varied 
from a 68.1 percent loss to a 109 percent gain in the discharge samples, 
with an average loss of 35.6 percent (based on 12 samples) and an 
average gain of 35.4 percent (based on 4 samples), with no change in 
one sample. With the introduction of heat, (35 sets of samples) change 
in productivity varied from an 89.3 percent loss to a 76 percent gain 
in the discharge samples, with an average loss of 47.9 percent (based 

Table 1. Summary of Loss or Gain of Photosynthetic Activity. 

Average of All Samples — 27.1 

Average of All Heated Discharge Samples — 32.7 

Average of All Non-heated Discharge Samples — 17.9 

Average of All Samples With Loss of Productivity — 44.2 

Average of All Samples With Gain in Productivity +35.9 

Average of Heated Discharge Samples With Loss of Productivity — 47.9 

Average of Heated Discharge Samples With Gain in Productivity +36.2 

Average of Non-heated Discharge Samples With Loss of Productivity — 35.6 

Average of Non-heated Discharge Samples With Gain in Productivity +35.4 



Botany 



87 



on 28 samples) and an average gain of 36.2 percent (based on 6 
samples) with no change in one sample. If the samples are averaged 
collectively for the entire study period, but divided up into effects of 
a heated discharge and a non-heated discharge the average loss for 
heated was 32.7 percent and the average loss for non-heated was 17.9 
percent, indicating, that mechanical stress caused approximately one- 
half the decrease in primary productivity. 

Figure 1. Loss or gain of photosynthetic activity. 





Intake 
Temp. 


Discharge 
Temp. (°F)T(°F) 


Reduction or Gain in 


Photosynthesis {%) 






Sample Number 






Date 


1 


2 


3 


Average (%) 


5/24/72 


44 


44 





+ 10.0 






+10.0 


6/ 2/72 


56 


56 





—13.4 






—13.4 


6/13/72 


56 


70 


14 


—65.4 






—65.4 


6/15/72 


54 


70 


16 


—47.5 






—47.5 


6/16/72 


58 


72 


14 


+ 0.6 






+ 0.6 


7/14/72 


64 


84 


20 


—34.2 


+ 1-2 


—79.0 


—37.3 


7/21/72 


74 


91 


17 


—52.5 


+ 63.4 




+ 5.5 


8/ 4/72 


45 


61 


17 


—10.9 


—24.6 


—23.1 


—19.5 


8/17/72 


64 


82 


18 


—29.1 






—29.1 


8/23/72 


64 


88 


24 


—88.0 


—55.0 


+36.0 


—35.7 


8/29/72 


70 


70 





—24.0 


—19.0 


+109.0 


+22.0 


9/ 6/72 


66 


82 


16 


+40.0 


—22.0 


+76.0 


—31.3 


9/19/72 


65 


65 





—23.6 






—23.6 


4/18/73 


46 


72 


26 


—65.4 


—53.0 


—15.1 


—44.5 


5/24/73 


50 


50 





—68.1 


—46.6 


0.0 


—38.2 


5/31/73 


49 


60 


11 


—35.6 


—16.1 




—25.9 


6/ 8/73 


62 


87 


25 


—65.9 


—81.0 




—73.5 


6/20/73 


66 


93 


27 


—64.1 


0.0 




—32.1 


6/22/73 


68 


90 


22 


—54.3 






—54.3 


7/ 5/73 


67 


89 


22 


— 5.3 


—18.5 


—82.5 


—35.5 


7/13/73 


62 


86 


24 


—63.6 






—63.6 


8/ 8/73 


75 


100 


25 


—30.6 


—68.6 


—89.3 


—62.8 


8/16/73 


47 


47 





—17.1 


—49.2 


+ 9.4 


—19.0 


8/21/73 


48 


48 





—62.1 


+13.2 


—18.9 


—22.6 


8/27/73 


59 


59 





—17.2 


—67.9 




—42.6 



The results are similar to those of Gurtz and Weiss (2) Hamilton, 
et. al. (3), and Morgan and Stross (4) who also found both inhibition 
and stimulation in primary productivity in comparable work. 

Gurtz and Weiss (2) found that a rather constant inhibition occurred 
for a 10 or 20 °F AT, regardless of the initial temperature, but that 
at AT's of 30 °F successively greater inhibitions occurred with increas- 
ing intake temperatures. Morgan and Stross (4) found that an increase 
in temperature of approximately 14° F stimulated photosynthesis when 
conditions were 61 °F or cooler, and inhibited photosynthesis when 
ambient conditions were 68 °F or warmer. Patrick (5) suggested that 
algae are little damaged if the temperature does not exceed 93 °F, 
and that diatoms are more sensitive than green and blue-green algae, 
which have temperature, growth, and photosynthetic optima of the 
order of 90-95 °F and above 95 °F, respectively. In this study sets of 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

samples taken above AT's of 20 °F showed a 48.3 percent reduction in 
activity. The sets of samples from higher temperatures 85 °F and above 
show percent losses higher than those at lower temperatures and 
smaller AT's. The overall percent reduction coincides with a 32.7 percent 
average loss noted at Waukegan Station (1). 

It seems evident from the data collected in this study and the 
others cited that mechanical stress and heat effect algal primary pro- 
ductivity, but each is related to the ambient conditions and the AT 
of the individual generating plant. The extreme variability in photosyn- 
thetic response to the stresses of entrainment and condenser passage 
indicates that phytoplankton patchiness may be large and thus reduce 
the significance of available data on Lake Michigan. 



Literature Cited 

1. Final Environmental Statement for Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2, 

2. Gurtz, M. E. and C. M. Weiss. 1974. Effect of thermal stress on phytoplankton 
productivity in condenser cooling water. In Thermal Ecology, J. W. Gibbons and 
R. R. Sharitz (eds). AEC Symposium Series (CONF 730505), p. 490-507. 

3. Hamilton, D. H., D. A. Flemer, Carolyn W. Keefe, and J. A. Mihursky. 1970. 
Power Plant Effects of Chlorination on Estaurine Primary Production. Science Vol. 
14, p. 197-190. 

4. Morgan, R. P. and R. G. Stross. 1969. Destruction of phytoplankton in the cooling 
water supply of a steam electric station. Chesapeake Science. Vol. 10, No. 3 & 4, 
p. 165-171. 

5. Patrick, R. 1969. Some effects of temperature on fresh water algae. In Biological 
Aspects of Thermal Pollution (ed. P. A. Krenkel and F. L. Parker), Vanderbilt 
University Press, p. 161-185. 

6. Strickland, J. D. H. and T. R. Parsons. 1968. A Practical Handbook of Seawater 
Analysis, Fish Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 167, 311 pp. 



Chieftain No. 20 Flora (Middle Pennsylvanian) of Vigo County, Indiana 

Roger F. Boneham 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

Abstract 

The Chieftain No. 20 Mine located ten miles south of Terre Haute, Indiana con- 
tains a number of plant fossils usually within ironstone concretions. The concretions 
are mainly located in a shale phase of the Busseron Sandstone immediately above Coal 
VII. 

The Chieftain No. 20 flora has many species in common with the Lower Allegheny 
Mazon Creek flora of Illinois. The floral composition, eg. abundant Annularia stellata, 
Ptychocarpus unitus, pecopterids and absence of sphenopterids as well as the strati- 
graphic position of the Shelburn Formation which contains the Busseron Sandstone 
indicate an Upper Allegheny or lower-most Conemaugh age. 

Introduction 

This is a report on the fossil flora found in the Chieftain No. 20 
mine located ten miles south of Terre Haute, Vigo County, Indiana. 
The Chieftain No. 20 mine is a large strip mine of the Peabody Coal 
Company. Coal mining began in 1956 and ceased in 1968. Two localities 
(A & B) contained many ironstone concretions similar to those reported 
from Mazon Creek, Will County, Illinois. Two other localities (C & D) 
had carbonaceous impressions of plants in shale. (Figure 1). 

Acknowledgment 

I wish to thank Mr. Richard Leary of the Illinois State Museum, 
Dr. Francis M. Hueber of the Smithsonian Institution, and Dr. Eugene 
S. Richardson, Jr. of the Field Museum for their time and assistance 
in allowing me access to the collections of Mazon Creek fossils housed 
in their respective institutions. I also wish to thank Dr. Chester A. 
Arnold of the University of Michigan and Dr. Sergius Mamay of 
the U.S. Geological Survey for their valuable information about 
Upper Pennsylvanian floras. Dr. Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. of the 
Field Museum, identified the arthropods in the Chieftain No. 20 con- 
cretions and Dr. T. Covender of the University of Michigan identified 
the paleoniscid fish. 

To Mr. Merton Young of Michigantown, Indiana I owe especial 
thanks for the donation of his entire collection of Chieftain No. 20 
plants to Indiana University. 

Travel funds for this study were supplied by the Indiana University 
Foundation, Faculty Grant No. 10 440 74. 

Geology 

Most of the ironstone concretions occur in a shale section of the 
Busseron Sandstone Member of the Shelburn Formation immediately 
above Coal VII (Figure 2). The shale is light gray, thickness varying 
from 0-20 feet, minor amounts of rounded, quartz sand grains present, 



90 



Indiana Academy of Science 



fresh samples break into irregular blocks with no apparent bedding 
planes, upon weathering the shale disintegrates to clay. Contains 
abundant ironstone concretions which, in many cases, enclose plant 
fossils of Upper Allegheny-Lower Conemaugh Age, carbonized plant 
fossils also present in pockets of finely laminated, gray shale within the 
blocky shale matrix. 











/ 












J 


TUN 










^\ ''~~^ 1 






TION 












INDIANA 




1 x \\ / ' 












B \ \ \ 








■ Vigo County 






Oregon 


Road 






! V \ ■ 
' \ 1 

| Chieftain No. 20 \ \ 








1 Mine (inactive) \ \ 








*-_^c \ 








RIOW R9W R8W 




1 1 




— 


i 






TI3N 
TI2N 
TUN 


VIGO COUNTY 






•Terre Haute 




/ 


V ^—Q-'-" 










f Ind. 159 


R9W 


R8W ,, 




SAMPLE 






■ 
AREA 

1 ' 


1 2 
| ... i l 


tion( 


Mil PS 



















Figure 1. Map showing collection localities of the Chieftain No. 20 flora. 



Collecting Techniques 

The concretions may be seen in a fresh cut and may be collected 
from the working face of the mine. However, the fresh concretions do 
not fracture along the plane in which a fossil may lie. They break in 
an irregular manner and it is impossible to obtain identifiable fossils. 
A fresh concretion is dull black on a broken surface and has the texture 
of a solid mass of chert. It was necessary to collect the weathered 
concretions from the spoil heaps which had been discarded in previous 
years. It is from these concretions that I obtained good plant specimens. 

After a period of weathering, the concretions become reddish-brown 
in color and may be split along the plane of the enclosed fossil. The 
weathered concretions are composed primarily of quartz sand grains 
(size ca. 2 mm.). Possibly the shale sized particles have been leached 
by the weathering process. 

Approximately 25% of the concretions contained well preserved 
specimens. These are all in the collection which is stored in the Botany 
Department of Indiana University at Bloomington. A small number 



Botany 



91 



of specimens had galena or sphalerite partially filling the void spaces. 
This type of mineral filling totally destroyed the fine details of the 
original fossil and in all cases only the outline was preserved intact. 
Most of the specimens filled by galena or sphalerite were not worth 
keeping. 





Figure 2. 


Pennsylvanian System in Indiana (18). 


Series 


Group 


Formation 


Member 






Matoon 




■s 


g 
o 


Bond 


(Individual members 
not listed.) 


cd 

B 

4) 

c 


co 

C 
c« 
eg 


Patoka 




u 




Shelburn 


West Franklin Ls. 
Pirtle Coal 
Busseron Ss. 


>> 

1 

do 
< 


c 
o 
.a 
u 
a 
O 


Dugger 


Danville Coal (Coal VII) 

Universal Ls. 

Hymera Coal (Coal VI) 

Providence Ls. 

Herrin Coal 

Bucktown Coal (Coal Vb) 

Antioch Ls. 

Alum Cave Ls. 






Petersburg 


(Individual members 






Linton 


not listed.) 






Staunton 






a ** 


Brazil 


(Individual members 
not listed.) 






Mansfield 





Within the shale are pockets of carbonized fossils which may be 
indicative of a former backwash in which plant debris from the sur- 
rounding land accumulated. These pockets are seldom more than six 
inches thick and are usually less than six feet wide. 



Previous Work 

The study of Pennsylvanian age plants of Indiana has had an 
uneven history. There have been long intervals in the last hundred 
years when nothing was published on the Pennsylvanian paleobotany 
of the state. The first mention of fossil plants from Indiana was pub- 
lished in 1843 (15, 16). Indiana plant fossils were not mentioned again 
for over thirty-five years after these brief reports. Lesquereux (10, 11, 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

12) in a series of reports for the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and 
a report (13) for the Indiana Geological Survey lists a number of plants 
from the Indiana coal-bearing formations along with many plants from 
other states. White (20) published a brief paper on some plants from 
the Hindostan Whetstone Beds. 

Jackson (4, 5) published two papers on some Indiana plants. In 
the earlier paper (4) he published lists of fossils from two locations. 
In a later paper (5) he published a revised list of plants from the two 
previous localities and lists from some new localities along with 
descriptions of the plant fossils. 

Benninghoff (2) described a coal ball flora from one mine in 
Indiana. It is noteworthy that although coal balls are present in a num- 
ber of Indiana mines there have been very few studies on the floras 
of these coal balls. 

Canright (3) published an extensive work on plant fossils which 
he collected from 93 localities in Indiana. This study is by far the 
most informative to date on the Pennsylvanian flora of Indiana. 

Wood (22) reported upon a flora contained, primarily, within 
ironstone concretions from Indiana. These ironstone nodules are com- 
mon in certain horizons of the Indiana coal formations but up until 
Wood's paper the floral content of none of these ironstone concretion 
horizons had been adequately studied. 

Comparative Floras 

The Chieftain No. 20 flora is similar to other floras in Canada and 
the United States. Bell (1) in his report on the Sydney coalfield flora 
of Nova Scotia identified two zones — the Linopteris obliqua zone 
(Westphalian C) and the Ptychocarpus unitus zone (Westphalian D 
sensu P. Bertrand). 

The species common to the Chieftain No. 20 flora and both the 
Linopteris obliqua zone and Ptychocarpus zone are nearly identical 
(Figure 3). 

I believe the Chieftain No. 20 flora has a closer relationship to 
the Ptychocarpus unitus zone for the following reasons: Ptychocarpus 
unitus occurs in the Chief ain No. 20 flora; Linopteris obliqua does not 
occur in the Chieftain No. 20 flora; Ptychocarpus unitus and Asterotheca 
miltoni are abundant in both the Chieftain No. 20 flora and Ptychocarpus 
unitus zone and; sphenopterids are absent in the Chieftain No. 20 
flora and are much reduced in number in the Ptychocarpus unitus 
zone as compared to the abundant sphenopterids in the Linopteris 
obliqua zone. 

Bell (1) compared the Ptychocarpus unitus zone with the Staf- 
fordian and Radstockian floras of Great Britain. He concluded that 
the Ptychocarpus unitus zone most closely resembled the Radstockian 
floras. 

Read and Mamay (17) describe a number of floral zones from 
Upper Paleozoic formations of the United States. The Chieftain 
No. 20 flora most closely resembles Zone 10 of Read and Mamay. 
This is the zone of Neuropteris flexuosa and appearance of abundant 



Botany 



93 



Pecopteris spp. They classify Zone 10 as the upper part of the 
Allegheny Formation and lower part of the Conemaugh Formation 
in the Appalachian region. Read and Mamay (17) state: 

"Zone 10, therefore, is best referred to as the zone of appear- 
ance of abundant species of Pecopteris and can be determined 
on the basis of this genus only by noting the floral succession in 
older strata in any sequence of rocks under investigation." 

Figure 3. Species common to the Chieftain No. 20 flora and other floras. 





Bell 


(1) 




Wood (22) 










Linopteris 


Ptychocarpus 


Stewart (19) 


Stanley 


Chieftain No. 20 Flora 


obliqua zone 


unitus zone 


Mazon Creek 


Cemetery 


Lepidodendron obovatum 






X 


X 


Lepidophyllum longifolium 






X 




Lepidostrobophyllum ovatifolius 








X 


Sigillaria monostigma 






X 




S. cf. S. mamillaris 




X 






Catamites suckowii 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Asterophyllites equisetiformis 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Annularia stellata 


X 


X 


X 


X 


A. radiata 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Sphenophyllum emarginatum 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Asterotheca miltoni 


X 


X 


X 




A. oreopteridia 






X 


X 


A. hemitelioides 






X 




Pecopteris squamosa 






X 




P. clintoni 








X 


Ptychocarpus unitus 




X 


X 




Palmatopteris furcata 






X 


X 


? Dicksonites pluckeneti 




X 


X 




Senftenbergia pennaeformis 


X 




X 




1 Crossotheca sagittata 






X 




Odontopteris cf. O. subcuneata 


X 


X 




X 


Aphlebia sp. 






X 




Neuropteris cf. N. heterophylla 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N.- fimbriata 






X 




N. scheuchzeri 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. flexuosa 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. rarinervis 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Mariopteris nervosa 


X 


X 






M. muricata 






X 




Cyclopteris trichomanoides 






X 




Cordaites cf. C. borassifolius 








X 


Codonotheca caduca 






X 





The preceding quote appears to say that an isolated flora of upper 
Allegheny or Lower Conemaugh age cannot be precisely dated. Dr. 
Mamay (personal communication, 1967) explained to me that Zone 10 
is difficult to identify for the reason that it is a transitorial phase and 
there are few if any guide fossils which occur exclusively in the 



I believe the Chieftain No. 20 flora falls within the definition of 
Read and Mamay's Zone 10 for the following reasons: Neuropteris 



94 Indiana Academy of Science 

flexuosa is present in the Chieftain No. 20 flora, Read and Mamay 
(17) note that N. flexuosa rarely occurs in strata younger than Zone 
10 and; approximately one-quarter of the identified specimens from the 
Chieftain No. 20 flora are pecopterids. 

The Mazon Creek flora of Will County, Illinois contains ironstone 
concretions similar to those found in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. These 
two floras contain a large number of common species (Figure 3). 
The Mazon Creek flora was studied by Noe (14), Janssen (6, 7), 
Stewart (19), and Langford (8, 9). 

Stewart (19) reported the species in the Carr and Daniels col- 
lections from Mazon Creek. Fortunately he also listed the number of 
specimens of each species in the collections. Noe (14), Janssen (6, 7), 
Stewart (19), and Langford (8, 9) all reported on the concretions 
found in the spoil banks of the coal mines from the area. These 
concretions are from the Francis Creek Shale just above No. 2 Coal 
of the Lower Carbondale Group (19). 

In the Mazon Creek flora reported by Stewart (19), there are 1039 
neuropterid specimens (ca. 27% of the flora), 1764 pecopterid speci- 
mens (ca. 44% of the flora), and 71 sphenoterid specimens (ca. 2% 
of the flora). Clearly the flora was dominated by neuropterids and 
pecopterids which comprise approximately 70% of the specimens. Just 
as clearly, the sphenopterids were much reduced in number. 

The percentage of neuropterid specimens may not indicate their 
true percentage in the flora. There are 898 specimens of Neuropteris 
scheuchzeri in the collection but this large number is chiefly detached 
pinnules and does not necessarily indicate an overabundance of N. 
scheuchzeri in the living flora. 

There are a number of common species between the Chieftain No. 20 
flora and Wood's (22) Stanley Cemetery flora (Figure 3). Such might 
be expected since both floras are in the same basin of deposition and 
not too distantly separated in age. Wood (22) assigned the Stanley 
Cemetery flora as Upper Pottsville on the basis of its floral composi- 
tion. There is no doubt that the Chieftain No. 20 flora is younger 
than the Stanley Cemetery flora. For example, there are many more 
specimens of Annularia stellata than A. radiata; Ptychocarpus unitas 
is abundant; and the sphenopterids are absent. 

Plants of the Chieftain No. 20 Flora 

LEPIDODENDRALES 
Lepidodendron obovatum Sternberg 
Lepidophloios cf. L. laricinus Sternberg 
Lepidophyllum longifolium, Brongniart 
Lepidostrobophyllum cf. L. princeps (Lesquereux) Hirmer 
L. ovatifolius (Lesquereux) Hirmer 
L. affine (Lesquereux) Hirmer 
Bothrodendron minutifolium Boulay 
Sigillaria monostigma Lesquereux 
S. cf. S. mamillaris Brongniart 
Stigmaria ficoides Sternberg 



Botany 95 

CALAMITALES 

Catamites suckowii Brongniart 

Asterophyllites equisetiformis (Schlotheim) Brogniart 

Annularia stellata (Schlotheim) Wood 

A. radiata (Brongniart) Sternberg 

Macrostachya sp. 

SPHENOPHYLLALES 
Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongniart 
Sphenophyllostachys sp. 

PTEROPHYTA AND PTERIDOSPERMALES 

Asterotheca miltoni Artis 

A. oreopteridia (Schlotheim) Kidston 

A. hemitelioides Brongniart 

Pecopteris squamosa Lesquereux 

P. cisti Brongniart 

P. clintoni Lesquereux 

Ptychocarpus unitus (Brongniart) Weiss 

Palmatopteris furcata (Brongniart) Potonie 

Wicksonites pluckeneti Schlotheim 

Senftenbergia pennaef ormis Brongniart 

ICrossotheca sagittata (Lesquereux) Zeiller 

Codonotheca caduca Sellards 

Codonothecat sp. 

Odontopteris cf. O. subcuneata Bunbury 

Aphlebia sp. 

Neuropteris cf. N. heterophylla Brongniart 

N. fimbriata Lesquereux 

N. scheuchzeri Hoffmann 

N. flexuosa Sternberg 

N. rarinervis Bunbury 

N. violetta Langford 

IMixoneura jenneyi D. White 

Linopterisl sp. 

Mariopteris nervosa (Brongniart) Zeiller 

M.muricata (Schlotheim) Zeiller 

Cyclopteris trichomanoides Sternberg 

CORDAITALES 

Cordaites cf. C. borassifolius (Sternberg) Unger 

Animals in the Chieftain No. 20 Mine 
ARTHROPODS 
CHELICERATA 
Eur oops danae (Meek and Worthen) 

CRUSTACEA 
Acanthotelson cf. A. stimpsoni Meek and Worthen 
Palaeocaris cf. P. typus Meek and Worthen 



96 Indiana Academy of Science 

INSECTA 



undertermined insect 



Elonichthys hypsilepis Hay 



CORDATE 
PISCES 



Conclusions 

The Chieftain No. 20 flora resembles the Lower Allegheny Mazon 
Creek flora; the Ptychocarpus unitus zone of Bell (1) which he though 
resembled the Radstockian flora of Great Britain; and Zone 10 of Read 
and Mamay (17) which they placed as Upper Allegheny and Lower 
Conemaugh. 

This flora clearly presents a problem as to its exact age. I believe 
it is Upper Allegheny Age for the following reasons: 1. The Chieftain 
No. 20 flora and the Mazon Creek flora have many common species. 
Therefore it is likely that both floras must have existed at similar 
times. The number of common species in these two floras is so great 
that if their stratigraphic relationship was not so well known I would 
consider the two floras as contemporaneous. 2. Both the Mazon Creek 
and the Chieftain No. 20 floras are in the same basin of deposition 
(Eastern Interior Coal Basin). It is likely that they represent two 
evolving floras subjected to similar environmental conditions. The near- 
est comparable floras are in eastern Canada and Great Britain. A 
comparison of the Chieftain No. 20 flora with floras of a thousand 
and more miles distance can only give speculative results. Undoubtedly 
the climatic conditions varied in such widely separated areas and the 
extent of plant migration between the Canadian and American floras 
is unknown. 

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 

Kingdom Plantae 
Division Tracheophyta 
Subdivision Lycopsida 
Order Lepidodendrales 

Lepidodendron obovatum Sternberg 
Plate 1 Figure 1 

Remarks. — Specimens of Lepidodendron are rare in the Chieftain 
No. 20 flora. There are only two specimens of L. obovatum Sternberg 
in this collection. The length of the leaf cushions is less than twice 
their width. Their ends are obtusely terminated. The leaf cushions of 
the specimens I have observed have no transverse wrinkles on the 
lower keel as in L. aculeatum Sternberg. 

Lepidophloios cf. L. laricinus Sternberg 

Plate 1 Figure 2 

Remarks. — This genus is uncommon in Chieftain No. 20 flora. 

The width of the leaf cushions is two to three times greater than 

their height. The leaf scars of the Chieftain No. 20 specimens are at 

the top of the leaf cushions. 



Botany 97 

Lepidophyllum longifolium Brongniart 

Plate 1 Figure 6 

Remarks. — This species is relatively common in the Chieftain No. 20 

flora. Complete specimens are very rare but partial ones are easily 

identified. The blades are narrow, ca. V2 cm., in relation to their 

reported length, ca. V2 m. 

Lepidostrobophyllum cf. L. princeps (Lesquereux) Hirmer 
Plate 1 Figure 3 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
specimens are recognized by their lanceolate outline and relatively broad 
midrib. 

Lepidostrobophyllum ovatifolius (Lesquereux) Hirmer 

Plate 1 Figure 5 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 

specimens are small, length ca. 1 cm. and the basal portions are 

nearly parallel. The sporophyll does not really begin to taper toward 

the apex in its lower half. 

Lepidostrobophyllum affine (Lesquereux) Hirmer 
Plate 1 Figure 4 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
specimens are about 4 cm long with parallel margins for about three- 
fourths of their length. In the final quarter, they taper to a blunt 
apex. 

Bothrodendron minutifolium Boulay 
Plate 1 Figure 7 

Remarks. — Few specimens of this genus are present in the Chief- 
tain No. 20 flora. Both Bothrodendron minutifolium Boulay, and 
Lycopodites meekii Lesquereux are identified in the Pennsylvanian of 
America. They probably are identical plants. Both were herbaceous 
lycopods with no diagnostic characters yet recognized that may be used 
to separate them. Since B. minutifolium Boulay is the older name I 
have used it in this report. 

Sigillaria monostigma Lesquereux 

Plate 1 Figure 9 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the collection. I 

have studied Lesquereux's type specimen of Sigillaria monostigma in 

the collection of the U.S. National Museum and it agrees in every 

detail with the specimen from the Chieftain No. .20 mine. 

Sigillaria cf . 5. mamillaris Brongniart 

Plate 2 Figure 1 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the collection. The 

specimen has a portion of the outer bark preserved as a carbonized 

compression. Sigillaria and Lepidodendron specimens are uncommon in 

the Chieftain No. 20 flora. However, this rarity may only be due to the 



98 



Indiana Academy of Science 









Plate 1. 



Botany 99 

fact that most of the material which I found was in the ironstone 
concretions, an unlikely source of tree-sized material. In the shales, 
I have seen slabs of bark from both these genera but they were only 
impressions and could not be collected without destroying them. 

Stigmaria ficoides Sternberg 
Plate 1 Figure 8 

Remarks. — One specimen of this genus is in the collection. I have 
referred the specimen to this species because it has priority over all 
other species. Since this genus denotes roots, a very conservative 
organ, it seems unlikely that the various species have much botanical 
or stratigraphic value. 

Subdivision Sphenopsida 

Order Calamitales 

Calamites suckowii Brongiart 

Plate 2 Figure 2 

Remarks. — One specimen of this genus is in the collection. It is a 

pith cast of the lower part of a branch. 

Asterophyllites equisetiformis (Schlotheim) Brongniart 
Plate 2 Figure 4 

Remarks. — This species is relatively common in the ironstone con- 
cretions of the Chieftain No. 20 flora. Since this is the only species of 
Asterophyllites in the flora it is easily recognized by its long, needle- 
like leaves which are usually as long as, or slightly longer than, the 
distance between nodes. 

Annularia stellata (Schlotheim) Wood 

Plate 2 Figure 5 

Remarks. — Specimens of this species are common in the Chieftain 

No. 20 flora. The variation in leaf size is pronounced. But since all have 

the spatulate leaf form characteristic of the species the size difference 

is probably attributable to growth stages or position on the branch. 

Annularia radiat a (Brongniart) Sternberg 
Plate 2 Figure 6 

Remarks. — This species is fairly rare in the Chieftain No. 20 
flora. The specimens of Annularia radiata (Brongniart) may be 



Figure 

1. Lepidodendron obovatum Sternberg IUPB 11908 

2. Lepidophloios cf. L. laricinus Sternburg IUPB 11993 

3. Lepido8trobophyllum cf. L. princeps (Lesquereux) Hirmer IUPB 12084 

4. Lepidostrobophyllum affine (Lesquereux) Hirmer IUPB 12058 

5. Lepidoatrobophyllum ovatifolius (Lesquereux) Hirmer IUPB 12051 

6. Lepidophyllum longifolium Brongniart IUPB 12079 

7. Bothrodendron minuti folium Boulay IUPB 12081 

8. Stigmaria ficoides Sternberg IUPB 12041 

9. Sigillaria monostigma Lesquereux IUB 12043 



100 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Plate 2. 



Botany 101 

readily separated from those of A. stellata (Schlotheim). In the 
Chieftain No. 20 flora, the A. radiata (Brongniart) specimens have 
the sharply tapering tips ascribed to the species. Wood (22) in his 
study of ironstone concretions from Indiana noted that A. radiata 
(Brongniart) was much more common than A. stellata (Schlotheim). 
This is the opposite of the Upper Allegheny Chieftain No. 20 flora. 

Macrostachya sp. 
Plate 3 Figure 1 

Remarks. — One specimen of this genus was found in the Chieftain 
No. 20 flora. It is incomplete but easily recognized by its large size 
as compared to other calamite fructifications. 

Order Sphenophyllales 

Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongniart 

Plate 3 Figure 2 

Remarks. — This species is common in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. 

It is easily recognized since it is the only species of Sphenophyllum 

present. The leaves have rounded serrations characteristic of S. 

emarginatum Brongniart rather than the pointed serrations of S. 

cuneifolium (Sternberg) Zeiller. In this flora the leaves of this species 

are often slightly cleft at midmargin. 

Sphenophyllostachys (?) sp. 
Plate 2 Figure 3 

Remarks. — I found two specimens of this genus in the Chieftain 
No. 20 flora. Both are poorly preserved, only their outline is discernible. 
Possibly they are fructifications of Sphenophyllum emarginatum 
Brongniart since S. emarginatum Brongniart is the only sphenopsid 
found thus far in the flora, and the leaves attached to the cones appear 
to be those of <S. emarginatum Brongniart. Until better preserved 
material is available I prefer to questionably assign the fructifications 
to the genus Sphenophyllostachys (?). 

Orders Pterophyta and Pteridospermales 

Aster otheca miltoni Artis 

Plate 3 Figure 3 

Remarks. — This is one of the most common species in the Chieftain 

No. 20 flora. On some of the specimens, pinnules of Asterotheca miltoni 



FlOURE 

1. Sigillaria cf. S. mamillaris Brongniart IUPB 12037 

2. Catamites suckowii Brongniart IUPB 12046 

3. Sphenophyllostachys ? sp. IUPB 12055 

4. Asterophyllites equisetif ormis (Schlotheim) Brongniart IUPB 12056 

5. Annularia stellata (Schlotheim) Wood IUPB 12075 

6. Annularia radiata (Brongniart) Sternberg IUPB 12095 

7. Cyclopteris trichomanoidcs Sternberg IUPB 12053 

8. Linopteris ? sp. IUPB 12067 



102 



Indiana Academy of Science 











in 



Si 



nIhN 



iliilf 




Mt- 






■ 



Plate 3. 



Botany 103 

Artis and pinnules of what appears to be Pecopteris vestita Lesquereux 
are attached to the same rachis. It seems likely that these two species 
with identical venation patterns are different leaf forms of a single 
species. Since A. miltoni Artis is the older taxon I have used it in 
this paper. The venation of this species is not constant, generally the 
veinlet forks once after leaving the midrib and only the upper form 
divides again near the margin. However, in some specimens the lower 
fork will also divide near the margin. 

Asterotheca oreopteridia (Schlotheim) Kidston 
Plate 3 Figure 5 

Remarks. — This species is fairly common in the Chieftain No. 20 
flora. The veinlets fork only once after leaving the midrib. The out- 
line of this species is similar to that of Asterotheca miltoni Artis. 
Indeed, when the venation pattern of the pinnules is obscured, the two 
species cannot be separated. 

Asterotheca hemitelioides Brongniart 
Plate 3 Figure 4 

Remarks. — This species is fairly common in the Chieftain No. 20 
flora. The pinnules are relatively long for this genus and have a 
blunt apex. The venation is distinctive. The veinlets are quite broad 
and do not fork after leaving the midrib. In this flora, a high per- 
centage of the specimens have veinlets filled with a white material 
which is probably one of the clay group minerals. 

Pecopteris clintoni Lesquereux 

Plate 3 Figure 8 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 

venation of this species is the same as Pecopteris cisti Brongniart. 

However the pinnules of P. clintoni Lesquereux are about twice as 

long as broad. 

Pecopteris cisti Brongniart 
Plate 3 Figure 6 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
distinguishing character of this species is the pinnules which are 
only slightly longer than they are broad. The pinnules are broadly 
ovate with the widest portion near their midmargin. Each veinlet forks 
once near the midrib and each fork divides again near the margin. 



Figure 

1. Macrostachya sp. IUPB 11953 

2. Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongniart IUPB 12068 

3. Asterotheca miltoni Artis IUPB 12094 

4. Asterotheca hemitelioides Brongniart IUPB 12087 

5. Asterotheca oreopteridia (Schlotheim) Kidston IUPB 12057 

6. Pecopteris cisti Brongniart IUPB 12088 

7. fDicksonites pluckeneti Schlotheim IUPB 12086 

8. Pecopteris clintoni Lesquereux IUPB 11976 



104 



Indiana Academy of Science 




■ ' .'\ "■ " '■■' ; - ■■■'■i 




■■ ■■I ^ I ■ ^'~o-" m 
: ill 1M HHHhHHM«3 



' /, "li"* 3 



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■ 






wsmmm 




Plate 4. 



Botany 105 

Pecopteris squamosa Lesquereux 
Plate 4 Figure 1 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. 
The specimens have a thick rachis which is more or less covered by 
small scales. The pinnae which branch from the rachis are long and 
thin with numerous small pinnules. The pinnules have a midrib but 
usually have no veinlets. The feather-like appearance of the specimens 
make this species an easy one to recognize. 

Ptychocarpus unitus (Brongniart) Weiss 
Plate 4 Figure 3 

Remarks. — This is one of the most common species in the Chieftain 
No. 20 flora. All of the specimens, except two, are sterile forms. The 
pinnules of this species may be united only near their base or the 
union may extend somewhat past their midmargins. The sterile leaf- 
lets have two venation patterns. In those pinnules which are united 
near their base, the veinlets are simple and leave the midrib opposite 
each other. In the pinnules which are united near their midmargins or 
beyond, the simple veinlets emerge alternately from the midvein and 
arch concavely to the upper margin. 

The pinnules of both the fertile specimens have concave-arched, 
simple veinlets. The illustrated specimen (Plate 4 Figure 3) does not 
have sori on every pinnule. Possibly it is an immature form. 

P alma top teris furcata (Brongniart) Potonie 
Plate 4 Figure 4 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
specimens have deeply dissected pinnules which contribute to the pal- 
mate outline of the species. The midrib of each pinnule is prominent. It 
forks several times and a number of veinlets emerge from the midrib 
to extend the entire length of each pinnule segment. The segments 
have acutely pointed tips. Janssen (6), Stewart (19) and Langford 
(8) report the occurrence of Diplothemema furcatum (Brongniart) 
Stur in collections from Mazon Creek. I agree with White's discussion 
of Potonie's use of Palmatopteris for certain species formerly placed 
in the genus Diplothmema (21, p. 93-94) and so feel that D. furcatum 
(Brongniart) Stur should be dropped in favor of Palmatopteris furcata 
(Brongniart) Potonie. 



Figure 

1. Pecopteris squamosa Lesquereux IUPB 12074 

2. Senftenbergia pennaeformis Brongniart IUPB 12073 

3. Ptychocarpus unitus (Brongniart) Weiss IUPB 12090 

4. Palmatopteris furcata (Brongniart) Potonie IUPB 12085 

5. Aphleba sp. IUPB 12092 

6. Odontopteris cf. O. subcuneata Bunbury IUPB 12031 

7. ?Codonotheca sp. IUPB 12049 



106 



Indiana Academy of Science 














™ttl 



IfjIllSJfe 

4 



H? 



Plate 5. 



Botany 107 

? Dicksonites phickeneti Schlotheim 
Plate 3 Figure 7 

Remarks. — One incomplete specimen of what appears to be Dick- 
sonites pluckeneti Schlotheim is present in the collection of the Chief- 
tain No. 20 flora. The pinnules are nearly equal in length and width 
with a rounded apex. Each pinnule has a distinct midrib from which 
a number of simple veinlets depart and continue to the margin. The 
identification of this specimen must be considered tentative at this time. 

Senftenbergia pennaeformis Brongniart 
Plate 4 Figure 2 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the collection of 
the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The pinnules have a triangular shape but 
are longer than those reported for Dactylotheca plumosa (Artis) 
Zeiller whose outline Senftenbergia pennaeformis Brongniart otherwise 
resembles. The venation pattern is of two types. In some pinnules, 
simple veinlets branch from the midrib. In other pinnules, the veinlets 
fork once as they approach the margin. 

ICrossotheca sagittata (Lesquereux) Zeiller 
Plate 6 Figure 6 

Remarks. — One small specimen of this species is present in the 
material from the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The specimen appears to be 
the top of an immature pinna. The pinnules are quite small and were 
it not for the fact that Crossotheca sagittata (Lesquereux) has such 
a characteristic form I would not have attempted to tentatively name 
this specimen. 

Odontopteris cf. O. subcuneata Bunbury 
Plate 4 Figure 6 

Remarks. — One specimen of what appears to be Odontopteris 
subcuneata Bunbury is in the Chieftain No. 20 collection. The speci- 
men is not complete but it agrees in all respects with a specimen in 
the U.S. National Museum identified by Lesquereux as O. subcuneata 
Bunbury. 

Aphleba sp. 

Plate 4 Figure 5 

Remarks. — I found two specimens of this genus in the Chieftain 

No. 20 flora. Both are fragments preserved in ironstone concretions. It 

is not possible to identify either of these specimens to species since 

they are incomplete. 



Figure 

1. Neuropteris cf. N. heterophylla Brongniart IUPB 12077 

2. Neuropteris fimbriata Lesquereux IUPB 12076 

3. Neuropteris violetta Langford IUPB 12014 

4. Neuropteris flexuosa Sternberg IUPB 12089 

5. Neuropteris scheuchzeri Hoffman IUPB 12070 



108 



Indiana Academy of Science 










,; yv 



11 




Plate 6. 



Botany 109 

Neuropteris cf. N. heterophylla Brongniart 
Plate 5 Figure 1 

Remarks. — One specimen, broken into several parts, is present in 
the Chieftain No. 20 collection. The specimen is not sufficiently complete 
for certain identification. 

Neuropteris fimbriata Lesquereux 
Plate 5 Figure 2 

Remarks. — One specimen of Neuropteris fimbriata Lesquereux is 
present in the Chieftain No. 20 collection. This species is easily 
identified by the fringed margins of the pinnules. 

Neuropteris scheuchzeri Hoffmann 
Plate 5 Figure 5 

Remarks. — This is the most common neuropterid species in the Chief- 
tain No. 20 flora. It is quite possible that the large number of specimens 
in the collection may not be indicative of the percentage of individual 
plants in the living flora since there is only one pinnule in each con- 
cretion. If the size of pinnules are a true indication of the size of the 
rachis then Neuropteris scheuchzeri Hoffmann must have been a large 
plant with many pinnules per frond. These pinnules must have been 
easily detached and some were preserved in ironstone concretions. 

Neuropteris Flexuosa Sternberg 
Plate 5 Figure 4 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
Chieftain No. 20 flora most closely resembles Zone 10 of Read and 
Mamay (17) in that there are many pecopterid species present. How- 
ever they also say that Neuropteris flexuosa Sternberg is abundant in 
Zone 10. This is not the case in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. Apparently 
A 7 , flexuosa Sternberg was a minor element in this flora. 

Neuropteris rarinervis Bunbury 
Plate 6 Figure 1 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
venation of this species is so distinctive that one is not likely to 



Figure 

1. Neuropteris rarinervis Bunbury IUPB 12065 

2. Mariopteris nervosa (Brongniart) Zeiller IUPB 12059 

3. Codonotheca caduca Sellards IUPB 12063 

4. Cordaites cf. C. borassifolius (Sternberg) Unger IUPB 12078 

5. Mariopteris muricata (Schlotheim) Zeiller IUPB 12121 

6. fCrossotheca sagittata (Lesquereux) Zeiller IUPB 12062 

7. fMixoneura jenneyi D. White IUPB 12069 

8. Acanthotelson cf. A. stimpsoni Meek and Worthen IUPB 12080 

9. Palaeocaris cf. P. typus Meek and Worthen IUPB 12082 

10. Euproops danae (Meek and Worthen) IUPB 12071 

11. Palaeodictyoptera IUPB 12064 

12. Eloniehthys hypsilepis Hay personal collection of D. Barkley 



110 Indiana Academy of Science 

confuse Neuropteris rarinervis Bunbury with any other neuropterid 
species. 

Neuropteris violetta Lang-ford 
Plate 5 Figure 3 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the Chieftain No. 20 
collection. As in the other Neuropteris species, the pinna is attached 
to the rachis by a narrow stem. The pinna is composed of a pair of 
small, rounded to ovate pinnules near the rachis and a relatively large 
tapering terminal pinnule. The venation of the pinnules forks two or 
occasionally three times and meets the leaf margin at an acute angle. 
This species bears a superficial likeness to Neuropteris scheuchzeri 
Hoffmann. However, the terminal pinnule is not as long as that of 
N. scheuchzeri Hoffmann and N. violetta Langford is not hirsute. 

? Mixoneura jenneyi D. White 
Plate 6 Figure 7 

Remarks. — One specimen of this genus is present in the Chieftain 
No. 20 collection. The pinnules are attached to the rachis by their entire 
lower margin and have a mariopterid type of venation. That is the 
veinlets branch from the bundle of veinlets which resembles a midrib 
and also directly from the rachis. 

Linopteris ? sp. 

Plate 2 Figure 8 

Remarks. — This genus is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. A 

few isolated pinnules appear to have anastomosing veinlets over the 

entire surface. The preservation is poor so that I can only assign 

these specimens questionably to the genus Linopteris. 

Mariopteris nervosa (Brongniart) Zeiller 
Plate 6 Figure 2 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
pinnules have a triangular outline, are attached to the rachis by their 
entire lower margin and some are united near their bases. Each pin- 
nule has a distinct midrib from which veinlets branch and may or may 
not fork once before reaching the leaf margin. The margins are entire. 

Mariopteris muricata (Schlotheim) Zeiller 
Plate 6 Figure 5 

Remarks. — This species is rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. The 
pinnules are dentate, are attached to the rachis by their entire lower 
margin and are united near their base. One veinlet enters each 
dentation of the pinnule from the midrib. The venation pattern and 
dentate leaf margin separates Mariopteris muricata (Schlotheim) 
from M. nervosa (Brongniart). 

Cyclopteris trichomanoides Sternberg 
Plate 2 Figure 7 

Remarks. — This genus is fairly rare in the Chieftain No. 20 
flora. A number of species have been assigned to Cyclopteris but few 



Botany 111 

of the iolated specimens are assignable to a given species of Neurop- 
teris. The various cyclopterid species have little, if any, stratigraphic 
value and probably no taxonomic value. It is even possible that more 
than one form species of Cyclopteris may have grown on a single species 
of Neuropteris. Since C. trichomanoides Sternberg has priority over 
all other cyclopterid species, I have used this name exclusively. 

Codonotheca caduca Sellards 
Plate 6 Figure 3 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the Chieftain No. 20 
collection. It has the characteristically united sporangia but, unfor- 
tunately, there are no pollen grains on or surrounding the specimen. Also, 
the cup portion is missing. 

? Codonotheca sp. 
Plate 4 Figure 7 

Remarks. — These specimens are rare in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. 
They appear to be united sporangia of the Codonotheca-type. The 
sporangia ( ? ) are tubular rather than flattened by compression. They 
are not attached to a cup-like portion and may never have been. I 
have questionably assigned them to the genus Codonotheca. 

Class Coniferophyta 
Order Cordaitales 
Cordaites cf. C. borassifolius (Sternberg) Unger 
Plate 6 Figure 4 

Remarks. — Numerous fragments of Cordaites leaves are present 
in the Chieftain No. 20 flora. For the most part, these fragments are 
not well preserved. One specimen has the outline of the leaf tip pre- 
served. The specimen appears to be Cordaites borassifolius Stern- 
berg, but since the venation is partially obscured I cannot be 
positive of the identification. 

Kingdom Animalia 

Phylum Arthropoda 

Subphylum Chelicerata 

Order Limulida 

Euproops danae (Meek and Worthen) 

Plate 6 Figure 10 

Remarks. — Two specimens of this species are in the Chieftain No. 

20 collection. They were given to me by Mr. Daniel Barkley of Terre 

Haute, Indiana. The figured specimen is the better of the two. It 

shows the wide head-shield, the curving post-ophthalmic ridges and 

the fringed, body outline. Unfortunately the telson is missing. 

Subphylum Crustacea 

Class Malacostraca 

Subclass Syncarida 

Acanthotelson cf. A. stimpso7ii Meek and Worthen 

Plate 6 Figure 8 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species is in the Chieftain No. 20 
collection. The specimen has only three spines in its tail, the middle 
one is the telson, whereas Acanthotelson stimpsoni Meek and Worthen 
has five spines. Possibly this specimen lost two of its spines. All of the 
thoracic segments visible are equal in length. 

Palaeocaris cf . P. typus Meek and Worthen 
Plate 6 Figure 9 

Remarks. — This species is the most common animal in the Chieftain 
No. 20 collection. The tail of Palaeocaris typus Meek and Worthen is in 
five parts. A broad telson is flanked by two pair of equally broad 
uropods. Unfortunately none of the specimens have well preserved tail 
sections. P. typus Meek and Worthen sometimes has an enlarged sixth 
thoracic segment. Nearly all of the Chieftain No. 20 specimens have 
such an enlarged sixth thoracic segment. 

Subphylum Insecta 

Order Palaeodictyoptera 

Plate 6 Figure 11 

Remarks. — One of the concretions in the Chieftain No. 20 collection 

contains part of an insect wing. The wing fragment shows large 

branching veins with a fine network of smaller veins. Dr. E. S. 

Richardson, Jr. has identified this specimen but does not feel justified 

in naming it below the level of order due to its incomplete form. 

Phylum Cordata 
Class Pisces 
Order Crossopterygii 
Family Palaeoniscidae 
Elonichthys hypsilepis Hay 
Plate 6 Figure 12 

Remarks. — One specimen of this species was found at the Chief- 
tain No. 20 mine by Mr. Daniel Barkley of Terre Haute, Indiana. It 
is in his personal collection. Dr. T. Covender identified this specimen. 

Plates 1-6 
Magnification of all figures is xl. All the specimens, with one 
exception, are in the Indiana University Paleobotany Collection (IUPB) 
stored at the Department of Botany. The one exception is Elonichthys 
hypsilepis Hay which is in the personal collection of Mr. Daniel Bark- 
ley, R. R. 24, Terre Haute, Indiana. 



Botany 113 

Literature Cited 

Bell, W. A. 1938. Fossil flora of Sydney coalfield Nova Scotia. Canada Geol. Surv. 
Mem. 215. 334 p. 

Benninghoff, W. S. 1943. Preliminary report on a coal ball flora from Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 52:62-68. 

Canright, J. E. 1959. Fossil plants of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Cons., Geol. Surv. 
Rept. of Progress' 14. 45 p. 

Jackson, T. F. 1915. The paleobotany of the Bloomington, Ind. quadrangle. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 24:395-398. 

— -. 1917. The description and stratigraphic relationships of fossil plants 

from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks of Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 26:405-428. 

Janssen, R. E. 1939. Leaves and stems from fossil forests. Illinois State Mus. Pop. 
Sci. Ser. 1. 190 p. 

. 1940. Some fossil plant types of Illinois. Illinois State Mus. Sci. 

Papers I. 124 p. 

Langford, G. 1958. The Wilmington coal flora from a Pennsylvanian deposit in 
Will County, Illinois. Esconi Assoc, Downers Grove, 111. 360 p. 

. 1963. The Wilmington coal fauna and additions to the Wilmington 



coal flora from a Pennsylvanian deposit in Will County, Illinois. Esconi Assoc, 
Downers Grove, 111. 280 p. 

10. LESQUEREUX, L. 1879. Atlas to the coal flora of Pennsylvania and of the Carboni- 
ferous formation throughout the United States. Pennsylvania 2nd Geol. Surv. Rept. 
of Progress P. 86 pis. 

11. . 1880. Description of the coal flora of the Carboniferous formation in 

Pennsylvania and throughout the United States, Pennsylvania 2nd Geol. Surv. 
Rept. of Progress P, 1 and 2:1-694. 

12. . 1884a. Description of the coal flora of the Carboniferous formation 

in Pennsylvania and throughout the United States. Pennsylvania 2nd Geol. Surv. 
Rept. of Progress P. 3:695-977. 

13. . 1884b. Principles of Paleozoic botany. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Nat. 

History, Ann. Rept. 13:6-106. 

14. Noe, A. C. 1925. Pennsylvania flora of northern Illinois. Illinois Geol. Surv. 
Bull, 52. 113 p. 

15. Owen, D. D. 1843a. Fossil palm trees found in Posey County, Indiana. Am. J. Sci. 
45:336-337. 

16. . 1843b. On some fossil trees from New Harmony, Ind. Proc Philadel- 
phia Acad. Nat. Sci. 1:270-271. 

17. Read, C. B. and S. H. Mamay. 1964. Upper Paleozoic floral zones and boral 
provinces of the United States. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 454-K. 1-35. 

18. Shaver, R. H., A. M. Burger, G. R. Gates, H. H. Gray, H. C. Hutchinson, S. J. 
Keller, J. B. Patton, C. B. Rexroad, N. M. Smith, W. J. Wayne and C. E. Wier. 
1970. Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 
43. 229 p. 

19. Stewart, W. N. 1950. Report on the Can* and Daniels collections of fossil plants 
from Mazon Creek. Illinois Acad. Sci. Trans. 43:41-45. 

20 White, D. 1896. Report on the fossil plants from the Hindostan Whetstone Beds 
in Orange County, Indiana. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Nat. Res., Ann. Rept. 20:354- 
355. 

21. . 1943. Lower Pennsylvania species of Mariopteris, Eremoptcris, Diplo- 

thmema, and Ancimitcs from the Appalachian region. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. 
Paper 197-C :85-140. 

22. WOOD, J. M. 1963. The Stanley Cemetery flora (Early Pennsylvanian) of Greene 
County, Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 29. 73 p. 



Stump Casts of Arborescent Lycopods 

David L. Dilcher and Raymond N. Pheifer 

Department of Plant Science and Department of Geology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Stump casts of arborescent Lycopsida, Sigillaria and Lepidodendron were exposed 
recently in strip mining operations in western Indiana. These stumps were found in 
place in the high wall of a mine in a shale unit above the Springfield Coal (Coal V). 
This report is a brief account of these lycopod stump casts. 

Introduction 

During the spring of 1971 the paleobotany class from Indiana 
University discovered several casts of stumps standing upright and 
in place where they grew. The stumps were exposed during strip mining 
operations of the Hawthorne Mine of the Peabody Coal Company south 
of Pleasantville, Indiana. Pennsylvanian age plant remains are common 
in the shales overlying the coals mined in western and southern 
Indiana. Both Canright (1959) and Wood (1963) have described a 
number of these plant remains and several localities in which they may 
be found. Many of these localities are now inactive mines. We have 
found that some of the most spectacular and useful plant remains for 
teaching and research presently can be collected best at the strip 
mines in eastern Sullivan County, Indiana from the shales exposed as 
the mining operations are in progress. This report deals specifically 
with the fossil stumps found in place as casts in the shale overlying 
Coal V and includes a preliminary listing of the associated plant com- 
pressions found in this shale. This shale unit is between Coal V which 
is the top of the Petersburg Formation and the Alum Cave Limestone 
Member or the Antioch Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation. 

Description and Discussion 

The size of the stump casts varied, however most of the stumps 
found were .75-1 m in diameter where the roots spread out at the 
base of the stump and tapered to .35-. 5 m at the top of the stump. Four 
of the stump casts are illustrated in figures 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. They 
were generally about .3-. 45 m high and were not preserved above 
that height. Two large round sections of casts of Sigillarian trunks and 
the sandstone cast shown in figure 6 were found already removed from 
the high wall by the mine operators. No evidence of roots were as- 
sociated with these casts and they were probably sections of stump 
casts broken out above the basal area where the origin of the roots 
is evident. These casts were .9-1.25 m in diameter and were the largest 
observed. 

The stigmarian roots arising from the base of the stump casts 
were not well preserved. Four large branches spread out from the 
base of the trunk. These roots branch once near the base of the trunk 
and then merge with the underlying shale and could not be followed 
further. One of these major stigmarian root systems is seen in Figure 2. 

114 



Botany 



115 







Figure 1. High wall showing Coal V and overlying shale. The coal has been mined 

out but is shown in section view in the lower right of the photograph. Three stump 

casts are exposed in place in the shale and are marked by arrows. Hammers are on 

top of each stump cast for scale. 



The fossil-bearing shale in which the stumps were found was 
about 2 meters thick and the shale bed was about 4.5 to 5.5 meters 
above the top of Coal V. Both of these dimensions varied slightly 
along the length of the high wall exposed during mining operations. 
The tree stumps were found within this shale layer at varying heights 
above the coal. In figure 1 the stumps illustrated from left to right 



116 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. Stump cast of Sigillaria. Widely spaced ribs with paired parichnos scars 

are evident. Large stigmarian roots merge with the underlying shale. 
Figure 3. Same stump cast shown in figure 2. This stump cast is also illustrated in 

figure 1 on the left side. 



Botany 



117 




Figure 4. Sig Marian stump cast which was illustrated in the center of figure 1. 
stigmarian root cast was removed from the area indicated by the arrow. 
Figure 5. Two stump casts in place in the high wall are indicated by arrows. 



118 Indiana Academy of Science 

are located respectively, 6.1 m, 6.6 m, and 5.4 m above the top of the 
coal. 

Some stumps exposed in subsequent mining sat nearly one on top of 
another (fig. 5). This suggests that the shale unit contains a series of 
successive forests that were buried repeatedly by successive layers of 
fine grained sediments. This theory is further supported by the dis- 
covery of a stigmarian root cast (fig. 4) which extended down through 
the shale near one of the stumps from a level above the stump cast. 
The number of successive forests buried could not be determined but 
at least three levels of burial were evident. The height of the stump 
casts found varied from about .35-. 5 m and this indicates the extent 
of the sediments deposited during the burial of the various forests. 
Other megafossils found throughout the shale unit are tabulated in 
Table I. This list provides some insight into the nature of the forest 
which continued to invade or persist in an area subject to repeated 
burials. 

Table 1. Plant fossils from the shale above Coal V, Hawthorne Mine. 1 
Pteridophyta 

Lycopodiales 

Lepidodendreae 

Lepidodendron aculiatum Sternberg 

Lepidodendron lanceolatum Lesquereux 

Lepidodendron enrietta Langford 

Lepidophloios laricinus Sternberg 

Lepidophyllum longifolium Brongniart 

Lepidophyllum majus Brongniart 

Lycopod megaspores 

Sigillaria cumulata Weiss 

Sigillaria laevigata Brongniart 

Sigillaria mammilaris Brongniart 

Sigillaria orbicularis Brongniart 

Sigillaria rugosa Brongniart 

Sigillaria scutellata Brongniart 

Stigmaria ficoides Sternberg 

Syringodendron sp. 
Equisetales 

Calamarieae 

Annularia sphenophylloides Zenker 

Aster ophyllites equisetif ormis Schlotheim 

Calamites cisti Brongniart 

Calamites ramosus Artis 

Calamites suckowi Brongniart 

Calamites sp. 

Macrostachya sp. 

Paleostachya sp. 

Pinnularia sp. 
Sphenophyllales 

Spbenophylleae 

Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongniart 

Sphenophyllum majus Bronn 
Filicales and Cycadofilicales 
Sphenopterideae 

Sphenopteris artemisaef olioides Crepin 

Sphenopteris obtusiloba Brongniart 



1 Briefly discussed by Pheifer and Dilcher (1973) in relation to the megafossils found 
in Coal VII. 



Botany 



119 



Pecopterideae 

Aaterotheca arborcacena Schlotheim 

Dickaonites pluckeneti Schlotheim 

Pecopteria clintoni Lesquereux 

Pecopteria unitua Brongniart 
Mariopterideae 

Mariopteria anthrapolia Langford 

Mariopteria decipiena Lesquereux 

Mariopteria muricata Schlotheim 

Mariopteria nervoaa Brongniart 
Alethopterideae 

Alethopteria ambigua Lesquereux 
Neuropterideae 

Cyclopteria trichomanoidea Sternberg 

Linopteria muenateri Potonie 

Linopteria neuropteroidea Potonie 

Neuropteria acutifolia Brongniart 

Neuroptcria fimbriata Lesquereux 

Neuropteria gigantea Sternberg 

Neuropteria plicata Sternberg 

Neuropteria rarinervia Bunbury 

Neuropteria acheuchzeri Hoffman 

Incerta sedis — Seeds of seed ferns 
Cordaitales 

Cordaiteae 

Cordaitea sp. 

Several stump casts were unearthed during mining operations of 
Coal V in the spring and summer of 1971. Judging from the reports of 
those working in the stripping operation and our visits to the area 
there were at least 15 stump casts uncovered during this time. All of 
these were lost in the mining operations except for one that was 
collected by the Indiana Museum of Natural History with the help of 




Figure 6. Sigillarian atump coat removed from the Hawthorne mine by coal minera. 
They reported that thia atump waa aaaociated with a aandatone layer in the overburden. 
The matrix of the caat conaiata of fine grain aandatone. It ia on display in the front 
yard of Jordan Hall at Indiana Univeraity, Bloomington, Indiana. A 15 cm. (6 inch) 
ruler is in front of the trunk for acale. 



120 Indiana Academy of Science 

Peabody Coal Company. This section of the mine was closed about the 
middle of July 1971 and a new area was opened for strip mining Coal 
V in which, at first, no stump casts were noticed. However in the 
spring of 1972, while examining the shale unit above the coal in the 
new area being mined, we found 6 more stump casts. Of the total of 
more than 20 stump casts which we know to have been found, we 
have examined 10. Nine of these were clearly stump casts of Sigillaria; 
one was a Lepidodendron. All of the stumps showed clear impressions 
of the inner cortical layers typical of the arborescent Lycopods and 
these impressions extend to within a short distance above the origin of 
the roots. In fig. 2 the rows of parichnos scars, characteristic of the 
subsurface periderm layer of Sigillaria and generally referred to as 
Syringodendron, can be seen. Some stumps were still sufficiently buried 
in the shale when first discovered so that the impression of the outer 
layer of the stem could be observed in the surrounding shale. In all 
stumps, except two very large specimens which had been mined out 
and broken free from any remains of their roots before we saw them, 
these leaf bases or impressions of the leaf traces in the periderm were 
evident. The two large specimens were .9 m to 1.25 m in diameter and 
.3 m to .5 m in height with only the verticle ribbing, characteristic of 
Sigillaria, preserved. 

The presence of leaf cushions to the very base of these stump 
casts seems contrary to Eggert's (1961) reconstruction of Lepidoden- 
dron and his interpretation that the outer periderm of the trunks of 
the arborescent Lycopods, which included the leaf bases, was lost as 
the trees matured. While Eggert's paper was in press he found a com- 
pression of a trunk which confirmed his reconstruction and interpreta- 
tion. Perhaps the Lepidodendron which we found was either a young 
tree or a different species in which the leaf cushions persisted to the 
base of the tree. The stump casts of the sigillarian trees might be 
expected to show the parichnos scars in the older portion of the plant 
because of their extensive development in the periderm of this genus. 
The ribs are widely spaced in these stump casts suggesting that 
considerable growth of the periderm took place during their maturity. 

Stump casts of the arborescent lycopods are not frequently re- 
ported in the literature but have been found previously in sediments of 
Pennsylvanian age. Owen reported fossil stumps of supposed palm 
trees from Posey County, Indiana in 1843 which were most probably 
stump casts of arborescent Lycopods (Owen 1843a, 1843b). Upright 
sigillarian trunk casts and calamitian pith casts are known from the 
Bay of Fundy near Joggins, Nova Scotia. The most well known Lycopod 
stump casts are those which are preserved at Victoria Park in Glasgow, 
Scotland; they have been illustrated in numerous textbooks (Seward 
1898, Magdefrau 1956, Walton 1958, and Andrews 1961). Some trunks 
have been found upright in Illinois, in their Coal No. 2 which is equiv- 
alent to Indiana Coal Ilia (Russell Peppers, personal communication). 
Several trunks have been reported, photographed and collected from the 
shales associated with Coals VI and VII near Dugger, Indiana. Weather- 
wax (1956, p. 398) illustrated a 12-foot section of a probable sigillarian 
trunk standing upright near Dugger. In the same area we recently 



Botany 121 

collected sections of a petrified sigillarian trunk, also standing upright, 
which was associated with erect calamitean pith casts. Lepidophloios 
trunk remains have also been recovered from this area. These longer 
upright trunks found near Dugger are composed of poorly petrified 
material and lack etxernal details of the base of the trees. 

This report is presented here in order to record the occurrence 
of these fossil stumps, illustrate them, and provide some details of 
the stratigraphic section in which they were found. Certainly the lo- 
calities discussed in this paper will continue to yield excellent fossil 
stumps for those who are there to search for them. 



Literature Cited 

1. Andrews, H. N. 1961. Studies in Paleobotany: John Wiley & Sons, New York. 
487 p. 

2. Canright, J. E. 1959. Fossil plants of Indiana: Ind. Geol. Surv., Rept. of 
Progress No. 14, 45 p. 

3. Eggert, D. A. 1961. The ontogeny of Carboniferous arborescent Lycopsida. Palaeon- 
tographica, Abt. B, 108 :43-92. 

4. Magdefrau, K. 1956. Palaobiologie der Pflanzen: UEB Gustav Fisher Verlag, Jena, 
443 p. 

5. Owen, D. D. 1843a. Fossil palm trees found in Posey County, Indiana: Am. Jour. 
Sci., 45:336-337. 

6. Owen, D. D. 1843b. On some fossil trees from New Harmony, Indiana: Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc, 1 :270-271. 

7. Pheifer, R. N., and Dilcher, D. L. 1973. A study of the floras in the Alleghenian 
and Conemaughian Series in Sullivan County, Indiana: Proc. Ind. Acad, of Sci., 
82:268, abstract. 

S. Seward, A. C. 1898. Fossil Plants, vol. I: Cambridge, at the University Press, 
452 p. 

9. Walton, J. 1958. An introduction to the study of Fossil Plants: A. and C. Black, 
Ltd., London, 201 p. 

10. Weatherwax, P. 1956. Botany: W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 509 p. 

11. Wood, J. M. 1963. The Standley Cemetery flora (early Pennsylvanian) of Greene 
County, Indiana: Ind. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 29, 73 p. 



Black Walnut Trees of Southern Origin 
Growing Well in Indiana 

Calvin F. Bey, 

USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, 

Carbondale, Illinois (office maintained in Cooperation with 

Southern Illinois University) 

and 

Robert D. Williams, 

USDA Forest Service, 

North Central Forest Experiment Station, 

Bedford, Indiana 47421 

Abstract 

Black walnut trees from 15 geographic sources were planted in southern Indiana 
in 1967. After 7 years, trees originating south of the planting site were generally taller 
and larger in diameter than trees from the north. The tallest trees also tended to 
have the greatest straight height. Trees from sources south of the planting site should 
definitely be included in a walnut tree improvement program for southern Indiana. 

Introduction 

Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a valuable timber tree. It is 
native to most of the eastern United States and is extensively planted. 
To produce black walnut trees for planting, seed are collected, sown in 
nurseries, and grown for one year. Indiana alone produces several 
hundred thousand black walnut seedlings each year. 

Just as there are variety differences in agronomic and horticultural 
crops, there are also differences in walnut trees from various parts 
of the country. This paper examines the growth of walnut trees in an 
Indiana test plantation. It was established using seed collected from 15 
geographic areas throughout the eastern United States. Information 
from this and similar tests help to define the "best" areas for black 
walnut seed collection for southern Indiana thus providing select walnut 
stock for tree-planting customers. 

Methods 

In 1967, 1-year-old black walnut seedlings from 15 geographic 
sources were planted on the Hoosier National Forest in Lawrence 
County, Indiana (Table 1). The plantation is at 38.7 degrees north and 
550 feet elevation. The site is an abandoned field and is level with an 
alluvial Huntington fine sandy loam soil having good internal drainage. 
The area was plowed and disced the fall prior to planting. Simazine, 
atrazine, and dalapon 1 were applied in the spring for 6 years in 6- to 
8-foot diameter circles around each tree for weed control. 



1 This publication reports research involving pesticides. It does not contain recom- 
mendations for their use, nor does it imply that the uses discussed here have been 
registered. All uses of pesticides must be registered by appropriate State and/or 
Federal agencies before they can be recommended. 

122 



Botany 



123 



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124 Indiana Academy of Science 

Trees of each of the 15 sources in the planting were derived from 
seed collected from an average of six parent trees located within the 
same stand. The sources came from as far as 250 miles north and 
south of the planting site. 

The planting consists of a randomized complete block design with 
6 replicates of 4-tree plots. The trees were planted 12 feet apart. Two 
rows of trees, an isolation strip, were planted around the study. 

At the beginning of the third growing season, European black 
alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) trees, which are nitrogen fixers, were plant- 
ed between the walnut trees. We expected that the alder trees would 
act as trainers for the walnut and supply nitrogen to the walnut trees. 
Each walnut had 4 alder trees surrounding it at a spacing of 8.5 feet. 

The planting was judiciously pruned each spring for the first five 
years to eliminate crook and multiple tops (1, 3). At the beginning of 
the seventh growing season, lateral branches were pruned to about 5 
feet, but never higher than one-half the tree height. 

Height growth was measured each year except 1972. We also 
measured straight height and diameter at 4.5 feet in 1973. Straight 
height, an indicator of stem straightness, is the distance from the 
ground line to a point where the main stem of the tree deviates more 
than one foot from an imaginary line passing through the base of the 
tree vertical to the ground. 

Results 

Overall seventh year survival in the plantation was 61 percent. 
This was unexpectedly low and lower than in other similar plantations 
(2). Most of the loss occurred during the first two years. Some mor- 
tality may be accounted for by brief spring flooding that occurred the 
first two years. Also, root rot was observed in the seedlings from 
several geographic sources and undoubtedly caused some mortality. 

Survival was not related to the latitude of the seed sources. Similar 
results were reported by Wright (4). In a region-wide black walnut 
provenance study, Bey found that survival was unrelated to latitude 
of the source in six out of the eight test plantations studied (2). 

Trees from sources south of the planting site were generally taller 
and larger in diameter than those of northern origin (Table 1; Figs. 1 
and 2). The correlation coefficient between height and latitude of seed 
source was -0.72. Trees of source 3103 (North Carolina) were tallest, 
had the largest d.b.h., and best survival. Differences in height and 
diameter were related to geographic origin. Height differences of 3.3 
feet or more and diameter differences of 0.8 inch or more were statis- 
tically significant at the .05 level. 

Trees originating from south of the planting site have gradually 
increased their lead (Fig. 3). At this time, it appears that the trees from 



CAUTION : Pesticides can be injurious to humans, domestic animals, desirable plants, 
and fish and other wildlife — if they are not handled or applied properly. Use all 
pesticides selectively and carefully. Follow recommended practices for the disposal of 
surplus pesticides and pesticide containers. 



Botany 



125 



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LATITUDE - DEGREES NORTH 
Figure 1. Relationship between latitude and 1973 height of trees from various sources. 

the southern origins are winterhardy and that they will be the su- 
perior sources for southern Indiana in the future. 

The local southern Indiana source (1701) had considerable root 
rot at planting time, possibly accounting for its low survival and poor 




Figure 2. Trees of Tennessee origin (on left) were taller than those from Ioxva 

(on right) at age 7. 



126 



Indiana Academy of Science 



18 



16 



SOURCES FROM 
AL, NC.ANDTN- 



MO,S. IL,S. IN, 
KY, ANDVA. 



I A. N. IL, 

N. IN, AND PA 




1973 



Figure 3. Trend of total height of trees from various geographic origins for six 

years since planting. 



growth. There is no apparent explanation for the poor growth of 
trees from Kentucky source (2001). Root rot was not a problem and 
survival was about average for the plantation. The danger of drawing 
conclusions based on too few trees is illustrated by this example. 

Tallest trees also tended to have the greatest straight height. 
A correlation coefficient of 0.96 was significant. Similar to the pattern 
for total height, trees of southern origin tended to have greater straight 
height. The correlation coefficient between straight height and latitude 
of source was 0.69. Although these relationships were strong, dif- 
ferences in straight height among sources were not statistically sig- 
nificantly different at the .05 level. 



Botany 127 

As the tree crowns in the plantation begin to close, taller trees 
act as trainers for each other and particularly for the shorter trees. 
This may minimize seed source differences for straight height and is 
an inherent problem in many field experiments. Only with very wide 
spacing would it be possible to keep the effects of seed source and 
mutual training separated. 

Four years after the alder trees were planted, 20 percent of them 
were taller than the walnut trees. At that time, tops were cut out of 
those alder trees interfering with the growth of the walnut. The alder 
has aided stand closure and apparently has assisted in "training" the 
walnuts to grow straight. Also, we assume they are supplying addi- 
tional nitrogen to the soil. When the crowns of the alder and walnut 
begin overlapping, the alder trees will be removed. 

Discussion and Conclusions 

The trees in this study have grown well, and we believe that they 
will eventually produce high quality logs. Trees from stands in North 
Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky were generally larger than those of 
local and northern origin. Trees from these geographic areas should be 
included in walnut tree improvement programs for southern Indiana. 

Tree height is probably the best trait for evaluating the value of 
trees at a young age. Trees severely damaged by winter cold and/or 
late spring frosts are likely to have multiple tops and be shorter. If 
they are damaged by the cold, overcome it, and are still the tallest, we 
should probably not be greatly concerned with the damage. 

Although not specifically tested in this study, we believe that weed 
control, interplanting of European alder, and corrective pruning have 
been helpful in promoting rapid growth and good form. During the 
early years we were not optimistic that this would be a successful 
plantation. Floods, wind, insects, and deer all took their toll. Despite 
these adversities, the plantation now shows excellent potential. For 
every force in nature that tends to destroy there seems to be an 
equally strong force to restore. With careful site selection, proper 
culture, and selection of the best geographic seed sources, maximum 
growth and quality in black walnut plantations can be obtained. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bey, Calvin F. 1973a. Corrective pruning young black walnut trees — a new twist. 
North. Nut Grow. Assoc. Annu. Rep. 63 (1972): 26-28, illus. 

2. Bey, Calvin F. 1973b. Growth of black walnut trees in eight midwestern states — 
a provenance test. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NC-91, 7 p., illus. 

3. Krajicek, J. E. and C. F. Bey. 1969. How to train black walnut seedlings. North 

Cent. For. Exp. Stn. Leaf!., 5 p. 

4. Wright, Jonathan W. 1954. Preliminary report on a study of races in black 
walnut. J. For. 52:673-675. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman : Carl W. Godzeski, Eli Lilly Research Wing, 
Marion County General Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana 46200 

Paul Mahlberg, Department of Plant Sciences, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Computer-based Method for Calculation of the Utilizable Energy of 
Proteins. Arthur R. Schulz, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, 

46202. An aspect of protein nutrition which has not been resolved in 

a satisfactory manner is the metabolizable caloric equivalence of pro- 
teins. The existing methods involve determinations of the difference in 
the heats of combustion of a protein and the nitrogenous excretory 
products, and these methods over-estimate the utilizable energy of 
proteins. A more accurate method of calculating the utilizable energy 
of proteins is to calculate the moles of adenosine triphosphate formed 
during the complete oxidation of a given amount of protein to carbon 
dioxide, water and urea. The moles of adenosine triphosphate formed can 
be calculated from a knowledge of the amino acid composition and 
knowledge of the metabolic pathway for each amino acid. A computer 
program is described which provides the bookkeeping required for these 
calculations. The metabolizable energy of a protein is calculated in this 
computer-based method by adjusting the caloric value of the protein so 
that it is equivalent to that of carbohydrates and fats in providing the 
energy for adenosine triphosphate formation. The computer-based method 
has been employed to calculate the utilizable energy of a group of 
proteins of known amino acid composition. The utilizable energy varied 
from 3.02 kcal/g for collagen to 3.71 kcal/g for the protein of raw 
cow's milk. 

Low Level Microwave Effects on the Thyronine-Binding Capacity in 
Rats. William D. Travers and Richard J. Vetter, Department of Bio- 
nucleonics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. A 

study conducted in the U.S.S.R. and present work at Purdue by the 
authors indicates that low-level chronic exposure to microwave radiation 
affects serum protein levels of laboratory animals. Thyro-binding ca- 
pacity (TBC) was tested in rats exposed to 5 and 25 mW/cm 2 for 
periods of 10 and 20 minutes daily for 15 days. The animals were 
irradiated in an anechoic chamber designed to insure uniform power 
distribution. Following the last exposure blood serum was analyzed 
for TBC using an 1-125 radioimmunoassay procedure and the results 
were normalized with a human serum standard. Analysis of the data 
indicated a significant increase in the TBC index at the 25 mW/cm 2 
level. The results suggest that thyroid hormone levels may be affected 
by chronic microwave exposure. 

Ultrastructural Observations on Endocytosis (Secondary Vacuolation) in 
Plant Cells, Paul G. Mahlberg and F. R. Turner, Department of 

129 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

The plasma membrane of plant cells possesses invaginations, or sec- 
ondary vacuoles, of variable size that project into the adjacent cyto- 
plasm. Secondary vacuoles which were present in thin sections of cells 
at different phases in vacuolation were numerous in some cells while 
fewer in others. In vacuolated cells enlarged secondary vacuoles pro- 
trude into the primary vacuole but are delimited from the tonoplast by 
an intermembrane zone of variable width. The plasma membrane at the 
orifice of an invagination may fuse and detach the secondary vacuole 
from the membrane to form a structure in the cytoplasm bounded by a 
single membrane. Complex accumulations of membranes consisting of 
spherical, tubular, and laminar structures, possibly containing cyto- 
plasm, may develop within secondary vacuoles. Contents of many of 
these vacuoles arise from folds along its limiting membrane which pinch 
off into the interior of the secondary vacuole. Measurements of the 
secondary vacuoles attached to and detached from the plasma membrane 
are significantly similar to those of the plasma membrane and differ 
significantly from other cytomembranes (dictyosome vesicles, endo- 
plasmic reticulum, mitochondrion outer membrane, tonoplast). The 
width of the membranes of the contents within secondary vacuoles 
indicates that most of these contents are derived from the plasma 
membrane. A selective stain, reportedly specific for the plasma mem- 
brane, stains attached and detached secondary vacuoles and their mem- 
branous contents as well as the plasma membrane, and suggests that 
secondary vacuoles are derived from the plasma membrane. Endocytosis 
appears to occur in various cells of the plant body and may represent a 
phenomenon of general occurrence in many plant cells. 

Cadmium Inhibition of Renal Amino Acid Transport. Thomas H. Gieske, 
Department of Biology, Indiana University, South Bend, Indiana 46615. 

Properties of amino acid transport systems at the peritubular (PTM) 

and luminal membranes (LM) of the proximal convoluted tubule of 
control (mereaptoethanol) and cadmium-mercaptoethanol (2.5 /xmoles 
Cd and 200 /xmoles mereaptoethanol) treated rabbits were studied. 
Mutual inhibition studies led to the conclusion that at least four sep- 
arate systems are present for transport of L-amino acids at the PTM. 
These systems are similar in their substrate specificities to those at 
LM, which are responsible for reabsorption from the filtrate in the 
proximal tubule. However, the mechanisms at the PTM show a different 
pattern of sensitivity to inhibition by cadmium. At the PTM cadmium 
inhibits transport of the dicarboxylic amino acids without significantly 
depressing transport of neutral and basic amino acids. In contrast, 
cadmium strongly depresses transport of all amino acids at the LM. 
The results support the hypothesis that peritubular transport plays no 
role in renal reabsorption of amino acids. The physiological significance 
of the peritubular systems remains unclear. 

Light-induced Ultrastructural Change in the Protein Body of Mung 
Bean Plastids. William J. Hurkman, Department of Botany and Plant 

Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906. The 

etiolated primary leaf of mung bean contains plastids which are modified 
exclusively for protein storage (proteoplasts). The proteoplast has a 



Cell Biology 131 

single protein body 3 um in diameter containing a granular matrix 
and bounded by a single membrane. Proteoplasts of this type are located 
only within a one-celled layer separating the meristematic leaf mesophyll 
cells. 

Differentiation of the proteoplast containing layer occurs within a 
few days after germination. Proplastid precursors are distinguished 
by the development of an electron-transparent tubular complex. Eventu- 
ally the tubular complex swells to form a single protein body. Develop- 
ment of the proteoplast-containing zone is maximal in 6 days of 
darkness. 

Upon illumination the proteoplast can divide and acquire starch. 
The protein body also divides repeatedly and blackens. Within two days 
the shrunken proteoplast remains are deposited on the cell wall. During 
this time adjacent cells enlarge and develop chloroplasts of normal 
structure. Over a ten-day period, in the absence of light, there is little 
change in proteoplast fine structure. 

Glycosyl transferases of ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver hyper- 
plastic nodules and hepatomas induced by N-2 flourenylacetamide. Wil- 
liam D. Merritt, T. W. Keenan, and D. James Morre, Departments of 
Biological Sciences, Animal Sciences, and Botany and Plant Pathology, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Hyperplastic liver nod- 
ules and hepatomas were induced in rats using a low-protein diet contain- 
ing 0.05% N-2 flourenylacetamide. Nodules and hepatomas from animals 
on the diet for varying times were excised, measured and weighed. 
Portions of each tissue were fixed in formalin and the degree of malig- 
nancy was determined from hematoxalin and eosin-stained sections. 
Remaining portions of the nodules or hepatomas were homogenized in 
0.32 M sucrose containing 14 mM mercaptoethanol, and the total par- 
ticulate fraction was analyzed for levels of 5'-nucleotidase and glycosyl 
transferases of ganglioside biosynthesis. In non-malignant and hyper- 
plastic nodules, an increase in the activities of G M2 :UDPGal galactosyl- 
transferase and G M i :CMP-NANA sialyltransf erase was directly cor- 
related with the size of the nodule. In hepatomas, the levels of these 
enzymes were directly proportional to the degree of malignancy of the 
tissues. The level of AMPase was inversely related to the size of 
hyperplastic nodules but directly proportional to the degree of malig- 
nancy in hepatomas. Total, bound and ganglioside sialic acid were in- 
creased in hepatomas relative to control tissue; levels in hyperplastic 
nodules were intermediate between hepatoma and control levels. The 
results are consistent with the theory of the progressive nature of 
alterations of cellular functions during the course of tumorigenesis. 

Work supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of 
Health CA13145. 

Molecular Weight Differences in Polypeptides From Type A and B 
Trichomonad Costae. Florence Juillerat, Indiana University-Purdue 

University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202. Cells of Tritrichomonas 

augusta were lysed in Triton X-100, sonicated, and centrifuged at 
270 x g to yield pellets of isolated costae. Washed pellets of the 
organelle contained approximately 1.6% of the total cell protein. Sodium 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis in 5% polyacrylamide gels revealed 
one major polypeptide band with a molecular weight of 143,000 daltons. 
Five minor bands at 119,000, 109,000, 102,000, 96,000 and 34,000 were 
seen. The periodate-Schiff test revealed no glycoprotein in the gels. No 
ribonucleic acid was detected with methylene blue staining. 

Costae isolated from other trichomonads for comparative studies 
required a 3020 x centrifugation to pellet organelles. Electron micro- 
graphs of Trichomonas suis costa pellets revealed organelles with 
Honigberg's type A periodicity. Samples of known type A costae were 
also obtained from Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomitus batrachorum. 
Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel polypeptide patterns of costae from all 
three organisms were similar to the pattern of T. augusta. 

Electron micrographs of isolated Trichomonas gallinarum costae 
revealed a striation pattern resembling that previously seen in Honig- 
berg's type B costa of Trichomonas gallinae. Gel electrophoresis of 
costae from these two organisms showed a major polypeptide com- 
ponent with a molecular weight of 122,000 daltons. The pattern of 
minor bands was also different from that seen is gels of Type A costae. 

These studies have begun the dissection of the complex electro- 
phoretic pattern of polypeptides visible in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels 
of isolated trichomonad mastigont systems. These comparative investi- 
gations also illustrate the usefulness of this technique for biochemical 
studies of the evolution of trichomonads, complementing the many 
electron microscopic papers that have been published. 



Homologous Inhibition of Myoblast Fusion in vitro 1 

William E. Bishop 2 and Alice S. Bennett 
Ball State University 

Abstract 

Effects of homologous extracts prepared from mature avian skeletal 
muscle on the development of isolated myoblasts from the thigh muscle 
of 11-12-day-old chick embryos were studied in vitro. Fusion of myo- 
blasts occurred in a predictable manner under the culture conditions 
used in this study. Some factor (s) present in extracts of the homologous 
adult organ was able to partially inhibit this fusion. The inhibition 
occurred maximally between 12 and 24 hours after myoblasts were 
placed in the in vitro environment and was only partially reversible by 
the re-establishment of optimal culture conditions. The inhibitory 
factor (s) was long lived, non-dialyzable, heat labile, and subject to 
inactivation by proteolytic enzymes. 

While investigating the nutritional requirements of isolated em- 
bryonic chick myoblasts in vitro it was noted that in some cultures 
which had been exposed to extracts prepared from mature avian skeletal 
muscle, the fusion of myoblasts and subsequent development of multi- 
nuclearity was inhibited. In other cultures the extent of fusion and 
multinuclear development exceeded that of controls (Bishop, unpub- 
lished results). A number of workers have documented the inhibition 
of differentiation of regeneration of body parts by specific extracts of 
those parts in a wide variety of invertebrate and vertebrate systems 
(2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 12). This investigation was an attempt to clarify the effect 
of homologous extracts on myogenesis in vitro. The level of muscle 
differentiation based on the expression of multinuclearity was quantita- 
tively determined. 

Materials and Methods 

Materials: Biochemicals for tissue culture media were purchased 
from Grand Island Biological Company and crude collagen from 
Worthington Biochemical Corporation. Fertilized egges of White Leg- 
horn stock were obtained from Hy-Line Chicks of Indiana, Tipton, 
Indiana. Eggs and tissue cultures were incubated at 37 °C in a General 
Electric Model 805 incubator. Sterile conditions were maintained through- 
out the culturing procedure. 

Preparation of culture medium and plates : Collagen coated petri 
plates were prepared by washing glass petri plates in a collagen solution 
(50 mg crude collagen in 75 ml 0.1M sodium chloride and 75 ml 0.5M 
sodium acetate solution, pH 4.5), drying under ultraviolet light, and 
rinsing twice with sterile Minimum Essential Medium. Complete 



1 This work was supported in part by a grant from the Indiana Academy of 
Sciences. 

2 Present address: Department of Bionucleonics, Purdue University, WestLafayette, 
Indiana. 

133 



134 Indiana Academy of Science 

growth medium consisted of 80 parts Minimum Essential Medium 
(Eagle's formula) prepared with Hank's salts, to which 25mM N'-2- 
hydroxyethyl-piperaxine-N'-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer had 
been added; 15 parts horse serum; 4 parts chick embryo extract; and 1 
part Antibiotic- Antimycotic Stock (lOOx) containing 10,000 units peni- 
cillin, 10,000 meg streptomycin and 25 meg fungizone per milliliter. 

Chick embryo extract was prepared by passing decapitated 11-12-day- 
old embryos through a sterile 20 cc syringe, and diluting 1:1 with 
Hank's solution. This suspension was sonified for a total of 1.5 min in 
15 sec pulses (Branson Sonifer, Model J-15A) and centrifuged at 
1000 rpm for 10 min (International Refrigerated Centrifuge, Model 
B-20). The supernate was removed and sterilized by filtration through 
a fiberglass prefilter, a graded series of pre-washed membranes and 
finally a 0.45 Millipore filter. 

Preparation of homologous extracts: Thigh muscle of healthy one- 
to three-day-old chickens was rinsed with sterile Hank's solution, minced 
with scissors, suspended in 5 ml Hank's solution per gram of tissue, 
and sonified for 1.5 min. The homogenate was extracted for one hour at 
4°C, then centrifuged at 5,000 x g for 10 min to give the crude muscle 
extract solution. If not used immediately extracts were stored at — 20 °C. 
Extracts were diluted with Hank's solution. Five milliliter portions of 
muscle extract were dialyzed against one liter of Hank's solution at 
4°C for 24 hours; other portions were heated on a boiling water bath 
for 30 min; and others were incubated with a 5% trypsin solution for 
15 min at 37 °C. One-half milliter of a given extract was added to 
each 2 ml aliquot of complete growth medium prior to sterile filtration. 

Preparation of innoculum: Myoblast cell suspensions were pre- 
pared from the thigh muscle of 11-12-day-old chick embryos by a modi- 
fication of Konigsberg's procedure (5). Pooled thigh muscle from three 
to six pairs of legs was dispersed in 5 ml 0.2% trypsin by gentle 
pipeting with a Pasteur pipet and incubated at 37 °C for 15 min. 
The enzymatic dissociation was stopped by the addition of an equal 
volume of complete growth medium. The resulting cell suspension was 
passed through six layers of sterile cheesecloth in a Swinney type 
filter holder fitted to a 20 cc syringe. Cells were harvested by centrifuga- 
tion and resuspended in 5 ml complete growth medium by passing the 
suspension in and out of a 2% in, 20 gauge needle ten times. This 
cell suspension, with an additional 8-10 ml complete growth medium 
was plated in a 100 mm collagen coated petri plate and incubated at 
37 °C for 10 min. The final cell suspension was drawn off and diluted 
to final plating density with complete growth medium. 

Culturing techniques: Myoblasts were maintained in high density 
culture. Collagen coated 60 mm petri plates were innoculated with 
2.5 ml complete growth medium containing 1.6 x 10 6 cells. Two milli- 
liters of the growth medium was replaced with fresh medium 24 hr 
after plating and then every 48 hr subsequently. Cultures were incu- 
bated at 37 °C for not longer than 144 hr. Effects of variously treated 
homologous extracts on myoblast fusion were studied by incubating 
replicate cultures for 144 hr with complete growth medium containing 
a given extract. In one set of experiments, cultures were treated at 



Cell Biology 135 

the time of plating with homologous extracts diluted 10 2 times. The 
extract containing medium was removed 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours 
folowing plating. The cultures were washed twice with sterile distilled 
water, re-fed complete growth medium, and incubated for a total of 
144 hr. All incubations were stopped by rinsing the cultures in dis- 
tilled water and fixing them in cold formalin solution for a minimum 
of 12 hr. 

Staining and counting techniques : Fixed cultures were rinsed in cold 
distilled water and stained with Harris Hematoxylin for 2-3 min. 
Following staining, plates were placed in cold running water for 
10 min. Early in this period the plates were dipped in NH 4 OH (2 or 3 
drops/50 ml distilled water); followed by successive dips in 50%, 
70% and 90% ethanol; two rinses in 100% ethanol for 2-3 min; a single 
rinse in 100% ethanol and xylene (1:1) for 2-3 minutes; and two final 
rinses in 100% xylene for 2-3 min each. Plates were air dried and 
stored under distilled water at 40 °C. 

Counts of nuclei were made on ten random fields per plate under 
a microscope equipped with phase optics. All stained nuclei with each 
field were scored as being within either single cells (mononucleate) 
or within fused cells (multinucleate). Only those cells containing three 
or more distinct nuclei were scored as fused. Percent fusion was deter- 
mined by dividing the number of nuclei of fused cells by the total 
number of nuclei counted. 

Results and Discussion 

The cellular events associated with myogenesis under culture con- 
ditions described in this report (Figure 1) are similar to those reported 
by other workers (4, 6, 13). Between twelve and twenty-four hours 
there was a rapid increase in the rate of fusion, with 30% of the 
observed nuclei within fused cells at the end of 24 hours. Forty-eight 
hours after plating myoblast fusion was extensive and an increase in 
the size of the individual cells was apparent. At 144 hours between 
75 and 85 percent of the total number of nuclei observed were within 
multinucleated cells. 

There was no significant difference between the extent of myo- 
blast fusion in cultures treated with dialyzed and nondialyzed extracts 
at any of the dilutions tested (Table 1). The effect of dilution, however, 
was pronounced. Extracts which were diluted 1:1,000 or 1:10,000 failed 
to exhibit any inhibitory activity. Cultures treated with extracts diluted 
1:10 or 1:100 exhibited a significant reduction in the total extent of 
myoblast fusion. Cultures treated with extracts diluted 1:10 had a 
mean percent fusion value of 54%, a 28% reduction from the control 
mean of 82%. Cultures exposed to extracts diluted 1:100 had a mean 
percent fusion of 57%, a difference of 25% from the controls (Table 1). 

Those cultures exposed to extracts treated with trypsin or heated 
in a boiling water bath, failed to exhibit any significant difference 
from control cultures in the total extent of myoblast fusion (Table 2). 
Inhibition of myoblast fusion did not differ significantly between cul- 
tures treated with a 24-hour-old extract and cultures treated with a 480- 
hour-old extract at either of the dilutions tested (Table 3). The results 



136 



Indiana Academy of Science 



of these experiments indicated that the inhibitory factor was either 
a protein or had to be associated with a protein in order to be active. 
It was also relatively stable and unaffected by freezing" and thawing. 



c 

O 

t- 
Q> 

a. 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 




24 48 72 96 

Time (hr) 

Figure 1. Percentage of nuclei in fused cells. 
C+ and O represent two separate experiments.) 



120 



144 



Cultures exposed to homologous extracts during the first twelve 
hours following plating exhibited only a 4% reduction in the total 
extent of myoblast fusion at the end of 144 hours (Table 4). Cultures 
exposed to the extracts for 24 hours had a 22% reduction in the 
amount of total myoblast fusion. Inhibition could only be slightly 
increased by exposing the cultures for more than 24 hours (Table 4). 
The inhibitory factor (s) exerted its maximum effect between 12 and 24 
hours of culture time. Since maximal inhibition occurred after removal 
of the extract at 24, 48 and 72 hours, inhibition of myoblast fusion was 
not dependent on the continual presence of the inhibitory factor (s) in 
the external in vitro environment. It is suggested that the factor (s) 
was incorporated into single myoblasts before fusion. Selectivity of 



Cell Biology 



137 



this incorporation, that is, the reason some myoblasts retained the 
capacity for fusion is unexplained. 

Other workers have reported the inhibition of myogenesis in vitro 
by the thymidine analog, 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) (1); the 
chelating agent, methylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) (10); and 

Table 1. Effects of homologous extracts on myoblast fusion after 1UU hours. 



Dilution 



Number of 

nuclei in 

single 

cells 3 


Number of 

nuclei in 

fused 

cells 2 


Total 

nuclei 

counted 3 


% 
in 


nuclei 
fused 
cells 


106 


488 
324 
352 
352 
348 
453 
454 
483 
479 


594 
634 
633 
614 
618 
616 
607 
613 
620 




82 


310 


51 


281 


56 


217 


57 


271 


56 


153 


74 


152 


75 


130 


79 


141 


77 



Control 

lOx a. 

lOx b. 

10 3 a. 

10 2 b. 

10 3 a. 

10 3 b. 

10 4 a. 
10* b. 



1 For each dilution, one set of cultures (a) were treated with extracts dialyzed against 
Hank's solution for twenty-four hours ; the second set of cultures (b) were treated wih 
non-dialyzed extracts. 

2 Average of five replicate cultures for controls and three replicate cultures for 
experimentals. 

Table 2. Effect of heat and proteolytic enzymes on inhibitory 
activity of homologous extracts. 



Treatment 



Number 


of 


Number of 








nuclei in 


nuclei in 


Total 


% 


of nuclei 


single 




fused 


nuclei 




in fused 


cells 




cells 


counted 




cells 


113 




468 


581 




81 


147 




440 
457 


586 
588 




75 


131 


78 



control 1 

heat 2 

trypsin 2 



1 Average of six replicate cultures. 

2 Average of twelve replicate cultures. Extracts diluted 10 2 x. 

Table 3. Effect of age of homologous extract on myoblast fusion. 



Age of 
Extract 



Number of Number of 

nuclei in nuclei in 

single fused 

cells 1 cells 1 



Total 


% 


nuclei 


nuclei 


in 


i fused 


counted 1 




cells 


594 




79 


623 




51 


615 




51 


623 




49 


618 




50 



Control 127 

480 hours (10x) 2 303 

24 hours (10x) a 304 

480 hours (10 2 ) 2 315 

24 hours (10 2 ) 2 306 



467 
320 
312 
308 
310 



1 Average of six replicate cultures. 

2 Dilution factor. 



Number of 


Number of 








nuclei in 


nuclei in 


Total 


% 


nuclei 


single 


fused 


nuclei 


in 


fused 


cells 1 


cells 1 


counted 1 




cells 


121 


467 


586 




80 


145 


466 


611 




76 


217 


402 


619 




65 


252 


353 


605 




58 


281 


353 


633 




56 


290 


349 


638 




55 



138 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 4. Effects of exposure time to homologous extraction myoblast fusion. 



Length 
exposure 

Control (0 hr.) 

12 hr. 

18 hr. 

24 hr. 

48 hr. 

72 hr. 

1 Average of twelve replicate cultures for controls, six replicate cultures at le, 18, 
48, and 72 hours and 24 replicate cultures at 24 hours. 

by regulation of the calcium concentration of the growth medium (9). 
In all cases the inhibition was complete and fully reversible. The 
results of this investigation suggest that inhibition of myogenesis 
in vitro by some substance (s) present in extracts of mature avian skele- 
tal muscle is not complete and only partially reversible. The inhibitory 
factor (s) is apparently long lived, non-dialyzable, heat labile, and sub- 
ject to inactivation by proteolytic enzymes. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bischoff, R. and H. Holtzer. 1970. Inhibition of myoblast fusion after one round 
of DNA synthesis in 5-Bromodeoxyuridine. J. Cell. Biol. 44 :134-150. 

2. Clarke, R. B. and D. J. McCallion. 1959. Specific inhibition of differentiation in 
the frog embryo by cell free homogenates of adult tissues. Canadian J. Zool. 
37:129-131. 

3. 1959. Specific inhibition of neural differentiation in the chick embryo. 

Canadian J. Zool. 37:133-136. 

4. Konigsberg, I. R. 1960. The differentiation of cross-striated myofibrils in short 
term culture. Ex. Cell Res. 21:414-420. 

5. 1968. Protocol IV — 11 day skeletal muscle. In Methods in Developmental 

Biology. F. Wilt and N. K. Wessells, eds. pp. 520-521. Crowell-Collier, New York. 

6. 1972. Cellular differentiation in colonies derived from single cell platings 

of freshly isolated chick embryo muscle cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. 47 :1868- 
1872. 

7. Lenicque, P. M. 1959. Studies on homologous inhibition in the chick embryo. Acta. 
Zool. 40 :141-202. 

8. McKenzie, J. and J. E. Sinclair. 1962. The inhibitory action of adult heart on 
the early chick embryo. Am. J. Anat. 96:16. 

9. Shainberg, A. G. Yagil and D. Yaffe. 1971. Alterations of enzymatic activities 
during muscle differentiation in vitro. Devel. Biol. 25:1-29. 

10. Strohman, R. and B. Paterson. 1971. Calcium dependent cell fusion and myosin 
synthesis in cultures of developing chick muscle. J. Gen. Physiol. 57:244. 

11. Thompson, R. P. 1966. A study of the inhibitory effects of chick whole eye e 
tract on the development of the lens of the chick embryo in vitro. Canadian J. 
Zool. 44:661-676. 

12. Wolff, E. 1963. Self inhibitory factors in the regeneration of fresh water pla- 
narians. Proc. XVI International Congress Zool. 3:177-178. 

13. Yaffe, D. 1969. Cellular aspects of muscle differentiation in vitro. Current Topics 
in Developmental Biology. 4 :37-77. 



Chelator Inhibition as a New Approach to the 
Mechanism of Energy Coupling in Biological Membranes 

Iris L. Sun, D. C. Phelps, R. T. Crane and F. L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

There has been very little evidence for a common intermediate coupling electron 
transport to energy linked functions in biological membranes such as mitochondria or 
microbial plasma membranes. Such an intermediate would be expected in the chemical 
intermediate hypothesis. We now find that the chelator, bathophenanthroline, inhibits 
electron transport at three sites associated with energy coupling in mitochondria and 
two sites in E. coli membranes when the membranes are coupled but not when un- 
couplers are present. We also find that the membrane-bound ATPase activity is in- 
hibited by bathophenanthroline and that the inhibition is reversed by uncouplers in both 
mitochondria and E. coli membrane. It thus appears that a chelator sensitive site 
such as non heme iron proteins (or copper protein in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase) 
may be the long sought chemical link between electron transport and energy coupling. 
Since reversal of bathophenanthroline inhibition is not brought about by ionophores 
which prevent a proton gradient across the membrane, it appears that the chelator 
sensitive step occurs before the establishment of a proton gradient and that the gradient 
cannot be the primary step in energy coupling. 

Introduction 

Two theories have been proposed for the mechanism for transduc- 
tion of energy from the redox system of biological electron transport 
to the chemical potential of ATP. The chemical intermediate theory 
proposes that one of the carriers of the electron transport chain forms 
a high energy intermediate which can be used to form ATP (19). 
The chemiosmotic theory calls for the formation of a proton or ion 
gradient across an anisotropic membrane as a result of electron flow. 
This gradient would then be used to energize the formation of ATP 
through an ATPase which would be completely independent of the 
electron transport system (8) (9) (10). 

There has been much support for the chemiosmotic theory since it 
can be shown that electron transport causes formation of ion gradients 
(17); preinduced ion gradients can cause ATP formation (10); and 
most agents which prevent energy coupling make the membrane 
permeable to ions (14). 

There has been little experimental support for the chemical inter- 
mediate theory except for evidence that some redox elements of the 
electron transport chain change their redox potential under coupled 
or uncoupled conditions (2) (12) (13) (21). 

In this paper we will present evidence that the electron transport 
chain and the ATP forming system have a chelator sensitive site in 
common, that this site responds in the coupled state and that ionophores 
do not influence the chelator sensitivity. These effects would support 
the chemical intermediate hypothesis by showing that the ATP forming 
system is linked to the electron transport system independent of an 
ionic gradient. The fact that the inhibition is caused by a chelator 

139 



140 Indiana Academy of Science 

suggests that certain of the many non heme iron and copper proteins in 
electron transport chains act as the chemical intermediate. 

Materials and Methods 

Chemicals used were from commercial sources except the ferrous 
bathophenanthroline complex which was made by the reaction of 
bathophenanthroline with ferrous sulfate in water and extraction of 
the complex into isobutanol. 

The medium used for the growth of E. coli strain K12 wild type 
was that described by Monod et al. as medium 56 (11). The strain 
AN236 (ilv - , arg— , purE, thi— ) was grown in a manner described 
by Cox et al. (1). Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 27,000 g 
for 10 minutes, washed in cold 0.25M sucrose — 0.1 M phosphate buffer 
pH 7.0 then spun down and resuspended in the same buffer. Membrane 
fraction was prepared by disruption of cells which was accomplished 
by sonication with a Branson sonifier at 7-9 amps for 3 minutes in ice. 
The cell extract was centrifuged at 27,000 g for 20 minutes and the 
supernatant fraction separated which was then centrifuged at 100,000 g 
for 2 hours. The resulting gelatinous yellow pellet was resuspended 
in a mineral volume of 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0 in the presence 
of 20% (v/v) glycerol and designed as the membrane fraction. Soluble 
ATPase was made according to Cox et al. (1) by low-ionic-strength 
treatment. 

Heavy beef heart mitochondria were isolated according to Hatefi 
and Lester (5). ETPH were made by Lee and Ernster procedure (6). 
Oligomycin-insensitive ATPase was made according to Senior and Brooks 
through the ammonium sulfate fractionation (18). M.O.P. were isolated 
by Hansen and Smith procedure (3) except that 0.5 M sucrose and 
15 mM MgCl 2 were used. 

Protein concentration was determined by biuret method (17) with 
bovin serum albumin as a standard. 

All ATPase assays were run in a medium which gives maximal 
coupling as measured by ATP dependent reverse electron transport 
(.45 M sucrose, 50 mM glycylglycine, 12 mM MgO, pH 8.0 referred to 
as SGM8 medium). The ATPase activity was measured at 30 °C as fol- 
lows: enzyme was incubated with inhibitor and uncoupler 5 minutes 
in 1.9 ml total volume, 10 ^moles ATP in 0.1 ml was added and incuba- 
tion continued five minutes. The reaction was stopped by the addition 
of 3.0 ml cold 10% TCA. Pi was measured according to Wadkins and 
Lehninger (20). 

NADH ubiquinone reductase, all cytochrome c reductases and cyto- 
chrome oxidase were assayed in SGM8 medium at 30 °C (16). Succinate 
ubiquinone reductase was measured in 0.08 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 
in presence of 8 x 10~ 5 M EDTA. 

E. coli NADH and other oxidase systems were assayed as follows: 
enzyme (0.5 ~ 1.0 mg protein/assay) was incubated in 1.4 ml of buffer 
(0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0 for the strain K 12 wild type SGM8 for the 
strain AN236) for 3 minutes in the presence or absence of the indicated 
amounts of inhibitors and uncoupler, 50 /*1 of NADH (0.1 M), 50 /jl\ 



Cell Biology 



141 



of lactate (0.1 M), 50 /A of succinate (0.1 M) or 10 /a\ of duroquinone (20 
mg/ml) and 20 /x\ of dithiothreitol (30 mg/ml) were added as substrates 
to start the reaction for assay of NADH oxidase, lactate oxidase, suc- 
cinate oxidase and duroquinol oxidase respectively. 

E. coli NADH- menadione rductase activity was measured by fol- 
lowing oxygen uptake from the non-enzymatic autooxidation of menadiol. 
Enzyme and 50 yul KCN (0.1 M) were incubated in 1.4 ml buffer in 
the presence or absence of inhibitors and uncoupler for 3 minutes. 
The reaction was started by addition of 25 ^1 menadione (75 mM) and 
50 fxl NADH (0.1 M). To determine the hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide 
(HOQNO) insensitive rate, enzyme, 30 /U KCN (0.1 M) and 10 /xl 
HOQNO (4.0 mg/ml) were incubated with the appropriate inhibitors and 
uncoupler, and the reaction was started as described above. 

Results 

Bathophenanthroline (BP) inhibits electron transport of beef heart 
mitochondria in all three complexes, NADH- ubiquinone reductase, 
ubiquinolcytochrome C reductase and cytochrome oxidase. Table I 
shows the maximum percent of inhibition observed and the inhibition 
of these three systems is partially reversed by uncoupling agents in 
preparations which are coupled. Uncoupler has no effect on the BP 
inhibition of succinate-ubiquinone reductase which does not contain a 
coupling site. Dithizone, a Cu chelator, inhibits cytochrome oxidase 
but the inhibition of this complex is not reversed by the uncoupler as 
shown in Table I. NADH and succinate ubiquinol reductase can be 
inhibited by hydrophilic bathophenanthroline sulfonate or orthophenan- 
throline at surface sites depending on the orientation of the membrane 
(4). Inhibition at these sites is not reversed by uncouplers under our 
assay condition. Any slight inhibition of the three coupling complexes 



Table 1. Effect of Uncouplers on Chelator Inhibition of 
Mitochondrial Electron Transport. 







maximum percent of 


maximum percent 




coupling 


inhibition by 


of reversal 


partial reactions 


site 


chelators 


by uncouplers 






BP 


CCCP 


NADH^ubiquinone 


I 


70 


20 


ubiquinone^cytochrome c 


II 


50 


86.7 


cytochrome c^oxidase 


III 


56.5 


26.1 


succinate^ubiquinone 


none 


15.4 








BP 


gramacidin 


succinate^cytochrome c 


II 


85 


2.5 


cytochrome (^oxidase 


III 


65.9 


34.1 


NADH^ubiquinone 


I 


75 


8.3 






dithizone 


CCCP 


cytochrome (^oxidase 


III 


73.9 


—43.5 



Concentrations : BP, 0.05 ^moles/ml ; CCCP, 5.5 ^moles/ml for cytochrome oxidase 
and 1.7 ^moles/ml for all other reactions. Gramacidin, 11 nmoles/ml for cytochrome 
oxidase and 7 nmoles/ml for all others. Dithizone, 4.5 x 10 — 5 M. It should be noted 
that the effect of gramacidin on cytochrome oxidase is not dependent on the presence 
of monovalent cations. 



142 Indiana Academy of Science 

by the preformed chelate, ferrous bathophenanthroline complex are not 
reversed by uncoupling- agents either. The reversal is effected by various 
uncoupling agents such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone 
(CCCP), a,a bis (hexa-fluoro acetonyl) -acetone (1799) and 5-chloro-3- 
tert-butyl-2-chloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (S13). The uncoupler, penta- 
chlorophenol, causes an inhibition of electron transport activities by 
itself, which is increased with chelators. No reversal by the ionophore, 
gramacidin, in partial reactions such as succinate — > cytochrome c and 
NADH — > ubiquinone has been obseerved as also shown in Table I. 
Although gramacidin does show a significant reversal of inhibition of 
cytochrome oxidase, its effects are at 100 times the concentration 
required for uncoupling. 

Table II shows the inhibition of E. coli electron transport at two 
sites associated with energy coupling by the lipophilic chelator, 
bathophenanthroline. It gives good inhibition in both systems; NADH 
oxidase and duroquinone oxidase in both strains K 12 wild type and 
AN236 (ilv - , arg— , purE, thi — ). Less inhibition has been observed in 
the system of succinate oxidase by this chelator. Hydrophilic chelating 
agent such as a,a'-dipyridyl and bathophenanthroline sulfonate show 
only 11.8% and 0% inhibition respectively of the NADH oxidase sys- 
tem. This indicates that the chelator sensitive protein which affects 
electron transport activity is buried deep in the lipid layer of the 
membrane. 

The comparison of BP concentrations which cause 50% inhibition 
of electron transport activities and ATPase activity is listed in the 
Table III. Since at a similar level of BP, the same extent of inhibition 
is observed in both the ATP synthesis system and electron transport 
chain, we propose that a common functional intermediate, which par- 
ticipates in both systems, is the bathophenanthroline sensitive 
component. 

Table 2. Effect of Uncoupler on Chelator Inhibition of E. coli Plasma 
Membrane Electron Transport. 

maximum percent maximum percent 
coupling of inhibition by reversal by 

partial reactions site chelator-BP uncoupler CCCP 

NADH^oxidase (K-12) 

NADH-menadione 

lactate^oxidase 

succinate^oxidase 

duroquinone^oxidase 

NADH>oxidase (AN236) 

NADH-menadione 

succinate^oxidase 

duroquinone^oxidase 

Concentrations : BP, 3.2 x 10 — 4 M for both K12 W.T. NADH oxidase and lactate oxidase ; 
6.3 x 10— 6 M for K12 W.T. NADH— menadione reductase, 1.0 x 10— "M for K12 W.T. 
succinate oxidase, duroquinone oxidase and AN236 NADH oxidase, duroquinone oxidase; 
5 x 10— 4 M for AN236 succinate oxidase CCCP, 3 x lO^M for both K12 W.T. succinate 
oxidase and AN236 duroquinone oxidase; 7 x 10 — 5 M for K12 W.T. NADH-menadione 
reductase ; 8 x 10 — 5 M for the other two K12 W.T. reactions ; 2 x 10 — 5 M for AN236 
NADH-menadione reductase and 4 x 10 — 5 M for the other AN236 reactions. 



I and II 


81 


13.2 


I 


51.5 


19.4 


II 


50 


17 


II 


34.3 


7.3 


II 


65.4 


24.4 


I and II 


61.8 


17 


I 


86.8 


20 


II 


34 


12 


II 


82.4 


27.4 



Cell Biology 



143 



Both mitochondria and E. coli membrane bound ATPase activities 
are inhibited by BP and can be reversed by various uncoupling agents 
as shown in Table IV and Table V respectively. The lack of effect with 
pentachlorophenol in mitochondria contrasts with E. coli where this 
uncoupler causes 40% reversal of BP inhibited ATPase activity. Study 
with other chelators on E. coli membrane bound ATPase, such as 
200 fxg of orthophenanthroline and 40 fig of a,a'-dipyridyl show less 
than 10% and 15% inhibition respectively. Hydrophilic chelators such 
as bathophenanthroline sulfonate show essentially no inhibition. The 
copper chelator diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) also shows no inhib- 
itory effect. These results suggest that a BP sensitive component par- 
ticipates in energy linked reactions and is hidden in a lipophilic region 
within the membrane. The preformed ferrous-bathophenanthroline shows 
no inhibition of E. coli ATPase activities in both membrane bound and 
solubilized form; but this preformed chelate can give up to 70 percent 
inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase activity and the reversal of inhibi- 
tion by CCCP is only 45 percent as compared to 90 percent reversal 
of inhibition by free chelator. This implies that ferrous-bathophenan- 
throline has a different mode on inhibition than the free chelator. Table 



Table 3. 



The Comparison of Bathophenanthroline Concentration at 50% Inhibition of 
Both ATPase Activity and Electron Transport Activities. 



enzyme systems 



beef-heart 
mitochondria 



E. coli K12 wild type 



NADH^ubiquinone 
ubiquinone^cytochrome c 
cytochrome c^oxidase 
membrane bound ATPase 
NADH>oxidase 
NADH^menadione 
lactate^oxidase 
duroquinone^oxidase 



20 U M 



8 »M 



72 ^M 
50 ,,M 



63 „M 



60 „M 



Table 4. 



Prevention of Bathophenanthroline Inhibition of Mitochondria Membrane 
Bound ATPase Activity by Various Uncoupling Agents. 



Uncoupling agent 



Maximum percent 


of 


Maximum percent of 


inhibition by chelator 


revei 


■sal 


by uncouplers 


30 ^g BP 










90 








80 


90 








150 


90 











90 











50 ^g BP 










100 








13.3 


100 








23.5 



3 ^g CCCP 

3 ^g Set 

20 nmoles gramicidin 

tassium acetate 
10 nmoles valinomycin 



+ 100 u moles po- 



14 nmoles niger- 



icin -J- 100 umoles potassium acetate 



0.33 ^moles 1799 

0.5 ^moles DNP 

Se, 5-chloro-3-(p-chlorophenol)-4'-chlorosalicylanilide 

1799, a , a -bis (hexa-fluoro-acetonyl ) acetone 

DNP 2.4-dinitrophenol 



144 Indiana Academy of Science 

IV and Table V also show that ionophores are essentially ineffective 

in reversing ATPase activities from both E. coli and mitochondria. 

The soluble ATPase extracted from either mitochondria or E. coli 

is insensitive to BP. This indicates the chelator sensitive site is in 
the membrane. 



Table 5. Prevention of Bathophenanthroline Inhibition of E. coli K 12 Wild Type 
Membrane Bound ATPase Activity by Various Uncoupling Agents. 





Maximum percent of 


Max: 


imum percent of 


Uncoupling agent 


inhibition by chelator 
50 ^g BP 


rever 


sal by uncoupler 


3 ^g CCCP 


70 




60 


1 ^g TTFB 


70 




60 


1 ^g s 6 


70 




50 


6 ug pentachlorophenol 


70 




40 


4 ng dicumarol 


70 




60 


20 nmoles gramicidin -f- 100 ^moles po- 








tassium acetate 


70 







10 nmoles valinomycin + 14 nmoles niger- 








icin + 100 /(moles potassium acetate 


70 







TTFB, 4, 5, 6, 7 Tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole. 







Table VI shows that not only does oligomycin inhibit mitochondrial 
ATPase activity very nicely in the presence of CCCP but also oligomycin 
inhibits this enzyme activity after restoration by CCCP in the presence 
of bathophenanthroline. The fact that oligomycin does not reverse the 
bathophenanthroline effect, together with the fact that CCCP does 
not reverse oligomycin inhibition indicates that the BP binding site 
and the oligomycin sensitive site are not identical. 

The inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCCD) of E. 
coli ATPase activity is shown in Table VII. Evidence is also shown in 
this Table that CCCP does not reverse the DCCD effect on ATPase 
activity, bathophenanthroline inhibition is not reversed by DCCD and 
DCCD inhibits ATPase activity reversed by CCCP in the presence 
of BP. We conclude here that bathophenanthroline binding component 
is different from the DCCD binding protein. 



Table 6. Inhibition by Oligomycin of Mitochondria Membrane Bound ATPase Activity 
in the Presence of both CCCP and Bathophenanthroline. 

Percent of 
ng oligomycin inhibition in 

^g Bathophenanthroline »g CCCP mg protein ATPase activity 



3 

50 

50 

50 3 

50 3 



1.0 


85.8 


1.0 


71.5 





100 


1.0 


100 








1.0 


42.9 



Cell Biology 145 

Table 7. Effect of DCCD on ATPase Activity of E. coli AN236 in the Presence of 

BP or CCCP or Both. 













Percent 


of inhibition 


fl« of 


Bp 


M* 


of CCCP 


nMoles of DCCD 


in ATPase activity 












5 




50 












10 




40 









5 


5 




50 









5 


10 




40 


10 














30 


30 














40 


10 









5 




30 


30 









5 




40 


10 






5 










30 






5 










10 






5 


5 




20 


30 






5 


5 




20 



DCCD, N.N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide. 

Discussion 

These studies using a metal chelator, bathophenanthroline, as an 
inhibitor of both electron transport and energy coupling systems show 
effects that must be related to the location of non-heme iron and copper 
proteins in the membrane. Since both systems are inhibited by 
bathophenanthroline at similar concentrations, it strongly indicates 
that either a common functional component which is bathophenanthroline 
sensitive, may participate in both systems, or an energy transport com- 
ponent, which is sensitive to bathophenanthroline, may be required to 
react with an electron transport component. 

The fact that uncouplers reverse chelator inhibition suggests a 
competition between uncoupler and chelator either for the same site 
on closely adjacent sites will be the basis for the prevention of 
chelator inhibition by the uncoupler. 

Since ionophores, such a gramacidin, valinomycin and nigericin 
are essentially ineffective in reversing the bathophenanthroline inhibition 
of either ATPase activity or electron transport activities; it is therefore 
suggested that ion gradients can not be the primary reactions in the 
energy transfer. 

The preformed ferrous-bathophenanthroline shows no inhibition of 
E. coli ATPase activity. This is in contrast to that of mitochondria in 
which the chelate gives a good inhibition, but CCCP causes only up 
to 50% reversal compared to the reversal of bathophenanthroline 
inhibition. A different mechanism of inhibition by ferrous- 
bathophenanthroline is indicated in the eukaryotic organells which is 
probably missing in the prokaryotic E. coli cells. 

The lack of inhibition of both energy conserving system and 
electron transport system by hydrophilic chelators indicates that the 
common functional intermediate is protected by a hydrophobic environ- 
ment of the membrane. The fact that bathophenanthroline fails to 
inhibit soluble ATPase from both E. coli and mitochondria also implies 
that the bathophenanthroline responsive site is probably hidden deep 
in the membrane but not in the enzyme itself. 



146 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Cox, G. B., F. Gibson, L. M. McCann, J. D. Butlin, and F. L. Crane. 1973. 
Reconstitution of the energy-linked transhydrogenase activity in membrane from 
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adenosine triphosphatase. Biochem. J. 132:689-695. 

2. Erecinska, M., R. Oshino, N. Oshino and B. Chance. 1973. The b cytochromes 
in succinate-cytochrome c reductase from pigeon breast mitochondria. Arch. Bio- 
chem. Biophys. 157:431-445. 

3. Hansen, M. and A. L. Smith. 1964. Studies on the mechanism of oxidative phos- 
phorylation. VII. Preparation of a submitochondrial particle (ETP H ) which is cap- 
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4. Harmon, H. J. and F. L. Crane. 1974. Topographical definition of new sites on 
the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Biochim. Biophys. Res. Communs. 59 : 
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5. Hatefi, Y. and R. L. Lester. 1958. Study on the mechanism of oxidative phos- 
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6. Lee, C. P. and L. Ernster. 1968. Studies of the energy- transfer system of submito- 
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7. Layne, E. 1957. Buiret Method, p. 450-451. In S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan 
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8. Mitchell, P. 1961. Coupling of phosphorylation to electrons and hydrogen transfer 
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9. Mitchell, P. 1966. Chemiosmotic coupling in oxidative and photosynthetic phos- 
phorylation. Biol. Rev. 41 : 445-5 02. 

10. Mitchell, P. 1972. Chemiosmotic coupling in energy transduction: A logical de- 
velopment of biochemical knowledge. J. Bioenerg. 3:5-24. 

11. Monod, J. G. Cohen-Bazire, and M. Cohn. 1951. Sur la biosynthese de la 0-galac- 
tosidase chez E. coli la specificite de l'induction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 7:585-599. 

12. Ohnishi, T., D. F. Wilson and B. Chance. 1972. Energy dependence of the half- 
reduction potential of iron-sulfur center 1 in the site I region of the respiratory 
chain in pigeon heart mitochondria. Biochim. Bophys. Res. Communs. 49 :1087-1092. 

13. Ohnishi, T. 1973. Mechanism of electron transport and energy conservation in 
the site I region of the respiratory chain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 301:105-128. 

14. Palmieri, F. and E. Quagiariello. 1969. Correlation between anion uptake and 
the movement of K+ and H+ across the mitochondrial membrane. European J. 
Biochem. 8:473-481. 

15. Phelps, D. C. and F. L. Crane. 1974. Lipophilic chelator inhibition of mito- 
chondrial membrane-bound ATPase activity and prevention of inhibition by un- 
couples. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communs. 61:671-676. 

16. Phelps, D. C, J. J. Harmon and F. L. Crane. Prevention by uncouplers of 
lipophilic chelator inhibition at three sites of mitochondrial electron transport. Bio- 
chem. Biophys. Res. Communs. 59:1185-1191. 

17. Roberston, R. N. 1960. Ion transport and respiration. Biol. Rev. 35 :231-264. 

18. Senior, A. E. and J. C. Brooks. 1970. Studies on the mechanism of oxidative phos- 
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Stotz (ed.), Comprehensive Biochemistry, vol. 14, Elsevier Amsterdam. 

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584. 



New Ionic Redox Agents for the Study of Photosynthesis 1 

R. Barr, D. Rosen and F. L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Numerous ions were tested for their usefulness as electron carriers in the electron 
transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. It was found that silicomolybdic acid and 
cobaltinitrite were sufficient electron acceptors for photosystem II while metavanadite 
and ferrocyanide could be used to donate electrons to photosystem I. Silicomolybdic 
acid, a large polyanion, proved to be a unique compound accepting electrons before the 
DCMU block. Cobaltinitrite accepted electrons close to the photophosphorylation site 
of PS II. Metavanadite donated electrons to PS I in the vicinity of plastocyanin (PC) 
while ferrocyanide provided a site between plastocyanin and P 700. 

Introduction 

With the exception of potassium ferri-ferrocyanide (9, 12), few ions 
have been used as electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron trans- 
port chain of chloroplasts. In this study, silicomolybdic acid, a large 
polyanion (5) and potassium cobaltinitrite are proposed as electron 
acceptors for photosystem II. The properties of these reactions are com- 
pared to the well-known H 2 0— ^ferricyanide reaction. To act as electron 
donors to photosystem I, potassium vanadite (vanadium IV), another 
large polyanion and ferrocyanide (9) were chosen. The oxidation of 
these compounds is compared to the standard PS I reaction, ascorbate 
plus TMPD-^methyl viologen (12). By introducing these various ions 
as electron carriers in photosynthetic electron transport, new approaches 
are opened up to an understanding of the sequence of the electron 
transport chain in spinach chloroplasts. 

Materials and Methods 

Spinach chloroplasts were prepared from market spinach by the 
method of Jagendorf and Avron (10). Chlorophyll was determined by 
Anion's method (1). 

The effect of the various anions on photosynthetic electron trans- 
port was studied polarographically with a Clark-type electrode. A 
typical PS II reaction mixture contained in 3 ml total volume: chloro- 
plasts containing 50 /xg chlorophyll, 150 ,umoles Trizma-Mes, pH 7.0, 30 
Aimoles MgClo, 12 jumoles NELCl and 0.2-0.5 mg silicomolybdic acid or 
0.2-0.5 mg potassium cobaltinitrite. Silicomolybdic acid reduction was 
done in the presence of DCMU since this reaction was found to be largely 
DCMU-insensitive. 

PS I reactions contained the following per ml solution: chloroplasts 
containing 15 /mg chlorophyll, sodium ascorbate, 50 ^moles, TMPD 
0.2 yumole, methyl viologen, 0.4 /xmole, Trizma-Mes, pH 8, 150 
/Ltmole, and DCMU 0.03 /umole. The ferrocyanide reaction contained 
320 mmoles ferrocyanide in place of TMPD, the metavanadite 



Supported by NSF Grant GB 27501 AI. 

147 



148 Indiana Academy of Science 

(vanadium IV) — 0.4 ml of a saturated solution dissolved in 0.1 
N NaOH. 

Chelators, such as ortho- or bathophenanthroline were added to 
chloroplasts in the least possible volume of ethanol — 20 X for silico- 
molybdic acid reduction, 20-50 X for cobaltinitrite reduction. PS I 
reactions were found to be less sensitive to ethanol. 

Polylysine, 35,000 M.W., obtained from Sigma, was dissolved in 
water. A strict order of addition to PS I reactions was observed to 
get maximum inhibition (4): water, polylysine, and chloroplasts, fol- 
lowed by buffer and all other reaction mixture ingredients. 

DBMIB was the gift of Dr. A. Trebst. Silicomolybdic acid was 
purchased from ICN-K & K Laboratories. It was dissolved in water 
and filtered before use. In general, the ions tested were dissolved in 
water if possible; if not, in 1 N NaOH or 1 N HC1. Some gave 
saturated solutions and had to be filtered. 

Results 

Optimum concentrations of silicomolybdic acid (0.2 mg), cobalti- 
nitrite (0.5 mg) and metavanadate (1 mmole) per each 2 ml assay 
are shown in Fig. 1. The pH optimum of the water — -> silicomolybdic 
acid reaction is from 6-7 (Fig. 2) although all standard PS II reac- 
tions in this study were done at pH 7. Since chloroplasts were tightly 
coupled, the presence of ammonium chloride was necessary. The optimum 
pH for the H 2 0— ^metavanadate reaction was 7, as Fig. 2 shows. 

Factors affecting silicomolybdic acid reduction by chloroplast 
photosystem II are shown in Table I. Inhibition of oxygen evolution 
rates is given by ethanol, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium permanga- 
nate. Chelators, such as bathophenanthroline also inhibited the water— > 
silicomolybdic acid pathway by 10% or more, depending on the concen- 
tration but orthophenanthroline gave little inhibition of this reaction. 
Both chelators strongly inhibited the H 2 0— >ferricyanide reaction. An- 
other difference between the reduction of silicomolybdic acid and ferri- 
cyanide in chloroplasts was that potassium permanganate showed no 
inhibition of the H 2 0— >ferricyanide pathway indicating that all com- 
ponents of the water— ^silicomolybdic acid pathway are not the same in 
the 2 reactions. 

Table 2 describes other chloroplast photosystem I and II acceptors 
in the following reactions: H 2 0^.cobaltinitrite, H 2 0— >metavanadate 
(vanadium V), H 2 0— >ruthenium red, and H 2 0— >nitroprusside blue. The 
reduction of these compounds by chloroplasts is also inhibited by 
DCMU, DBMIB, Tween-20, and polylysine from 45-100%. Since watery 
cobaltinitrite is completely inhibited by DCMU, it is clearly a PS II 
reaction while the water^metavanadate passway encompasses both 
photosystems. The other 2 reactions described, H 2 0^rutherium red and 
H 2 0— ^nitroprusside blue, are also mixed reactions. They have not been 
studied in detail and are presented here only to show that rutherium 
red and nitroprusside blue are able to accept electrons from the chloro- 
plast electron transport chain. 



Cell Biology 



149 



H 2 0-*SM 

H 2 0-— CoNO 

H 2 -^ meta vanadate 




CONCENTRATION 



Figure 1. The effect of silicomolybdic acid, cobaltinitrite, and metavanadate concen- 
tration on oxygen evolution rates in photosystem II of spinach chloroplasts. 

Vanadyl sulfate and ferrocyanide in low concentrations (0.032 M) 
were found to donate electrons to PS II (Table 3). The vanadyl sulfate 
reaction was completely sensitive to DCMU, ferrocyanide 70%. 

Optimum concentrations of metavanadite (0.4 ml) and ferrocyanide 
(20 mg) are given in Fig. 3. In this case total volume of the reaction 
mixture was 5 ml. Optimum pH for these 2 PS I reactions is 8 (Fig. 
4). Fig. 5 shows factors affecting ferrocyanide oxidation in PS I. It can 



1 silicomolybdic acid concentration ivas (1, 2, 3, J,) 0.1, 0.2, 03, O.Jf mg/assay; 
cobaltinitrite concentration — 0.25, 0.5, l, and 2.5 mg; metavanadate concentration — 
0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mmolea. 



150 



Indiana Academy of Science 



• H 2 — SM+NH4CI 

X H 2 0— SM-NH4CI 

A H 2 O^Metavanadctfe+l\IH£l 

o H 2 0-^Cobaltinitrate+NH 4 CI 




Figure 2. The effect of pH on silicomolybdic acid, metavanadate, anl cobaltinitrite 

reduction in chloroplasts. NHiCl was present in all assays except where silicomolybdic 

acid reduction was compared to rates in its absence. 



be seen that polylysine and ethanol stimulate this reaction while such 
chaotropic agents as potassium iodide and sodium thiocyanate inhibit it. 

In Table 4 factors affecting vanadite (vanadium IV) oxidation 
by photosystem I are described. Tween-20 gave a complete inhibition 
of the rate which could be restored by exogenous plastocyanin. Poly- 
lysine also inhibited vanadite oxidation by PS I. Rates were affected 
to varying degrees by the chelators, ortho- or bathophenanthroline, 
salicylaldoxime and dithizone. 

In Table 5, 2 photosystem I reactions — ascorbate plus TMPD-^ 
methyl viologen and ascorbate plus ferrocyanide— »methyl viologen — are 
compared after various chloroplast treatments. Washing chloroplasts 
with 1% Tween-20 solution almost abolished TMPD oxidation and de- 
creased ferrocyanide oxidation by half. TMPD oxidation could be com- 
pletely restored by addition of plastocyanin, but plastocyanin had no 
effect on the ferrocyanide rate. Ferrocyanide oxidation in Tween-washed 
chloroplasts could only be restored by the addition of the 0.4 M NaCl 



Cell Biology 151 

Table 1. Factors Affecting Silicomolybdic Acid Reduction by Chloroplaat Photosystem II. 







0. 2 evolution 








(^equiv./mg 


Inhibition 


Reaction 


Additions 


chlorophyll/hr) 


(%) 


H 2 0>SM 


None 


312 


— 




DCMU 


288 


8 




Ethanol (20 \) 


228 


27 




Ethanol (50 \) 


150 


52 




Bathophenanthroline 


246 


21 




(0.05 mg) 








Oithophenanthroline 


310 


1 




(0.05 mg) 








Sodium bicarbonate 


86 


72 




(0.1 mmole) 








Potassium permanganate 


182 


42 




(10 ^moles) 








Potassium permanganate 


78 


75 




(25 ^moles) 






H 2 0^ferricyanide 


None 


306 


— 




DCMU 





100 




Ethanol (20 \) 


272 


11 




Ethanol (50 \) 


248 


19 




Bathophenanthroline 


116 


62 




(0.05 mg) 








Orthophenanthroline 


72 


76 




(0.05 mg) 








Sodium bicarbonate 


276 


10 




(0.1 mmole) 








Potassium permanganate 


312 







(10 nmoles) 








Potassium permanganate 


186 


39 




(50 umoles) 







fraction from a DEAE column containing an unknown factor. The addi- 
tion of polylysine to chloroplasts decreased TMPD oxidation but stim- 
ulated ferrocyanide oxidation. Incubation of chloroplasts with bathocu- 
proine, a lipophilic chelator with an affinity for copper, for 1 hr decreased 
the TMPD and ferrocyanide rates, but the water-soluble bathophenanth- 
roline sulfonate had no effect. A 5-min. incubation with dithizone, another 
copper chelator, showed some inhibition of the TMPD rate, but longer pe- 
riods of incubation resulted in stimulation. Dithizone had little effect on 
ferrocyanide oxidation, as did salicylaldoxime which again inhibited 
TMPD oxidation. 

In Table 6, less successful ionic electron donors or acceptors for 
both photosystems in spinach chloroplasts are described. The wide 
variety of unsuccessful compounds which are known to undergo 
oxidation-reduction reactions implies specificity of the successful ones. 



Discussion 

Various ions which exhibit several possible redox states, such as 
vanadium compounds II-V, appear to be likely candidates as electron 
carriers in the electron transport chain of chloroplasts. However, only 
ferri-ferrocyanide (9, 12) has been used for such a purpose previously. 



152 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Factors Affecting the Reduction of Other Chloroplast Photosystem I and II 

Acceptors. 



Reaction 



Additions 



0„ evolution 

(z^equiv./mg Inhibition 



chlorophyll/hr) 



(%) 



H^O^cobaltinitrite 



H^O^meta vanadate 



H 2 0^-ruthenium red 



H.,0^nitroprusside 



None 




338 


— 


DCMU 







100 


DBMIB 




124 


63 


Orthophenanthroline 


189 


44 


(0.05 mg) 








Bathophenanthi 


■oline 


169 


50 


(0.05 mg) 








None 




362 


— 


DCMU 




40 


89 


DBMIB 




136 


62 


Orthophenanthi 


.oline 


68 


81 


(0.05 mg) 








Bathophenanthi 


i-oline 


182 


50 


(0.05 mg) 








Tween-20 (2.5 : 


K 10-3%) 


96 


73 


Tween-20 (5 x 


10-3%) 


36 


90 


Polylysine (0.1 


mg) 





100 


None 




143 


— 


DCMU 




78 


45 


DBMIB 




39 


73 


None 




142 


— 


DCMU 




68 


52 


DBMIB 




42 


70 



In this study, it was chosen to test several other ions to serve as 
artificial electron acceptors in photosystem II or as electron donors to 
photosystem I. Of numerous compounds tested, silicomolybdic acid and 
cobaltinitrite, metavanadate and ferrocyanide were found to function 
best in chloroplasts. 

Silicomolybdic acid was found by Giaquinta et al. (5) to accept 
electrons in PS II before the DCMU block, presumably at Q. This 
reaction did not support photophosphorylation. Since silicomolybdic 
acid is a large polyanion, it is assumed that it does not penetrate the 
thylakoid membrane. As such it is a useful tool in studying membrane 
sidedness. The fact that the H 2 0— ^silicomolybdic acid pathway is 
affected by low concentrations of ethanol and is strongly inhibited by 

Table 3. Ionic Donors to Chloroplast Photosystem II. 



Reaction 



Additions 



2 uptake 

(^equiv./mg 

chl/hr) 



Inhibition 
(%) 



Vanadyl sulfate 



Ferrocyanide 



None 

DCMU 

DBMIB 

None 
DCMU 



344 








100 


56 


84 


84 





25 


70 



Cell Biology 



153 



• metavanadite 
x ferrocyanide 




2 3 

CONCENTRATION ' 



Figure 3. 



The effect of metavanadite and ferrocyanide concentration on oxygen pro- 
duction by photosystcm I in spinach chloroplasts. 



sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate whereas the water-^. 
ferricyanide reaction keeps going under these conditions (Table 1), 
points to silicomolybdic acid accepting electrons on a sidepath branch- 
ing off from Q, the initial electron acceptor from the PS II reaction 
center chlorophyll of the traditional Z-scheme of electron transport 
chain in chloroplasts. 

Since the reduction of cobaltinitrite was found to be entirely DCMU- 
sensitive and also, ortho- and bathophenanthroline-sensitive (Table 2), 



1 metavanadite concentration was (1, 2, 3, 4) 0. 
cyanide concentration — 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg. 



O.k, 0.6 and 0.8 ml/assay; fcrro- 



154 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 4. Factors Affecting Photosystem I Vanadite Oxidation. 







PS I Rate 
(umoles acceptor 








reduced/mg 


Inhibition 


Reaction 


Additions 


chlorophyll/hr ) 


(%) 


Ascorbate plus metavanadite^ 


None 


255 


— 


methyl viologen 


Tween-20 (0.1%) 





100 




" plus PC 


255 







Polylysine (0.1 mg) 


113 


56 




Polylysine (0.2 mg) 


56 


78 




Bathophenanthroline 


56 


78 




(0.05 mg) 








Orthophenanthroline 


204 


20 




(0.05 mg) 








Salicylaldoxime 


85 


67 




(0.2 mg) 








Dithizone 


306 







(0.5 mmole) 







cobaltinitrite is assumed to accept electrons between Q and immediately 
after the DCMU block of PS II. This is Gould and Izawa's (7) pro- 
posed photophosphorylation site for PS II which they assay by the 
HoO^dimethylbenzoquinone reaction. Further support for cobaltinitrite 
accepting electrons at this site comes from Barr and Crane's data on 
the behavior of uncoupler protection against chelator inhibition at 
phosphorylation sites in the electron transport chain (3). Cobaltinitrite 
reduction in PS II is chelator-sensitive and can be protected by such 
uncouplers as CCCP (unpublished data). 

Ascorbate plus metavanadite^methyl viologen and ascorbate plus 
ferrocyanide^methyl viologen are photosystem I reactions. It is well 
known that ascorbate plus TMPD^methyl viologen donate electrons 
to PS I before plastocyanin because Tween washes or sonication 
which remove plastocyanin stop this reaction. Activity can be restored 
by exogenous plastocyanin. A comparison of metavanadite and TMPD 
oxidation in Tween-washed chloroplasts shows that both reactions are 
inhibited when plastocyanin is removed (Tables 4, 5) and both can 
be restored by exogenous plastocyanin. This data places the metavanadite 
oxidation site before or close to plastocyanin. However, the metavanadite 
site appears to be different from the TMPD site on the basis of chelator 
inhibition: TMPD oxidation is frequently stimulated by bathophenan- 
throline whereas metavanadite can be inhibited by bathophenanthroline. 

The third PS I electron donor site studied involves ferrocyanide in 
high concentrations (0.32 M). A comparison of this reaction in Tween- 
washed chloroplasts with TMPD oxidation (Table 5) shows that it 
loses about a half of its activity and that the loss cannot be restored 
by plastocyanin. Restoration of the normal rate is possible only by the 
addition of an unknown component, a protein which can be eluted 
from a DEAE column by the 0.4 M NaCl gradient fraction after 
dialysis. Since ferrocyanide oxidation appears to be independent of 
plastocyanin, ferrocyanide must donate electrons to PS I after the 
plastocyanin site, or somewhere between plastocyanin and P 700, the 



Cell Biology 



155 



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156 



Indiana Academy of Science 



• metavanadite 
x ferrocyanide 




PH 



Figure 4. The effect of pH on metavanadite and ascorbate oxidation by photosystem I 

of spinach chloroplasts. 



Table 6. 



Less Successful Ionic Electron Donors or Acceptors for Photosynthetic 
Reactions. 



Reaction 



Oxygen evolution or uptake 
(nequiv./mg chlorophyll/hr) 



H„0^rhodium chloride 
H^O^perrhenic acid 
Perrhenic acid^MV 
H 2 0^sodium tantalate 
H 2 0^sodium ruthenate 
H 2 0>*manganicyanide (dark) 
H^O^manganicyanide (light-dark) 
HgO^manganicyanide (without chloroplasts) 
H O^ruthernium potassium cyanate 



Cell Biology 



157 



• +ETOH 
X +KI 
A+NaSCN 
o +Polylysine 




2 3 

CONCENTRATION 



Figure 5. Factors affecting ferrocyanide oxidation by photosystem I in spinach chloro- 

plasts. 



reaction center chlorophyll in PS I. An examination of ferrocyanide 
reaction sites after incubation with various chelators, such as batho- 
cuproine, salicylaldoxime or dithizone, discloses varied results: batho- 
cuprione inhibits ferrocyanide oxidation while dithizone or salicylaldoxime 
does not effect it. The three chelators also have different effects 
on TMPD oxidation: bathocuproine and salicylaldoxime which most 
likely affect the copper in plastocyanin are strong inhibitors; dithizone 



ethanol concentration was (1, 2, 3, U) — 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 ml; KI concentration — 
300, 600, 1200, and 3000 mmoles; NaSCN concentration — 300, 600, 1200, 1500 
and 3000 mmoles; polylysine concentration — 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mg. 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

inhibits during short incubation periods but stimulates the reaction 
over a 30 min. incubation period. A chelator-stimulated site in the 
vicinity of plastocyanin has been reported previously by Barr and 
Crane (3). 

The metavanadite and ferrocyanide data can also be interpreted 
according to the branch pathway scheme of Haehnel (8) who put 
plastocyanin and cytochrome f on separate pathways to P 700. In 
this case vanadite would donate electrons primarily to the plastocyanin 
branch, ferrocyanide to the other branch, and TMPD to both 
pathways. 

The apparent donation of electrons from metavanadite to plasto- 
cyanin would indicate that plastocyanin or another component in that 
pathway is on the outer surface of the chloroplast membrane since 
metavanadite is not soluble in lipids. 

In contrast to the negatively charged metavanadite, the positive 
vanadyl ion donates electrons to methyl viologen mostly before the 
DCMU site and, therefore, reacts before photosystem II. This site 
may be similar to the site where low concentrations of ferrocyanide 
donate electrons to PS II (Table 3), as described by Izawa and Ort 
(9). The ability of both positive and negative ions to act as electron 
donors before PS II indicates that a portion of the PS II system may 
lie exposed on the exterior of the membrane. Although Arntzen et al. 
(2) showed by freeze-etch studies of chloroplasts that large PS II 
particles were on the inside of the membrane, other studies using non- 
penetrating DABS isotope labelling (6) and immunological studies (11) 
have shown that a portion of PS II may be accessible from the outside 
of the membrane. 

In summary, the use of ionic electron carriers has been investi- 
gated in photosynthetic electron transport. Two new electron acceptors 
for PS II and two electron donors for PS I have been described. 
Silicomolybdic acid was found to be unique in accepting electrons 
before the DCMU block, cobaltinitrite immediately after it in PS II. 
Metavanadite and ferrocyanide, electron donors to PS I, were useful 
in studying the region between plastocyanin and P 700. 



Cell Biology 159 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase 
in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24:1-15. 

2. Arntzen, C. J., R. A. Dilley and F. L. Crane. 1969. A comparison of chloro- 
plast membrane surfaces visualized by freeze-etch and negative staining techniques; 
and ultrastructural characterization of membrane fractions obtained from digitonin- 
treated spinach chloroplasts. J. Cell Biol. 43:16-31. 

3. Barr, R. and F. L. Crane. 1974. Chelator-sensitive sites in chloroplast electron 
transport. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communs. 60:748-755. 

4. Brand, J., T. Baszynski, F. L. Crane, and D. Krogmann. 1972. Selective inhibition 
of photosynthetic reactions by polycations. J. Biol. Chem. 247:2814-2819. 

5. Giaquinta, R. T., R. A. Dilley, F. L. Crane and R. Barr. 1974. Photophos- 
phorylation not coupled to DCMU-insensitive photosystem II oxygen evolution. 
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communs. 59 :985-991. 

6. Giaquinta, R. T., R. A. Dilley, B. R. Selman and B. J. Anderson. 1974. Chemi- 
cal modification studies of chloroplast membranes. Water oxidation inhibition by 
diazonium-benzene sulfonic acid. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 162:200-209. 

7. Gould, J. M. and S. Izawa. 1973. Studies on the energy coupling sites of photo- 
phosphorylation I. Separation of site I and site II by partial reactions of the 
chloroplast electron transport chain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 314:211-223. 

8. Haehnel, W. 1973. Electron transport between plastoquinone and chlorophyll ai 
in chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 305:618-631. 

9. IZAWA, S. and D. R. Ort. 1974. Photooxidation of ferrocyanide and iodide ions 
and associated phosphorylation in NH 2 OH-treated chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. 
Acta 357:127-143. 

10. Jagendorf, A. T. and M. Avron. 1958. Cofactors and rates of photosynthetic 
phosphorylation by spinach chloroplasts. J. Biol. Chem. 231:277-290. 

11. Koenig, F., W. Menke, H. Craubner, G. H. Schmid and A. Radunz. 1972. Photo- 
chemically active chlorophyll-containing proteins from chloroplasts and their locali- 
zation in the thylakoid membrane. Z. Naturforsch. 27 (Part B) :1225-1238. 

12. TREBST, A. Measurement of Hill reactions and photoreduction. In Methods in 
Enzymology, vol. XXIV, part. B. A. San Pietro, ed. Academic Press, New York 
and London, 1972. pp. 146-165. 



Regression of Crown Gall Tumors of Bean Leaves Induced 
by Glucosamine 1 

C. L. Richardson, M. Bar, M. A. Werderitsh and D. James Morre 2 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Tumors were induced in the primary leaves of beans by inoculation with Agrobacter- 
ium tumefaciens. Leaves were treated 48 to 72 hours after inoculation by applying 0.1 
ml of the test solution over the leaf surfaces. Tumor number, tumor diameter, and 
leaf size were recorded at the time of treatment and two days later. Glucose and 
sucrose (0.1 to 0.01 M) stimulated tumor growth. In contrast, tumors treated with 
glucosamine regressed. Regression was proportional to glucosamine concentration 
and reached 80 to 90% at 0.1 M. Tumor regression by glucosamine is the first report 
of successful chemotherapy of a plant tumor. 

The regulation of specific enzymes in tumors can be correlated 
with transformation per se as shown by Weber and collaborators in 
lines of Morris hepatoma (10, 11, 12). Weber has suggested that such 
multiple effects provide evidence that tumorigenesis is not due to a 
mutation of a single structural gene but, rather, is a regulatory defect 
affecting a broad spectrum of biochemical parameters (12). Alter- 
natively, multiple defects could arise from a mutation affecting a single 
structural gene only if the primary gene product affected was closely 
coupled to the production of other gene products through normal 
regulatory mechanisms. 

To distinguish among these and other possibilities, experimental 
approaches would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a system 
in which tumorigenesis could be reversed. With such a system, both 
the induction and reversion of the tumorigenic process could be moni- 
tored to determine the nature of critical events and the temporal rela- 
tionships among secondary changes. "Spontaneous" revertants have 
been reported for several lines of mammalian cells (4, 5, 8). However, the 
production of these revertants cannot be regulated and they offer no 
opportunity to monitor the events responsible for reversion. 

As one approach to a search for a means to reverse the tumori- 
genic process, we studied the crown gall tumor of bean induced by the 
bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7). This system offered advan- 
tages of rapid growth, easy accessibility, and the possibility of screen- 
ing large numbers of antitumor compounds in a short time. By 
screening several groups of potentially antitumorigenic compounds, one, 
glucosamine, was found to cause rapid and nearly complete disappear- 
ance of already-formed tumors. 



1 Supported in part by NIH CA 13145. C.L.R. is supported by a training grant 
from the NSF GM 01392 to the Department of Biological Sciences. Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station Jouinal Paper No. 5794. 

2 C.L.R. is from Department of Biological Sciences. D.J.M. is appointed jointly 
with the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Department of Biological 
Sciences. 

160 



Cell Biology 161 

Materials and Methods 

Plants of garden bean (Phaseolns vulgaris cv. Bountiful) were 
grown from seed in the greenhouse, 2 plants per 4-inch diam pot, in 
vermiculite. When the primary leaves entered the phase of rapid expan- 
sion (about 7 days after planting), tumors were induced with the 
bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens (ATCC Strain 15955) kindly 
provided by Dr. Ann Matthysse of the Department of Microbiology, 
Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, Indiana. The procedure 
for inoculation was that of Lippencott and Heberlein (7). Leaves were 
gently wounded with carborundum and a drop of the bacterial sus- 
pension was applied to the surface of the leaf and allowed to dry. 
Leaves were then rinsed well with deionized water, again allowed to 
dry and covered with plastic bags. When tumors were 1 mm in 
diameter (2-3 days after inoculation), 0.1 ml solutions of potential 
antitumor agents were spread evenly over the leaf surface with a glass 
rod, and allowed to dry. To determine degree of regression, tumor 
number and size were monitored before treatment, and 48 hr after 
treatment, by tracing the outlines on plastic overlays. 

Results 

Since glucosamine was the first compound found to cause regression 
of crown gall tumors, attention will be focused on the effects of sugars 
(Table 1). When tested at concentrations of 50 mM, the following sugars 
stimulated tumor growth: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fucose, D-fructose, 
L-arabinose, D-mannose, and L-rhamnose. Lactose and glucose-1- 
phosphate were without effect. In contrast, marked tumor regression 
resulted from treatment with D-glucosamine but not from the 



Table 1. Effect of sugars, sugar derivatives and related compounds on crown gall 
tumors induced on bean leaves by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. 



Compound 

None (Control) 

D-Glucosamine 

D-Galactosamine 

D-Glucose 

D-Galactose 

D-Glucose-1-phosphate 

N-Acetylglucosamine 

Lactose 

D-Ribose 

D-Mannitol 

Sucrose 

L-Rhamnose 

D-Fructose 

L-Arabinose 

D-Mannose 

D-Fucose 

DL-Asparagine 

Ammonium nitrate 

1 Averages of ten leaves per experiment. Standard deviations are for experiments 
repeated 3 or more times. 





Tumor Number 1 




% of Initial 


% of Control 


118 ± 


17 


100 


48 ± 


6 


41 


85 ± 


4 


72 


143 ± 


5 


121 


125 




106 


127 




107 


122 




103 


127 




107 


115 




98 


108 




92 


134 




113 


133 ± 


14 


113 


170 ± 


28 


144 


143 




121 


145 




123 


153 




129 


97 




82 


109 




93 



162 



Indiana Academy of Science 



N-acetylated derivative of this sugar. Ammonium nitrate and DL- 
asparagine were also without effect. 

Regression was proportional to glucosamine concentration (Figure 
1). Tumoristasis was achieved at 10 mM with nearly complete regres- 
sion at 120 mM. In separate experiments (data not shown), glucosa- 
mine was found to inhibit increase in leaf weight by about 15% at 50 
mM but was non-lethal at any of the concentrations tested. 




20 40 60 80 100 
GLUCOSAM INE CONCENTRATION , m M 



120 



Figure 1. Effect of glucosamine concentation on regression of crown gall tumors 
induced on bean leaves by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. 



The appearance of tumor bearing leaves before (Fig. 2A) and 
after (Fig. 2B-D) glucosamine treatment offers striking proof of the 
effectiveness of the treatment. The only evidence of necrosis after tumor 
regression is the wound marks of the carborundum inflicted during 
inoculation (Fig. 2 B-D). Once regressed, the tumors do not reform 



Cell Biology 



163 



and the leaves remain normal in appearance during the life of the 
plant. 



til? 



Ilillfi 



' Si 



f 







few *€tli% 




Figure 2. Appearance of bean leaves infected for 72 hours with Agrobactei-ium tumefa- 

ciens and subsequently treated for 48 hours with: A. Water. B. 50 mM Glucosamine. 

C. 100 mM Glucosamine. D. 120 mM Glucosamine. 



Discussion 

The regression of bean leaf tumors induced by Agrobacterium tume- 
faciens by the amino sugar, glucosamine, is not elicited by any of 
the neutral sugars tested including the N-acetyl derivatives of the 
amino sugar. Inorganic ammonium salts or amino acids did not give 
the same effect. The effect of the glucosamine in reducing tumor re- 



164 Indiana Academy of Science 

gression is specific and striking. The reversion is virtually complete 
and the treatment is not cytotoxic at therapeutic doses. In this regard, 
glucosamine differs from other cancer chemotherapeutic agents which 
are effective only because they are cytotoxic to the cancer cells. In 
those forms of the disease where permanent control has been achieved 
through chemotheraphy, control has resulted from cytotoxicity rather 
than through a reversal of the tumorigenic process. Thus, glucosamine 
reversal of crown gall tumors offers a unique opportunity to monitor 
changes in specific cellular enzymes and constituents of surface mem- 
branes during the induction, formation, and reversion stages of solid 
tumor development. 

Various mechanisms have been postulated for the effects of D- 
glucosamine in animal cell systems (1, 2, 3, 6). However, these do not 
clearly explain the selective effects of glucosamine on tumor cells. 
It is possible that this amino sugar is capable of causing repression 
or induction of specific induced or repressed genetic information, as 
tyrosine aminotransferase which has been induced by dexamethasone 
and specifically inhibited by galactosamine in rat liver (9). A similar 
regulatory repressor role may prove to have great significance in the 
elucidation of the mechanism of tumorigenesis and its reversal. 

The primary significance of the findings rests in the urgent need 
for a mechanistic framework within which the biochemical basis of 
tumorigensis and /or malignant transformation can be understood and 
explained. By "curing" a plant tumor and understanding how this cure 
has been achieved, it may be possible to design similar cures for solid 
mammalian tumors based on common underlying principles. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bekesi, J. G., and R. J. Winzler. 1969. The effect of D-glucosamine on the ade- 
nine and uridine nucleotides of sarcoma 180 ascites tumor cells. J. Biol. Chem. 
244:5663-5668. 

2. Bekesi, J. G., Z. Molnar, and R. J. Winzler. 1969. Inhibitory effect of D-glu- 
cosamine ond other sugar analogs on the viability and transplantability of ascites 
tumor cells. Cancer Res. 29 :353-359. 

3. Bosmann, H. B. 1971. Inhibition of protein, glycoprotein, RNA and DNA 
synthesis by D-glucosamine and other sugars in mouse leukemic cells L-517BY 
and selective inhibition in SV 3T3 compared with 3T3 cells. Biochim. Biophys. 
Acta 240:74-93. 

4. Brady, R. O., and P. T. Mora. 1970. Alterations in ganglioside pattern and 
synthesis in SV 4() -and polyoma virus-transformed mouse cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 
U.S.A. 218:308-319. 

5. Hakomori, S. and W. T. Murikami. 1968. Glycolipids of hamster fibroblasts 
and derived malignant transformed cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 59:254-261. 

6. Hatanka, M. 1974. Transport of sugars in tumor cell membranes. Biochim. 
Biophys. Acta. 355:74-104. 

7. Lippencott, J. A. and G. T. Heberlein. 1965. The induction of leaf tumors 
by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Amer. J. Bot. 52:396-403. 

8. Mora, P. T., R. O. Brady, R. M. Bradley and V. W. McFarland. 1969. Canglio- 
sides in DNA virus-transformed and spontaneously transformed malignant mouse 
cell lines. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 63:1290-1296. 



Cell Biology 165 

9. Reynolds, R. D., and W. Reutter. 1974. Inhibition of induction of rat liver tyrp- 
sine aminotransferase by D-galactosamine. Role of uridine triphosphate. J. Biol. 
Chem. 248:1562-1567. 

10. WEBER, G. 1974. The Biochemical Strategy of the Cancer Cell. Academic Press, 
New York. 

11. Weber, G., and M. A. Lea. 1967. The molecular correlation concept: An experi- 
mental and conceptual method in cancer research, p. 523-578. In H. BUSCH (ed. ). 
Methods in Cancer Research. Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York. 

12. Weber, G., A. Trevisani, and P. C. Heinrich. 1974. Operation of pleotropic 
control in hormonal regulation and in neoplasia, p. 11-41. In G. WEBER (ed.). 
Advances in Enzyme Regulation. Vol. 12. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 



Isolation and Characterization of Spherosomes from 
Aleurone Layers of Wheat 1 

C. L. Jelsemas and D. James Morre 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

and 

M. Ruddat 

Department of Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 

Abstract 

Spherosomes were isolated from aleurone layers of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 
by combined differential and density gradient centrifugation. The isolated spherosomes 
were heterogeneous in size and density with some sedimenting as floating lipid (d<1.0) 
while others sedimented with mitochondria (d>1.18). Analyses of acid phosphatase using 
/3-glycerophosphate as substrate revealed only trace levels of the enzyme associated 
with spherosomes. Our findings show that spherosomes of wheat seeds are not lysosomal 
equivalents. Rather, spherosomes appear as cellular repositories of lipids and proteins 
which may provide a precursor pool for membrane biogenesis during germination. 

Spherosomes have been denned as organelles bounded by a single 
membrane, rich in triglycerides, which have been considered lysosomal 
equivalents on the basis of the histochemical localization of acid phos- 
phatase (38). Originally described by light microscopists as small 
spherical bodies refractile in dark-field illumination, spherosomes 
have long puzzled cytologists (7). There was controversy concerning 
spherosomes since their discovery. Some (3) regarded spherosomes as 
membrane-bounded organelles. Others (11) considered spherosomes to 
be products of cellular metabolism, i.e., lipid bodies or oil droplets that 
were free in the cytoplasm and lacked delimiting membranes. With 
the advent of the electron microscope, the opinion that spherosomes 
and lipid bodies were distinct entities (29) gained prominence. How- 
ever, recent studies using glutaraldehyde (followed by osmium tetrox- 
ide) fixation have equated spherosomes with what were formerly 
termed lipid bodies. In these studies, single-line 'membranes", 25-40 A in 
thickness, were demonstrated at the spherosome periphery (22, 30, 
41,42). 

The lipidic nature of spherosomes was first deduced from lipophilic 
staining and extraction procedures (4, 11, 44) and their relative 
abundance in the storage tissues of oil seeds. Cytochemical methods 
have further revealed that spherosomes react freely with phospholipid 
indicators (32) as well as with specific reagents for proteins (14, 28, 
42). Sorokin and Sorokin (32) were unable to demonstrate the presence 
of carbohydrate by the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. 



Supported in part by a Hutchinson Fellowship (to C.L.J.) and grants from 
the National Institutes of Health CA 13145 and the National Science Foundation 
GB 231 83. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Paper No. 5810. 

2 C.L.J, is a CIC Traveling Scholar from the Department of Biology, University of 
Chicago. 

166 



Cell Biology 167 

The suggested equivalence of spherosomes and lysosomes is based 
primarily on electron miscroscope investigations of Matile (19, 20), 
Sorokin and Sorokin (33) and Wilson (39). In these studies, electron- 
dense deposits of lead phosphate were reported to accumulate within 
spherosomes after incubation by the Gomori (10) procedure for acid 
phosphatase. Other reports suggest that spherosomes have a more 
anabolic role either as lipid synthesizing sites (7, 32), as sites of 
storage of reserve lipids (13) or proteins (22), or as precursors of 
other structural entities within the cell (23, 24, 43). 

With a view toward testing the application of the lysosome 
concept to spherosomes, we have isolated and purified spherosomes 
from wheat aleurone layers. Analyses of the isolated fractions show 
that the structure commonly identified in the electron microscope as 
an equivalent of the spherosome is not a type of lysosome. Rather, 
the results are consistent with a more anabolic role for this cell 
component. 

Materials and Methods 

Plant material. — Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Arthur, 
1971 harvest) were obtained from the Illinois Seed Supply Service, 
Peoria, Illinois. Seeds were degermed by dissecting the embryo end 
(ca. x k of the grain containing the embryo) with a razor blade. Aleurone 
layers were prepared by grinding the degermed seeds with a heavy- 
duty metal mortar and pestle and removing excess starch with a 25 
mesh sieve. The material was then imbibed in distilled water (25 ml 
for every 5 g of layers) for 12 hrs at 25° on a reciprocating shaker 
operating at about 2 cycles per sec. 

Cell fractionation. — Imbibed aleurone layers in lots corresponding 
to 5 g (dry weight) were homogenized in 15 ml of medium for 3 min 
with a Polytron 20ST homogenizer (Kinematica, Lucerne, Switzerland) 
operated at 7-8,000 rpm. The homogenization medium consisted of 0.1 M 
sodium phosphate (pH 7.4), 1% dextran and 0.5 M sucrose (25) except 
in experiments where acid phosphatase was measured, where 0.1 M 
Tris-HCl replaced the phosphate buffer. The resulting homogenate was 
filtered through 4 double layers of cheese cloth and centrifuged at 
1,000 x g (2,500 rpm, Sorvall HB-4 rotor) for 10 min to remove cell 
walls, nuclei and debris. This centrifugation was followed by a second 
differential centrifugation at 6,000 X g (6,000 rpm, Sorvall HB-4 rotor) 
for 15 min to yield a crude spherosome fraction (Fig. 1). 

Crude spherosomes from a total of 40 g dry weight of aleurone layers 
were resuspended in 10 ml of homogenization medium and applied to a 
sucrose gradient consisting of 4 ml of 1.5 M sucrose, 4 ml of 1.4 M 
sucrose, 3 ml of 1.2 M sucrose, 3 ml of 1.0 M sucrose and 3 ml of 0.8 
M sucrose. The tube was filled to a final volume of 35 ml by layering 
water over the resuspended spherosomes. The gradients were centrifuged 
60 min at 90,000 X g (25,000 rpm, Spinco SW-27 rotor). The spherosomes 
from the interface between the water phase and the spherosome-free 
supernatant were diluted with cold distilled water and pelleted by 
centrifugation at 50,000 X g (20,000 rpm, Spinco SW-27 rotor) for 
30 min. The fractions from the gradient were pelleted in like manner 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Electron micrograph of a portion of an aleurone cell of the wheat grain. 
Numerous "spherosomes" (Sp) surround aleurone grains (AG) and are aligned in the 
cortical cytoplasm adjacent to the plasma mmebrane (PM). CW = cell wall. Scale 

bar -- 1 u. 



following; a 1:1 dilution with 0.1 M Tris, pH 7.4, containing 1% 
dextran. 

The spherosome-free supernatant of the 6,000 rpm centrifugation 
step was further fractionated by centrifugation at 16,000 X g (10,000 
rpm, Sorvall HB-4) for 20 min to remove mitochondria, followed by 
centrifugation at 100,000 X g (40,000 rpm, Spinco 50.1 rotor) for 1.5 
to 2 hrs to yield the microsome fraction. The supernatant from the 
last centrifugation was retained as the microsome-free supernatant. 

Determination of acid phosphatase. — Biochemical assays of acid 
phosphatase were performed according to Holcomb et al. (12) using 
^-glycerophosphate as the substrate. Protein was determined by the 
procedure of Lowry et al. (17) using bovine serum albumin as the 
standard. 

Electron microscopy. — For electron microscopy, tissue and pellets 
of cell fractions were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium 
cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, for at least 2 hr followed by post fixation in 
1% osmium tetroxide in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, for 
2 hr (35). The cytochemical assay for acid phosphatase was the Gomori 
(10) procedure adapted for electron microscopy. Samples were rinsed 
with buffer, dehydrated through an acetone series and embedded in 
Luffs (18) or Spurr's (31) Epon. Thin sections were examined and 
photographed with a Philips EM 200. Magnifications are approximate. 

Results 

Aleurone layers of wheat are characterized by numerous cytoplasmic 
particles comparable to those termed spherosomes by Paleg and Hyde 
(26), Jones (15), Yatsu and Jacks (41) and others (7-9). As illustrated 



Cell Biology 169 

in Fig. 1, the spherosomes of wheat are approximately spheroidal in 
profile with a uniform-staining matrix of medium to low electron density. 
The spherosomes show characteristic associations with the plasma 
membrane at the cell surface, and surround the aleurone grains giving a 
halo effect to these cell components. 

Isolated spherosomes resemble those in the intact cell (compare 
Figs. 2 and 3 with Fig. 1) and retain their association with sheets of 
membrane (Fig. 3) which may represent fragments of either the mem- 
brane of the aleurone grains or of the plasma membrane (Fig. 1). 

When centrifuged on sucrose gradients, the crude spherosome frac- 
tion separates into four discrete bands, collecting at the different inter- 
faces of the gradient. Of these, two fractions were estimated from elec- 
tron micrographs to be in excess of 90% spherosome-derived and were 
designated light and heavy spherosomes on the basis of their position 
in the gradient. The light and heavy spherosomes banded at sucrose 
densities of about 1.0 and 1.18, respectively. Except for a greater 
heterogeneity in size, the light spherosomes (Fig. 5), which had sedi- 
mentation characteristics of lipid bodies, resembled, morphologically, 
the heavier spherosomes (Fig. 6), which had sedimentation characteris- 
tics of protein-rich mitochondrial membranes. 

The 1,000 X g pellet (Fig. 8) and the pellet formed during gradient 
centrifugation (not illustrated) contained the bulk of the starch grains, 
wall fragments, nuclear fragments and debris. The fraction sedimenting 
between 6,000 and 16,000 X g was enriched in mitochondria (Fig. 9) 
although a few spherosomes were also present. The predominantly mito- 
chondrial nature of this fraction was verified by measurements of suc- 
cinic-INT-reductase activity (27). The 16,000 to 100,000 X g (microsomal) 
fraction contained the bulk of the endoplasmic reticulum and other mem- 
brane vesicles and was essentially spherosome-free (Fig. 10). 

The analysis of the acid phosphatase activity in the various frac- 
tions is summarized in Table 1. The bulk of the acid phosphatase is 
found in the spherosome-free supernatant (16,000 X g supernatant) 
and the microsome-free supernatant (100,000 X g supernatant). The 
supernatants were the only fractions to show relative enrichment when 



Table 1. Distribution of acid phosphatase activity among fractions of wheat aleurone 

layers. 

Fraction Specific Activity 1 Relative Enrichment 2 

1.0 

0.3 

0.06 

0.3 

1.3 

0.2 

0.4 

1.8 

1 Units of specific activity are ^moles inorganic phosphate released from ^-glycero- 
phosphate/ hr/mg protein. 

2 Ratio of specific activity to that of the total homogenate. 



Total homogenate 


1.92 


Debris 


0.56 


Light spherosomes 


0.12 


Heavy spherosomes 


0.60 


Spherosome-free supernatant 


2.26 


Mitochondria 


0.44 


Microsomes 


0.80 


Microsome-free supernatant 


3.52 



170 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. Electron micrograph showing a portion of the crude spherosome fraction 

sedimenting between 1,000 and 6,000 x g. In addition to numerous spherosomes (Sp), 

nuclear (N) and other fragments (arrows) are present. Scale bar = 1 n. 




Figure 3. Isolated spherosomes resemble those of the intact cell. Here extensive associa- 
tions with sheets of membrane, derived probably from either membranes of aleurone 

grains or plasma membranes (arrows), are retained. Scale bar = 1 „. 
Figure 4. Isolated spherosome at higher magnification to show the absence of a unit- 
type membrane with a clear dark-light-dark pattern (single arrow). A typical unit-type 
appearance is shown by the adjacent membrane fragment (double arrow) probably de- 
rived from plasma membrane or membrane of an aleurone grain. Scale bar — 0.2 n,. 



ft " 



Cell Biology 



171 














* 




te 1 







^ 




Figure 5. Purified fraction of "light" spherosomes collected from the water-homogenate 
interface of the sucrose gradient. This fraction was extremely heterogeneous with a 

5-fold range in spherosome diameter. Scale bar = 1 „ 
Figure 6. As in Figure 5 except from the 1.2 M/l.j. M sucrose interface of the sucrose 
gradient. This fraction is designated as "heavy" spherosomes. Spherosome diameters are 
less variable and correspond to the smaller spherosomes of the "light" fraction (Fig. 5). 
Except for the absence of very large spherosomes, this fraction cannot be distinguished 
morphologically from the "light" spherosomes. Compare with figure 5. Scale bar = 0.5 „. 
Figure 7. Isolated "heavy" spherosome indicated by arrow in Figure 6 at higher 
magnification. "Myelin" forms were seen within the interior of some but not all "heavy" 
spherosomes. Scale bar = 0.1 ... 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

compared with the total homogenate (1.3-fold in the spherosome-free 
supernatant and 1.8-fold in the microsome-free supernatant). Neither 
the light nor the heavy spherosomes showed any enrichment with respect 
to acid phosphatase activity. On a protein basis, the specific enzymatic 
activities of the spherosome fractions were less than that of the micro- 
somal fraction and approximately equal to that of the mitchondria and 
debris fractions. 

To further verify the low levels of acid phosphatase in the isolated 
spherosomes and to attempt to explain the residual activity associated 
with them, fractions were analyzed by enzyme cytochemistry. Electron- 
dense deposits were present, but principally on membrane fragments 
associated with the spherosomes. The peripheries and interiors of the 
spherosomes were relatively free of specific reaction product (Fig. 11). 
Non-specific electron-dense deposits were present at the spherosome 
periphery in control preparations (Fig. 118) including those which had 
not been incubated by the Gomori procedure (see Figs. 4-7). Based on 
these findings and the results of the in vitro acid phosphatase assays of 
Table 1, we conclude that spherosomes of aleurone cells of mature 
wheat grains do not contain acid phosphatase. 



Discussion 

Matile (20, 21), Sorokin and Sorokin (33), Wilson et al. (39) and 
others (1, 31) base their conclusion that spherosomes are lysosomes on 
the cytochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase in these organelles. 
Their findings contrast those of Yatsu and Jacks (42) and those reported 
here, both of which were based on analyses of isolated fractions. The 
basis for the positive cytochemical results of others is not certain. 
However, our findings indicate: 1) a propensity for spherosomes to 
precipitate electron-dense deposits in the region of the spherosome 
boundary (Figs. 4-7) and 2) a concentration of acid phosphatase ac- 
tivity in adhering membrane fragments (Fig. 11). The membrane frag- 
ments are most probably derived from aleurone grains, which are 
known to contain acid phosphatase (19, 39). The acid phosphatase 
activity associated with these membrane fragments could well explain the 
residual acid phosphatase activity found in the fractions since the 
isolated spherosomes do retain their association with these membrane 
fragments (Fig. 3). 

A second reason for lack of homology between spherosomes and 
animal lysosomes is the membrane. With lysosomes, the limiting mem- 
brane is a unit type with a clear dark-light-dark pattern in osmium- 
fixed preparations. With plant spherosomes, a clear dark-light-dark 
pattern is not indicated (Fig. 4); the existence of a unit type mem- 
brane around plant spherosomes remains to be demonstrated. 

If spherosomes are not lysosomal equivalents, another function must 
be assigned to them. Three facts must be considered for any new hypo- 
thesis: 1) Spherosomes are widely distributed among plants and fungi 
but are not known as such for animal cells. 2) Spherosomes tend to be 
prominent in seeds (2, 15, 42) and embryos, and to a lesser extent in 
active cells, i.e. meristematic (22, 43) or recently stimulated secretory 



'-'*.:. 



Cell Biology 






173 




Figure 8. Portion of the 1,000 x g "debris" fraction showing a predominance of starch 
grains (arrows), nuclear fragments (N) and cell wall fragments (CW). Spherosomes 

fl- 



are absent. Scale bar = 1 




FIGURE 9. Portion of the mitochondrion-rich fraction obtained by differential centrifuga- 

gation of the spherosome-free supernatant at 16,000 x g for 20 min. Mitochondria (M) 

appear sivollcn but resemble those of the imbibed seeds. A few spherosomes (Sp) are 

present in this fraction. Scale bar = 1 «. 



174 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 10. Microsome fraction obtained by centrifugation of the post-mitochondrial 
supernatant for 1.5 hra at 90,000 x g. This fraction represents a mixture of endoplasmic 
reticulum and other membrane fragments but contains only occasional spherosomes. A. 
Bottom half of pellet. B. Top half of pellet. Scale bar = 0.5 „. 



Cell Biology 



175 







1 "fci&" v 

7 '■ ■ # i 



5 A 



•* 
*' 



***** » 







Figure 11. Cytochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase activity in an isolated 
"heavy" spherosome fraction. The section is unstained so that membrane profiles are not 
heavily contrasted from the background. A. Substrate present. B. Deposits are found 
associated tvith the spherosome periphery, especially with adhering membrane fragments. 
C. Substrate absent. Some deposits are still present at the spherosome periphery although 
not as pronounced as with substartc present. The spherosome interiors are relatively free 
of lead deposits, verifying the non-presence of acid phosphatase. Scale bar = 0.5 u . 



176 Indiana Academy of Science 

cells (15, 26, 36). 3) Spherosomes disappear as cells mature (15, 22, 24, 
26). These observations are consistent with the suggestion that sphero- 
somes are storage or transport organelles unique to plants and fungi 
which are consumed during growth or germination. In cereal aleurone 
cells, the disappearance of spherosomes is accelerated by treatment 
with the germination-promoting hormone, gibberellin (15, 26, 36). Con- 
comitant with the disappearance of spherosomes is an increase in 
internal membranes, primarily rough endoplasmic reticulum. Signifi- 
cantly, this increase in endoplasmic reticulum occurs without evidence of 
net synthesis of phospholipids (5, 6, 16, 37). 

The findings reported here suggest that spherosomes are lipopro- 
tein bodies. In electron micrographs, "myelin" forms (Fig. 7) are 
sometimes observed within the spherosome interior. A role in the storage 
of membrane precursor materials is indicated. 



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10. GOMORI, G. 1952. Microscope Histochemistry Principles and Practice. University 
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11. Guillermond, A. 1921. Sur les microsomes et les formations lipoides de la cellula 
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12. Holcomb, G. E., A. C. Hildebrandt, and R. F. Evert. 1967. Staining and acid 
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13. Jacks, T. J., L. Y. Yatsu, and A. M. Altschul. 1967. Isolation and characteriza- 
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Cell Biology 177 

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17. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein 
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19. Matile, P. 1968. Aleurone vacuoles as lysosomes. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 58:365-368. 

20. . J. P. Balz, E. Semadeni, and M. Jost. 1965. Isolation of spherosomes 

with lysosome characteristics from seedlings. Z. Naturforsch. 206b :693-698. 



21. . and J. Spichiger. 1968. Lysosomal enzymes in sphei-osomes (oil 

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22. Misha, A. K. and J. R. Colvin. 1970. On the variability of spherosome-like 
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23. Mollenhauer, H. H. 1967. A comparison of root cap cells of epiphytic, terrestrial 
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178 Indiana Academy of Science 

41. . 1972. Spherosome membranes: Half -unit membrane. Plant Physiol. 

49:937-443. 

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43. Yoo, B. Y. 1970. Ultrastructural changes in cells of pea embryo radicles during 
germination. J. Cell Biol. 45:158-171. 

44. Ziegler, H. 1953. Uber die Reduktion des Tetrazoliumchlorids in der Pflanzenzelle 
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Naturforsch. 8b:662-667. 



Altered Golgi Apparatus Architecture in Animal and Plant Tumors 1 

Patricia McCarthy, C. L. Richardson, W. D. Merritt, D. James Morre 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Department of 

Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

and 

H. H. MOLLENHAUER 

Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, 

A.R.S., U.S.D.A. 

College Station, Texas 778401 

Abstract 

Measurements from electron micrographs of normal and transformed cells of rat 
liver, mouse epidermis, mouse mammary gland and bean leaf show Golgi apparatus of 
tumor cells to have dictyosomes with a width/height ratio significantly greater than 
those of normal cells along with a reduced or near normal number of cisternae per 
stack. The change in dictyosome height is due to an increase in the thickness of the 
intercisternal region rather than to an increase in thickness of cisternal membranes or 
cisternal lumens. This is the first report of a consistent change in Golgi apparatus 
morphology associated with transformed cells. 

In spite of numerous studies of the ultrastructure of neoplastic 
cells and tissues, no systematic examination of Golgi apparatus mor- 
phology has been carried out comparing normal and transformed cells. 
It is generally recognized that cancer cells have less rough endoplasmic 
reticulum, a predominance of free rather than bound polysomes, and 
large or unusually-shaped nuclei and mitochondria (1, 15, 31). Addi- 
tionally, cell surfaces of cancer cells show altered immunological, con- 
tact, electrophoretic, and chemical properties suggesting an altered 
biogenesis of the cell surface (16). Because of the central role of the 
Golgi apparatus in the formation of plasma membranes and surface 
coats (29, 30), this study was initiated to seek morphological changes in 
Golgi apparatus architecture characteristic of cancer cells. 

Materials and Methods 

Electron micrographs from a variety of sources were analyzed. 
Measurements were made of dictyosome width and height and number 
of cisternae per dictyosome; frequency, size and characteristics of 
secretory vesicles were noted. Dictyosome width was recorded as the 
average cisternal diameter exclusive of secretory vesicles or peripheral 
tubules (Fig. 1). Dictyosome height was measured orthogonally to 
width and is a measure of the height of the stacked cisternae (Fig. 1). 
Only micrographs judged to represent near median cross sections were 
analyzed. 

Tumor systems examined were as follows: 

a) Rat hepatocytes and hepatoma induced by administration of 2- 



1 Supported in part by NIH CA 13145. Journal Paper No. 5795 Purdue University 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

179 



180 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Electron micrograph illustrating a near median transverse section of a 
dictyosome of rat liver consisting of 5 stacked cisternae and a partial 6th cisterna 
near the bottom of the stack. Secretory vesicles (SV), tubules and small vesicular 
profiles of cross sections through tubules surround the dictyosome periphery. The di- 
mensional parameters that reveal differences in comparisons of normal and transformed 
cells (H = dictyosome height and W = dictyosome width) are illustrated. Scale bar 

= 0.5 p. 

fluorenyl-acetamide (FAA) according to the method of Farber (23), 
and from the literature (1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 26, 27, 35). 

b) Mouse epidermis (8) and spontaneous carcinoma (31, 32, 33). 

c) Mouse mammary epithelium (17, 24, 36) and mammary carcinoma 
(2,3,7). 

d) Bean leaf and leaf tumors induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens 
as described by Lippencott and Heberlein (21). 

Bean tissue was fixed for election microscopy with 2% glutaralde- 
hyde for 60 hours at 4°C followed by 1% osmium tetroxide post fixation 
for two hours. Liver tissue was fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide for 2 
hours at 4°C. Dehydration was through an acetone series with embed- 
ment in Epon according to Spurr (34) for bean or Luft (22) for liver. 
Normal and tumor cells were prepared for electron microscopy in 
parallel to minimize differences in specimen preparation. Thin sections 
were viewed and photographed with a Philips EM 200. Measurements 
were from published electron micrographs (b, c) or from prints at a 
final magnification of 35,000 (a, d). A total of 103 Golgi apparatus 
from cancer cells and 41 Golgi apparatus from normal cells were 
analyzed. Golgi apparatus terminology follows that of Morre, Mollen- 
hauer and Bracker (28, 29, 30). 



Results 

There was no consistent pattern in the number or arrangement of 
dictyosomes of Golgi apparatus comparing normal and transformed cells 
or in the frequency, size, or characteristics of secretory vesicles. How- 
ever, an alteration in the size and shape of individual dictyosomes did 
present a significant pattern. 



Cell Biology 



181 



Among all four tumor systems analyzed (Table 1), there was a 
tendency for the dictyosomes to be of lesser or equal diameter and 
greater height in tumor cells compared to their respective controls. This 
is most noticeable in the height to width ratios. Dictyosome height 
was increased in the tumors even though, on the average, the number 
of cisternae per dictyosome was reduced by approximately 0.5 cisterna. 
Since less cisternae per stack were occupying the same or more height 
(compare Figs. 1 and 2; Fig. 3) either the cisternal thickness, the space 
between individual cisternae (intercisternal regions), or both were in- 
creased. 



Table 1. 



Diameter and height of dictyosomes and average number of cisternae com- 
paring normal and transformed cells. 









Dictyosomes 




Tissue 


Cell type No. cisternae 


Width (^t) 


Height (fj, 


) Ratio (H/W) 


Rat liver 


Parenchyma 


3.17 


1.80 


0.146 


0.08 




Hepatoma 


3.26 


1.49 


0.166 


0.11 




Hepatoma HND 1 


3.11 


0.93 


0.164 


0.17* 


Mouse epidermis 


Normal 


3.75 


0.95 


0.173 


0.18 




Carcinoma 


3.14 


1.02 


0.245 


0.24 


Mouse mammary 


Normal 


3.54 


1.30 


0.219 


0.17 




Carcinoma 


3.05 


1.10 


0.223 


0.20 


Bean leaf 


Normal 


5.4 


0.75 


0.156 


0.21 




Tumor 


4.74 


0.64 


0.205 


0.32* 





1 From a single tumor — highly non-differentiated, highly malignant and rapidly 
growing. 

* Difference from control significant at the 95% confidence level. 

To determine the morphological basis for the greater height to 
width ratios of dictyosomes from tumor cells, the cisternal thickness 
(membranes -f lumens) and the space occupied by the intercisternal 
region were determined from dictyosomes from rat liver and rat hepa- 
tomas and from bean leaves and crown gall tumors of bean leaves 
(Table 2). In the crown gall system, both cisternae and intercisternal 
regions were increased in tumors relative to normal cells (Fig. 3); in 
rat liver, only the intercisternal region was increased (Figs. 1 and 2). 



Table 2. Thickness of cisternae (membrane ± lumen) and intercisternal region of 
dictyosomes comparing normal and transformed cells and tissues. 





Cell type 




Thickness 


(A) 


Tissue of origin 


Cisternae 


Intercisternal 
regions 


Rat liver 
Bean leaf 


Parenchyma 

Hepatoma 

Normal 

Crown Gall Tumor 


408 
372 
166 
208 




264 
306* 
133 
262* 



Difference from control significant at the 95% confidence level. 



182 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ZE 



/ 









w* 1 






4 -» 



■i';." J 




Figure 2. Electron micrograph of a portion of a rat hepatoma cell showing two 

dictyoaomes (D) of the Golgi apparatus surrounded by a zone of exclusion (ZE) of 

unusual electron density. The material of the zone of exclusion is continuous with the 

material of the inter cisternal regions (arrows). Scale bar = 0.5^. 

The consistent change was in the space of the intercisternal region 
(Table 2). 

Discussion 

Neoplastic transformation involves changes in chemical properties 
of the cell surface, specifically but perhaps not exclusively glycolipid 
simplification (16, 19); the enzymes of the latter are localized in Golgi 
apparatus of hepatocytes (20). Our findings provide preliminary evidence 
for a morphological alteration in Golgi apparatus associated with tumor 
cells. The change is expressed as an increase in the height to width 



Cell Biology 



183 




Figure 3. Electron micrographs of portions of bean leaves illustrating A. A dictyo- 
8ome with 6 stacked cistemae of a control leaf, and B. A dictyosome with 5 stacked 
cisternae from a crown gall tumor cell. Note that in B the dictyosome of the tumor 
cell ia surrounded by a prominent zone of exclusion (ZE) while in the control dictyo- 
some the zone of exclusion is less distinct (A). The dictyosome from the control cell 
(B) is wider and, even though the dictyosome from the tumor has one less cisterna 
than the control, they are of nearly equal height. The increase in height / cisternae of 
the tumor dictyosome is due principally to an increase in thickness of the intercisternal 
regions. Scale bar = 0.5 a . 



ratio of dictyosomes resulting in total or in part from an increase in 
the thickness of the intercisternal regions. 

Little is known about the intercisternal regions of Golgi apparatus. 
In special circumstances, the material of the intercisternal region ap- 
pears to be continuous with the Golgi apparatus ground substance or 
zone of exclusion (29). The latter surrounds the Golgi apparatus and 
represents a region from which ribosomes, glycogen, rough-surfaced 
membranes or organelles are largely excluded (Fig. 2). In plants, the 
intercisternal region may contain special fibers known as intercisternal 
elements (14, 25). Intercisternal elements have not been reported for 
animal cells but dictyosomes of rat hepatomas show indications of some 
kind of fibrous element within the enlarged intercisternal regions (re- 
sults unpublished). Whether the increase in size of the intercisternal 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

region and the appearance of filaments are related remains to be in- 
vestigated. 

The principal significance of the observation may lie in its potential 
application to biopsy material. A 50% increase in the thickness of the 
intercisternal regions of the stacked cisternae of Golgi apparatus is 
easily detected and is beyond the range of normal variation. Since this 
is the first observation that intercisternal regions are capable of 
modification and change, the findings add new impetus to the need to 
understand the nature of the intercisternal region of Golgi apparatus, 
and its possible role in the tumorigenic process. 



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5. Claude, A. 1970. Growth and differentiation of cytoplasmic membranes in the course 
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7. D alton, A. J. and M. Potter. 1968. Electron microscope study of the mammary 
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8. DUBRUL, E. F. 1972. Fine structure of epidermal differentiation in the mouse. 
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9. Essner, E. and A. B. NoviKOFF. 1962. Cytological studies on two functional hepa- 
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10. Farquhar, M. G., J. J. M. Bergeron and G. E. Palade. 1974. Cytochemistry of 
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11. Flaks, B. 1968. Unusual aspects of ultrastructural differentiation in rat hepatoma 
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12. Flaks, B. 1968. Fine structure of primary rat hepatoma induced by 2-acetylamino- 
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14. Franke, W. W., J. Kartenbeck, S. Krien, W. J. Vanderwoude, U. Scheer and 
D. J. Morre. 1972. Inter- and intracisternal elements of the Golgi apparatus: A 
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15. Fritzler, M. J., R. B. Church, and E. B. Wagenaar. 1973. infrastructure of taper 
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17. HOLLMAN, K. H. 1959. L'ultrastructure de la gland mammaire normale de la 
souris en lactation. Etude au microscope electronique. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 2:423-443. 

18. Karasaki, S. 1969. The fine structure of proliferating cells in preneoplastic rat 
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19. Keenan, T. W. and D. J. Morre. 1973. Mammary carcinoma: Enzymatic block in 
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20. Keenan, T. W., D. J. Morre and S. Basu. 1974. Ganglioside biosynthesis: Concen- 
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21. Lippencott, J. A. and G. T. Heberlein. 1965. The induction of leaf tumors by 
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23. Merkow, L. P., S. M. Epstein, E. Farber, M. Pardo and B. Bartus. 1969. Cellular 
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31. Raick, A. N. 1973. Ultrastructural, histological, and biochemical alterations pro- 
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CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: Stanley L. Burden, Box 528, 
Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 

Eugene P. Schwartz, Department of Chemistry, 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Using an On-Line Minicomputer in the Undergraduate Chemistry Labora- 
tory. Stanley L. Burden, Chemistry Department, Taylor University, 
Upland, Indiana 46989. Applications are described which use a mini- 
mal configuration, on-line minicomputer system to collect, reduce and 
display data in undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiments. Stu- 
dents interested in gaining experience with implementing on-line mini- 
computer systems designed and wired the interfacing and wrote the 
necessary software for various applications. Other students then used 
the configured system in conjunction with experiments in gas chroma- 
tography, kinetics and electrochemistry. Results from selected student 
experiments are presented and compared to other methods commonly 
used to collect and/ or reduce similar data. Advantages, limitations and 
potential applications of the on-line system are discussed. 

Further Studies on the Physical and Chemical Evaluation of Used Motor 

Oil. Ross C. Koele and Robert E. Van Atta, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. A previous report described the results of 

chemical and physical tests for the evaluation of the condition of auto- 
mobile crankcase oil while it was in use in a particular vehicle. The 
present report describes extension of the earlier work to several dif- 
ferent types of vehicles and drivers, including different types of driving, 
highway, and weather conditions and engine stress. Viscosity, acidity, 
colorimetric, and gas chromatographic data are reported for the same 
commercial oil, resulting from measurements taken at intervals from 
the crankcases of the test vehicles. Problems due to sampling pro- 
cedures, availability of supplies and equipment, effect of engine design, 
and vehicle and engine conditions are discussed. A summary of the 
two-year project and potential future prospects are presented. 

The Chemistry of the Furopyridines. John W. McFarland, William 
Essary, Lale Cilenti, William Cozart, Alan Kaylo, and Philip 
McFarland, Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, Green- 
castle, Indiana 46135. Furo[3,2-c] pyridine (1) was prepared and its 

reactions studied. The bicyclic compound behaves both like a diene and 
an aromatic compound. Halogenation with bromine and chlorine gave 
2,3-dibromo-2,3-dihydrofuro[3,2-c] pyridine (II) and 2,3-dichloro-2,3-di- 
hydrofuro [3, 2-c] pyridine (III), respectively. Nitration of I afforded 2- 
nitrofuro[3,2-c] pyridine (IV), while treatment with hydrogen peroxide 
gave the N-oxide (V). The N-oxide (V) was deoxygenated and chlori- 
nated to 4-chlorofuro[3,2-c]pyridine (VI) by phosphorus oxychloride and 

187 



188 



Indiana Academy of Science 



deoxygenated to I by phosphorus trichloride. Attempts at acylating and 
sulfonating I have thus far been unsuccessful. 




11 "S*. 

cci,/\ 




Determination of the Formation Constants of HF, HF - , and AgF in 
Aqueous Solution Using the Fluoride Electrode. Dwain Sparks and 
Eugene Schwartz, Chemistry Department, DePauw University, Green- 
castle, Indiana. The complexing of hydrogen ion by fluoride ion in 

aqueous solution at 25.0 °C at an ionic strength of unity with sodium 
perchlorate as the supporting electrolyte was studied using the fluoride- 
ion specific membrane electrode. In contrast to similar work with this 
system reported in the literature, here the fluoride electrode was the 
only ion probe employed. Such a technique necessitated the use of a 
successive approximation approach because of change of the ionic 
strength due to the formation of the complexes themselves. The for- 
mation constants of HF and of HF; as calculated in several ways from 
the values of n, the average number of fluoride ions bound by each 
hydrogen ion, were 8.45 X 10 2 and 5.05, respectively. 

Because of the very weak complexing of silver ion by fluoride ion, 
measurements of the bound fluoride ion in this system had to be made 
in one molar silver perchlorate solution. This approach required the 
estimation of combined activity and liquid junction effects between the 
test solution and that used to calibrate the fluoride electrode. An 
estimation of the formation constant of AgF is reported. 



Inexpensive Instruments for Constant-Current Coulometric Titrations. 

Robert E. Van Atta, Ball State Universitty, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 



The techniques of constant-current coulometric titration permit rapid, 
convenient, and accurate measurement of microgram quantities of acids, 
bases, metals, and various other ionic chemical species capable of elec- 
trochemical generation and /or reaction at properly designed electrodes. 
Two instruments capable of performing such titrations are described. 
These devices (one manual and the other automatic-recording), which 
may be constructed by students, are inexpensive, convenient, and ac- 
curate. The fundamental circuit includes a control circuit so designed 
that manual or voltage-regulator control maintain the generator current 



Chemistry 189 

constant to within 0.1% with ease. Titration results to within 1 to 2 
parts per thousand are readily attainable from measurements requiring 
less than 10 minutes for completion. Circuit diagrams, test solution 
cells and typical student results for acid-base and redox coulometric 
titrations are presented. These instruments are particularly adaptable 
to instructional use in first-year quantitative analysis or instrumental 
methods courses. 

Analyzing Environmental Samples in the Undergraduate Science Lab- 
oratory by X-Ray Fluoroescence Spectroscopy. Daniel P. Fadal and 
Stanley L. Burden, Physics and Chemistry Departments, Taylor Uni- 
versity, Upland, Indiana 46989. Because of its relative ease of sample 

preparation and its capability for multi-element analysis, x-ray fluo- 
rescence spectroscopy is receiving increased use for analyzing a wide 
variety of samples in environmental studies. Procedures and equipment 
are described which are currently being used to make this technique 
available to undergraduate science students. A unique student-designed 
and constructed chamber which permits a conventional x-ray dif- 
fraction unit to be used as a continuously variable x-ray energy source 
is described. Results from student analyses of several environmental 
samples are presented. 

Effect of Sampling Parameters and Other Physical and Chemical Con- 
ditions on the Chemical Analysis of White River Waters. Michael A. 
Sailor and Robert E. Van Atta, Ball State University, Muncie, Indi- 
ana 47306. Results of a 25-day analytical study of the White River at 

Muncie, Indiana, are reported. Several inorganic chemical species were 
monitored at appropriate time intervals; these species included alka- 
linity, chloride, iron, free ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, 
ortho-, meta-, total inorganic and organic phosphates, and sulfate. Also 
monitored were color, calcium-, magnesium-, and total hardness, pH 
and specific conductance, turbidity, and water temperature. All analyses 
were completed with the aid of a Hach DR/EL-2 water analyzer. The 
variance and importance of sampling parameters and other physical 
and chemical conditions related to the analyses are presented and 
discussed. 

Spectrophotometric Determination of Stability Constants: A Study of the 
Complex Ions Formed from Di-n-Butyloxamidine and Ni+ 2 , Co+ 2 and 
Cu+ 2 Ions. John M. Gardlik and Warren E. Hoffman, Indiana Insti- 
tute of Technology, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46803. In previous work 

reported to this academy (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., Vol. 79, pp. 129-133, 
1969), the use of Job's Method of Continuous Variation showed di- 
n-butyloxamidine to form 2:1 complexes with Ni + 2 , Cu + 2 , and 
Co+ 2 ions. It seemed desirable to our group to get a quantitative 
measure of the stability of these complexes. Using the same set of data 
obtained for Job's Method, one can determine the stability constants 
following the method of Newman and Hume. The stability con- 
stants for the complex ions, Ni(di-n-butyloxamidine) L , + 2 , Co(di-n-butyl- 
oxamidine) 2 + 2 , and Cu(di-n-butyloxamidine.> + 2 in methanol were deter- 
mined spectrophotometrically to be 7.91 x 10"', 3.12 x 10"', and 1.65 x 10 s , 



190 Indiana Academy of Science 

respectively. This paper deals only with systems in which only one 
complex ion is formed. 

The Syntheses and Reactions of Some Tetrahydrofuran Complexes of 
Rhenium(I). Bruce N. Storhoff and Christopher L. Scanlon, Depart- 
ment of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Tetrahydrofuran complexes of rhenium (I) have been obtained from the 
direct reaction of halopentacarbonylrhenium(I) species with tetra- 
hydrofuran (THF). The THF complexes have been assigned dimeric 
structures with bridging halogen groups from spectroscopic and 
molecular weight data. These THF complexes have proved to be 
useful synthetic intermediates yielding complexes of the stoichiometrics 
Re(CO) 3 L 2 X and Re 2 (CO)6Li>X 2 upon reaction with a variety of 
ligands (L). 

The Stereochemistry of Insertion Reactions Involving Carbon-Iron 
o--Bonds. P. L. Bock, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 
Muncie, Indiana 47306, and G. M. Whitesides, Department of Chem- 
istry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
02139. The stereospecifically 1,2-dideuterated 3,3-dimethylbutyl group- 
ing has been used to follow the stereochemical course of insertion 
reactions involving the carbon-iron cr-bond of an alkyliron compound. 
Carbonyl insertion reactions take place with >90% retention of con- 
figuration at carbon; surful dioxide insertion proceeds with >95% 
inversion of configuration at carbon; the insertion of dimethyl acetyl ene- 
dicarboxylate takes place with >80% retention of configuration at 
carbon. 

The Heat Pump and Its Role in the "Energy Crisis." James D. Copp 
and John H. Meiser, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Due to the recent energy crisis, it appears 

a propos to reexamine the heat pump as a possible means to conserve 
fossil fuels normally used for home space heating purposes. In this 
paper, both the theoretical efficiency and the performance coefficient 
vs. temperature of some commercially available heat pumps are dis- 
cussed. In addition, a graph of BTU/hr. vs. cost is shown in the com- 
parison of heat pumps versus fuel oil, natural gas, and electric resistance 
heating. From the data presented, the tentative conclusion can be made 
that heat pumps in combination with resistance heating for low tem- 
perature use can provide a viable alternative to continual consumption 
of oil and gas for space heating purposes. 

Effects of Phosphorus Stereochemistry on Pmr Coupling Constants in 
Cyclic Organophosphorus Compounds. John A. Mosbo, Department of 

Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Intra-ring 

proton and 31-phosphorus coupling constants were determined by com- 
puter simulation of 220 MHz pmr spectra obtained for isomeric 
2-methoxy- and 2-methyl-2-oxo-4-methyl-l,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes in 
benzene and chloroform. Whereas a methoxy group in the two position 
has been previously shown to have a marked preference for axial orien- 
tation, a 2-substituted methyl group shows no great preference. This 
behavior is reflected in the different values for the coupling constants 



Chemistry 191 

of the isomeric pairs. Furthermore, the different coupling constant 
values observed in chloroform and benzene indicate preference for 
equatorial phosphoryl orientation in the more polar solvent. 

Comparison of the Irreversible Binding of Penicillin to Human Serum 
and Plasma. Lewis Truex and Eugene Wagner, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Immunological responses to low molecular 

weight compounds are believed to be mediated by irreversible binding of 
such compounds with body protein resulting in the formation of 
antigens. The in vitro incubation of recrystallized human serum with 
radioactively labeled benzylpenicillin, followed by exhaustive dialysis, 
electrophoretic separation into its constituent fractions, and scintillation 
counting of these fractions indicated a distribution of covalently bound 
penicillin in each fraction in proportions related to their distribution in 
blood. The implementation of the preceding procedure on the plasma of 
twelve students and two penicillin-sensitive patients resulted in a 
comparison of the distribution of covalently bound penicillin in the 
constituent protein fractions of the subjects' plasma and recrystallized 
human serum. 

The Mechanisms of the Willgerodt-Kindler Reactions. Marvin Carmack, 
Glenn A. Berchtold, Samuel Berkowitz and Mohammad Behforouz. 
The original Willgerodt and Kindler Reactions, dating from approxi- 
mately 1890 and 1920, respectively, were conversions of aryl n-alkyl 
ketones into co-arylcarboxamides and thiocarboxamides by action of 
ammonium polysulfide or secondary amines with sulfur. In a long- 
continued study of these reactions we have elucidated some of the more 
surprising aspects of these reactions, in particular the ability of ketonic 
functions to isomerize along a chain of methylene groups in a series of 
complex and reversible reactions involving the addition of basic nitrogen 
to the ketonic function, dehydration, addition of elemental sulfur, 
formation of labile heterocyclic sulfur intermediates which can re- 
versibly readd basic nitrogen in two possible ways. We have been able 
to apply the reaction of isomerization without necessarily pushing 
the reaction to the stage of irreversible terminal oxidation to a 
carboxamide derivative, and by this means cause the isomerization 
of both open-chain and cyclic ketones into families of isomeric carbonyl 
compounds. Such a reaction is in some cases useful for the preparation 
of uncommon carbonyl compounds from more readily available ones. 

Some Observations on the Use of an Open-ended Multioption Labora- 
tory for Organic Chemistry. Terry L. Kruger, Department of Chem- 
istry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The experiences 

and conclusions drawn for operation of an open-ended (the results are 
not known beforehand), multioption (each student has a different task) 
organic laboratory for chemistry majors will be presented. 

The equipment, time, and staff necessary are prime considerations 
in undertaking a course such as this. The types of experiments found 
suitable so far, the cost, the time and scheduling, the advantages and 
disadvantages to both student and department will receive comment. 

The experiments that have proven most successful have procedures 
that must be adjusted by the student according to variations in reactivity 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

that are covered in the lecture portion of the course. Nitration or 
bromination of substituted benzenes and ester formation are traditional 
experiments that can easily be designed so that each student has a 
different task. These two experiments have been used with good results 
in our regular track Organic Chemistry course. Unusual experiments 
that have realized various degrees of success are: (1) alkylation of 
an aryl amine followed by Hofmann Elimination, oxidation, and Cope 
Elimination; (2) Nitrosation of Amines; and (3) Analysis of Rit Dyes. 
Attempts with this approach for photochemistry, condensation reac- 
tions, and reactions of aldehydes and ketones gave uneven results. 

Extensive use of instrumentation has seemed desirable and is 
taken in stride by the students. Perhaps the greatest benefit to the 
student from this type of experience is the time spent in the library 
becoming familiar with various primary and secondary source materials. 

The chemistry department profits from the enhanced interest in 
and capacity for chemical research and by the greater contact of the 
students with each other and with the departmental faculty and staff. 
Student enthusiasm, my own stimulation, and the students' continued 
interest are other nonquantifiable benefits of this experience. 

A Study of Adenosine Deaminase in Normal and Cancerous Human 
Tissues. 1 Mark J. Niebauer and Pang F. Ma, Department of Chem- 
istry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Two molecular 

forms of adenosine deaminase (the A form and the C form of molecular 
sizes 200,000 and 35,000 respectively) were found in various proportions 
in different human tissues. There seems to be an indication of an 
increase of the C form enzyme activity in cancerous tissues than in 
the corresponding normal tissues. A conversion factor which is capable 
of converting the C form into the A form enzyme has been reported. 
This study was made to examine the relative amount of the two enzyme 
forms in normal lymph nodes and tumor of the lymph nodes from a 
cancer patient. 

Studies of the y-Pyrone Nucleus. Geraldine M. Huitink, Indiana Uni- 
versity, South Bend, Indiana 46615. The effect of selected substitutes 

on the relative fluorescence and stability of the y-pyrone nucleus is 
reported. 

The Synthesis of Some Cycloalkene Carbonitriles. Janice L. Strohm 
and Terry L. Kruger, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Beginning with cyclohexanone and cyclopenta- 

none, synthesis of their corresponding cycloalkene-1-carbonitriles is per- 
formed by a reaction sequence starting with the formation of the 
cyanohydrin and continuing through the oc-dimethylaminonitrile which 
provides the title compounds when oxidized and thermolysed as shown 
in the following reaction sequence. 



1 Supported in part by a grant from the Delaware County "Little Red Door" Can- 
cer Society, and by a Student — Faculty Research Grant from Ball State University 
to MJN. 







V*o 



Chemistry 193 



Ci.*^ 




The effects of substituents on the reaction sequence and particu- 
larly on the elimination mechanism for a variety of alkyl cyclopenta- 
nones and cyclohexanones will be discussed, particularly the "locked" 
ring of 4-(t-butyl)-cyclohexanone. The equatorial hydroxy on the 4-(t- 
butyl)-cyclohexanone cyanohydrin has proven difficult to replace by 
secondary amines. 



Detection of Nonspecific Phosphodiesterase in Polyacrylamide Gels 1 

Marquis Z. Hodes, Robert C. Karn and M. E. Hodes 

Department of Medical Genetics 

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Abstract 

Nonspecific phosphodiesterase purified from bovine spleen was separated by elec- 
trophoresis in polyacrylamide gel at pH 4.3. The gels were scanned in a spectrophotom- 
eter, incubated with bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate, treated with ammonium hydroxide 
and scanned again. It was possible to both localize and quantitate the enzyme activity 
in the gel. 

Introduction 

One of the puzzling features of DNase II is its intimate associa- 
tion with an activity against bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) at 
pH 5.7. This close association has persuaded Bernardi (1) and others 
(6, 7) that the two activities are ascribable to a single protein. In 
order to test this hypothesis, we have conducted a number of studies 
(3, 5, 8, 9) and have succeeded in obtaining a nonspecific phospho- 
diesterase (PDE) free of DNase activity. The zymogram method 
described below was developed so that the purification could be monitored. 

Materials and Methods 

PDE was prepared from bovine spleen by extraction with water, 
acidification to pH 3 overnight, adjustment to pH 4.5, clarification at 
15,000-34,000 xg, and dialysis against running distilled water followed 
by chromatography on CM-cellulose (9). The column eluate was concen- 
trated, dialyzed again, and loaded onto a 110-ml Ampholine column, 
pH 3-10. After focusing for 40 hours the fractions containing PDE but 
not DNase were collected and refocused in a pH 8-11 gradient. The 
PDE focused at pH 9.2. 

Gel electrophoresis was performed in 5 mm discs of 7.5% poly- 
acrylamide in the anodic system of Davis (2) or the cathodic systems 
of Reisfeld et al. (4). The latter was used for the zymograms. Thin 
layers of gel on microscope slides have also been used. The disc gels 
were scanned in a Gilford spectrophotometer at 280 and 400 nm prior 
to incubation in PDE substrate. The zymograms were incubated in PDE 
substrate (PNPP, acetate buffer, pH 5.7 and Tween 80 [3]) at 37° and 
developed by addition of 2 N ammonium hydroxide. This stopped the 
reaction and developed the color. The gel was transferred immediately 
to the quartz gel boat of the Gilford linear transport for scanning. 
Duplicate gels were stained for visualization of protein with Amido 
Swartz 10B: Coomassie brilliant blue. 



1 This is publication #74-22 from the Department of Medical Genetics and was sup- 
ported in part by the Indiana University Human Genetics Center Grant PHS Pol GM 
21054. 

194 



Chemistry 



195 



Results 

When gels are scanned before incubation in PDE substrate the 
only absorption at 400 nm is in the region of the dye marker, whereas 
several protein peaks and the marker appear following - scanning at 
280 nm (Fig. 1). After incubation in PNPP and development with 
ammonium hydroxide at least one peak of PDE activity is visible at 
400 nm. The incubation causes only slight changes in the gel size 
although it is difficult to reposition the gel exactly in the boat. Com- 
pensation for the shift is possible because the dye marker absorbs 
at both 280 and 400 nm before incubation in PNPP and the individual 
traces can be aligned by use of the marker. The stained gels can be 
scanned for protein at 540 nm. The 540 nm and 280 nm scans of the 
stained and unstained gels respectively compare favorably with the 
naked eye scan of the stained gel. 



20 



15 — 



10 — 



5 — 







1 1 1 1 — 










280 nm 


ft 






---- 400 nm Pre -incubation 


i ' 








_ 400 nm Post -incubation 










■ J 

m 


' 






ill 








I \\ 
















t . 






Ik \\ « 


i 


fv<-::>W^ M 


i 

i 
i 

• 






1 1 I 1 


i i 


1 



DISTANCE (cm) 



FIGURE 1. Variation of absorbance with gel length before and after treatment with 
nonspecific phosphodiesterase substrate. Gels were scanned at 280 and U0Q nm before 
incubation in nonspecific phosphodiesterase substrate and at U00 nm after incubation. 
The scans were aligned by superposition of the dye marker (arrow). The absorbance 
is shoivn in arbitrary units as the ordinate and the position of the absorbing material 
in the gels as the abscissa. 



196 



Indiana Academy of Science 



To determine the variation of color intensity with time, a series 
of zymograms was incubated as described for 10, 20 and 60 min. 
The gels were developed and scanned and the height of the 400 nm 
peak corresponding to PDE determined. The reaction was linear to 
20 min but damped off at 60 min. 

The variation of absorbance at 400 nm with protein concentration 
was determined after incubation for 20 minutes. The absorbance, as 
seen in Fig. 2, increases linearly over at least a 3-fold range. 

Discussion 

Zymograms have contributed to an understanding of polymorphism 
in enzymes, and studies of isozyme patterns in health and disease are 
numerous (10). These methods utilize differences in mobility of activity 
in the gel to localize enzyme variants. The quantity of enzyme is 
determined roughly by comparison, using the naked eye, of the intensity 
of staining of adjacent areas. 

The studies presented here show that PDE activity can be localized 
by reaction with PNPP. Furthermore the reaction rate has been shown 
to be a linear function of time over a 20 min period and of protein 
concentration over at least a 3-fold range. This means that PDE can 



0.15 



0.10 



AA400 



0.05 — 




ENZYME CONCENTRATION 

Figure 2. Variation of enzyme activity with concentration. Either 1, 2 or 3 ^l of 
a solution of nonspecific phosphodiesterase containing 0.003 units/ml was loaded on 
polyacrylamide gel discs and the proteins separated by electrophoresis. After incubation 
with substrate the gels were scanned as in Figure 1. The difference in Aioo of the peak 
and the base line was determined and plotted as the ordinate (kAioo). 



Chemistry 197 

be quantitated in the gel and the ratio of isozymic activities, if found, 
compared. As quantitation of both protein and PDE activity can be 
done, the specific activity (enzyme units/A 2S o) can be calculated. It is 
also possible that the enzyme can be recovered from an unstained, 
undeveloped disc, although this has not yet been accomplished. A recent 
paper (11) describes a method similar to ours for quantitation of 
human tissue esterases. Quantitation is more complicated, and requires 
integration of the area under the spectrophotometer trace, rather than 
measurement of peak height as in our method. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bernardi, G. and M. Griffe. 1964. Studies on acid deoxyribonulease II. Isolation 
and characterization of spleen-acid deoxyribonuclease. Biochemistry 3:1419-1426. 

2. Davis, B. J. 1964. Disc electrophoresis — II. Method and application to human 
serum proteins. Ann. N. Y. Acad Sci. 212 :404-427. 

3. Hodes, M. E., L. C. Yip and F. R. Santos. 1967. The purification and properties 
of mouse liver deoxyribonucleose II. Enzymologia 32:241-255. 

4. Reisfeld, R. A., U. J. Lewis and D. E. Williams. 1962. Disc electrophoresis of 
basic proteins and peptides on polyacrylamide gels. Nature 195:281-283. 

5 Ryder, K. W., Jr., and M. E. Hodes. 1973. Antibody affinity chromatography of hog 
and bovine spleen DNase II. J. Chromatogr. 80:128-132. 

6. Sicard, P. J., A. Obrenovitch and G. Aubel-Sadron. 1970. Concomitance of hog 
spleen acid DNase and phosphodiesterase activities. FEBS Letters 12 :41-44. 

7. Sicard, P. J. and V. Barthelemy-Clavey. 1972. Hog spleen-phosphohydrolases- 
heterogeneity. Enzymologia 43 :227-244. 

8. Slor, H. and M. E. Hodes. 1970. Purification of deoxyribonuclease II from sheep 
spleen. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 139:172-178. 

9. Swenson, M. K. and M. E. Hodes. 1969. The separation of the phosphodiesterase 
and deoxyribonuclease II activities of bovine spleen. J. Biol. Chem. 244 :1803-1807. 

10. Vessell, E. S. (ed.). 1968. Multiple molecular forms of enzymes. Ann. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci. 151:1-689. 

11. YOUNG, C. W. and E. S. BlTTAR. 1974. Isoelectric focusing comparison of human 
tissue esterases with those from normal and Bacillus Calmette-Guer in-treated mice. 
Cancer Research 34:2675-2681. 



Dehydration of Chloral Hydrate 

Howard Burkett 

Department of Chemistry 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 1 

Abstract 

The reaction of chloral hydrate with various alcohols to form the corresponding 
hemiacetals was studied in the solvent acetone using nmr to follow the change in 
relative concentration of starting material and product. The reaction is acid-catalyzed. 
The rate-controlling step appears to be the dehydration of the hydrate to chloral. 
The effectiveness of benzoic acid and various substituted benzoic acids as catalysts 
does not correlate with the acid dissociation constants in water or aqueous alcoholic 
media. 

The equilibria and kinetics of the hydration of carbonyl compounds 
and, to a lesser extent, the dehydration of carbonyl hydrates have been 
the subject of numerous investigations. Many references are included 
in a review of this subject by Bell (1). Most of the previous studies 
involved hydration (rather than dehydration) and were carried out 
in water or aqueous-organic solvents. The solvent systems with the 
least amounts of water were 92.5% acetone (2) and 95% dioxane (3). 

The present research was initiated to study the dehydration of a 
stable hydrate (chloral hydrate) under conditions (a non-aqueous sol- 
vent) which would favor the greatest ratio of carbonyl compound to 
hydrate at equilibrium. 

Preliminary to the present study the kinetics of the spontaneous 
conversion of chloral hydrate to chloral in solution in chloroform-d 
was followed by observing the increase in the nmr integration of the 
aldehyde proton. The kinetics were zero-order. The author tentatively 
interprets this as the result of a rapid equilibrium between chloral 
hydrate and chloral-water, favoring the hydrate, followed by a rate- 
determining separation of the water. A small layer of water on top of 
the chloroform was indeed noted when the nmr tube was inspected 
afterwards. 

From the preceding it appeared necessary to use a solvent in which 
products of the dehydration, including water, would be soluble and to 
add a reactant which would react as rapidly and completely as pos- 
sible with the chloral. Specifically, the solvents considered were dimethyl- 
sulfoxide-de, acetone-do and acetone. The choice of alcohols as the 
reactant afforded the important possibility of observing the effect of the 
structure of the alcohol, as well as its concentration, on the rate. If 
the reaction proceeds to the formation of chloral alcoholate (hemi- 
acetal) via chloral as the rate-controlling step, one would predict that 
the rates will be little affected by the nature or concentration of the 
alcohol. 



1 The experimental part of this research was done at the Application Laboratory, 
Naka Works, Hitachi Ltd., Ichige, Katsuta-shi, Ibaraki-Ken, Japan, while the author 
was on sabbatical leave from DePauw University. 

198 



Chemistry 199 

Experimental 

Reagents: The absolute ethanol was first grade analytical reagent 
from Amakusa Kagaku Sangyo Co., Ltd. The following were first- 
grade analytical reagents from Wako Pure Chemicals Industries, Ltd.: 
chloral hydrate, t-butyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol, p-dimethylaminobenzoic 
acid, p-nitrobenzoic acid. Special analytical reagent grade reagents from 
the same source were the following: acetone, benzoic acid, anthranilic acid 
and methyl alcohol. The chloral was from Tokyo Chemical Industries, 
Ltd. The acetone-d fl and DMSO-d„ were E. Merck A. G. spectrograde. 
All ingredients (except chloral hydrate) were anhydrous. 

Kinetics: For each kinetic run the sample of chloral hydrate was 
weighed directly in an nmr tube. When a catalyst was used it was 
next weighed in the tube. Then a measured volume of solvent was 
added and the tube weighed again. When the solids had dissolved 
and the tube was at the probe temperature a measured volume of the 
alcohol was added and mixed. The alcohol was weighed at the end of 
the kinetic run. The tube was replaced in the probe and the nmr spectrum 
was run (the spectrum was repeated from time to time during each 
experiment). Data for calculating reaction rates were obtained by inte- 
grating the 5.5 to 4.5 region of the spectrum at suitable time intervals. 
With a few exceptions the rate data were obtained for at least 3 
half-lifes. The final spectrum and final integrations were run at ca. 9 
half-lifes. Since the total integration varied somewhat over the neces- 
sary time interval the progress of the reaction was taken from the 
ratio of the integration for the product to that for the starting material 
(S = 5.1 — 5.2) plus that for the product (8 = 4.8 — 4.9). The data 
were obtained using Hitachi R-20-B and R-20-A nmr spectrophotometers. 
The probe temperatures 2 were 36.12 and 36.05 ± 0.01 °C, respectively, 
for these instruments. 

Results: For the reaction between chloral hydrate and methyl, 
ethyl and i-propyl alcohols the first-order rate plots are linear in 
most cases (exceptions are noted) to at least 3 half-lifes with random 
scatter of no more than ± 0.01 log unit, except for an occasional 
stray point. The final nmr spectrum is consistent with chloral alcoholate 
(hemiacetal) as the only product. For nearly all runs at least 40 
experimental points were recorded and plotted. A typical rate plot is 
shown in Figure 1. With few exceptions the initial concentration of 
chloral hydrate was within the limits of 1.10 to 1.14 molar and all were 
within 1.00 to 1.33 molar. Within these limits the rates were inde- 
pendent of the initial concentration. In all cases the alcohol concen- 
tration was greater than that for the chloral hydrate. The effect of the 
nature of the alcohol and its concentration on the measured rate of the 
reaction and the position of equilibruim are given in Table 1. The 
percent of product at equilibrium is increased slightly in each case by 
increasing the ratio of alcohol to chloralhydrate. Also the percent 
product is favored a little by methyl vs. ethyl vs. i-propyl alcohol. 
Consistent with this the measured rates compared with those for ethyl 



2 These measurements were made with a calibrated thermistor resistance bridge. I 
thank Mr. Y. Ikebe for these measurements. 



200 



Indiana Academy of Science 




20 30 



40 50 60 70 
TIME,MIN 



Figure 1. First order rate plot, using ratio (R) of integration of chloral hydrate 

C-H Signal to the sum of the integration for that signal and the C-H product signal, 

for the reaction of chloral hydrate with ethyl alcohol in acetone as sovent and 0.061 

moles of benzoic acid as catalyst. 



alcohol are a little faster for the methyl alcohol and slower for the i- 
propyl. However, the important observations are that the rate dif- 
ference between the three different alcohols is small; the rate dif- 
ference with change in concentration of the ethyl alcohol is no more 
than experimental error (ca. ± 0.03 x 1(H) and is small for changes 
in the concentration of methyl and i-propyl alcohols; and the rate for 



Chemistry 



201 



t-butyl alcohol is slower by at least an order of magnitude compared 
with that for the other three alcohols. Also for the t-butyl alcohol a 
peak at 8:9.37 showed 5-6% of chloral to be present at equilibrium. 

Table 1. The Rates of the Reaction of Chloral Hydrate with Alcohols in Acetone-da. 



ROH 
R— 



Moles of ROH/Mole 
Cl3CCH(OH) 2 



kob.d 


% 


Completion at 


x 10' 


Equilibrium (± 2%) 


1.16 1 






88 


1.20 1 






91 


1.91 1 






93 


1.11 






84 


1.06 2 






85 


1.08 






92 


0.54s 






77 


0.74 






80 


0.025-* 




ca. 


55* 


0.035 









CHa 


1.8 


CHs 


2.4 


CHs 


3.7 


C 2 H 5 


1.8 


C2H5 


2.3 


C2H5 


3.0 


(CH 3 ) 2 CH 


1.9 


(CH 3 ) 2 CH 


3.3 


(CH 3 ) 3 C 


2.7 



1 For a short time at the beginning each of these reactions proceeded at a rate 
of 75-82% of the rate given. 

2 Acetone rather than acetone-do was the solvent. 

3 At the beginning this reaction proceeded at a rate double the rate reported. 

4 These results are very approximate because the CH triplet (S= 5.20) of the chloral 
hydrate and the CH of the product so overlap that the rate could not be followed 
by the integration, although it was qualitatively obvious that the reaction was going 
very slowly. The numbers are obtained from the relative height of a developing singlet 
peak 0.12 ppm downfield from the CH peak of the t-butyl alcohol. This new peak 
was presumed to be the CH peak of the t-butyl group in the product. 



t-Butyl alcohol reacted with chloral (not the hydrate) at a mod- 
erate rate, whereas the other three alcohols reacted so rapidly that the 
reactions were finished by the time the nmr tubes were placed in the 
instrument. The rate constant for the reaction with t-butyl alcohol was 
not measured (about one-half of the chloral had reacted in 80 min.). 
Qualitatively the rate difference was so striking that measurement of 
this rate was of no importance. 

The rate of the reaction between chloral hydrate and ethyl alcohol 
in acetone was increased by the addition of acid. The results for benzoic 
acid and substituted benzoic acids as catalyst are summarized in Table 
2. For each of the acids the rate is proportional to the amount of acid. 
The slope of the best straight line through a plot of kobsd x 10 4 vs. 
moles of acid x 10 2 is recorded for each acid in Table 2. A sample plot 
(for benzoic acid) is shown in Figure 2. The slope is a measure of 
the relative catalytic effectiveness of each acid as a catalyst. 

As was true of the uncatalyzed reactions, the rates of the acid- 
catalyzed reactions are independent of the initial concentration of 
chloral hydrate. 

In the case of each of the acid-catalyzed reactions a small singlet 
at S:9.37 was observed in the initial spectrum before the alcohol was 
added. Integration of this signal indicated the presence of 5 ± 1% 
of chloral. For the uncatalyzed reactions this signal was not observed 



202 



Indiana Academy of Science 



unless the mixture was allowed to stand for a longer time before the 
alcohol was added. In all cases, except for t-butyl alcohol, this peak 
disappeared within a few minutes after adding the alcohol. 

Discussion 

For the reaction of chloral hydrate with alcohols a rate-controlling 
step which precedes the reaction of some intermediate with the alcohol 

Table 2. The Rates 1 of the Reaction of Chloral Hydrate with Ethyl Alcohol Catalyzed 
By Benzoic Acid and Substituted Benzoic Acids. 



X-PhCOOH 
X is 



Moles ArCOOH x 10 2 



1.9 

4.5 

5.3 

8.0 

11.0 

12.6 

Slope 4 = 0.351 (Av. dev. = 0.008) 

2.0 
2.1 5 
4.2 5 
6.1 
6.0 
6.1 
11. 5 
12.5 
0.007) 



Slope 1 = 0.466 (Av. dev. 
0-NO2 



Slope 4 = 0.502 (Av. dev. 



p-Cl 



2.8 

5.0 

7.4 

10.0 

0.004) 

2.4 

3.9 

4.9 

6.7 

9.0 
10.1 
11.2 
Slope 4 = 0.502 (Av. dev. = 0.013 or 0.005 without last point) 



P-NO2 



2.0 
3.9 
4.3 
5.5 
5.6 
6.6 
9.3 
10.4 
0.005) 

2.2 

4.8 
6.8 
7.1 



Slope 4 = 0.563 (Av. dev. = 0.011) 



Slope 4 = 0.514 (Av. dev. 
p-CHsO 



1.74 




2.61 




2.87 




3.84 






4.69 




5.84 


1.91 






2.18 




2.80 


3.85 




4.03 




3.92 






6.01 


7.00 




2.52 






3.57 




4.91 




6.00 


2.16 




3.04 




3.56 


3.58 


4.58 


4.76 


5.57 






6.02 




5.80 


2.13 




3.03 




3.37 


3.34 


3.83 


3.78 


3.99 


3.91 


4.37 


4.30 




6.22 




6.30 


2.37 




3.88 




5.46 


5.22 


5.90 


5.68 


6.26 


6.30 



Chemistry 



203 



p-(CH 3 ) 2 N- 



1.9 
2.2 
2.3 
3.0 
4.6 
5.9 
6.1 
7.3 



2.32 
2.73 
2.92 
3.45 
4.65 
5.96 
6.18 
6.75 



Slope 4 = 0.780 (Av. dev. = 0.008) 



1 For all kinetic runs the amounts used were within the following limits: chloral 
hydrate, 0.908-0.982 x 10— ^ moles; ratio of moles of ethyl alcohol to moles of chloral, 1.96- 
2.39; weight of acetone, 0.4866-0.5015 g or acetone-do, 0.5265-0.5659 g. The per cent com- 
pletion of the reaction at equilibrium was 82-86% (± 2%). 

2 The rate of the forward reaction in each case is greater than the measured rate 
(which is that given in this Table) because the measured rate is the algebraic sum of 
the forward and reverse reactions. It is considered that the comparison of the measured 
rates is valid because the equilibrium position is nearly the same for all cases. 

3 The rates in the right-hand column were calculated using the change of peak 
height of the substrate C-H peak and product C-H peak. In those cases in which 
there is a number only in the right-hand column integration was not satisfactory due 
to a broad O-H peak in the region of interest. Justification for the use of peak height is 
provided (for the cases in which there are two numbers) by comparing the numbers in 
the right-hand column with those in the left which were obtained from integration. 

* The slope for each acid is from the best straight line through a plot of rate x 10- 4 
vs. moles of acid x 10— -. The intercept at zero-time is the same for all plots. 
5 The solvent was acetone-do. 

in a fast step is supported by the following observations: (1) the 
kinetics are first-order, (2) the rate is nearly the same for methyl, 
ethyl and i-propyl alcohol, (3) the rate is changed only a little upon 
changing the relative amount of the alcohol (See Table 1) and, (4) 




3 4 5 6 7< 

BENZOIC ACID, MOLES x |0 5 

Figure 2. Plot of rates of formation of chloral alcoholate from chloral vs. amount of 
benzoic acid. Solvent: O acetone-do, □ acetone. 



204 



Indiana Academy of Science 



the very rapid reaction of the alcohols with chloral. The small effect 
on the rate of changing the alcohol concentration may be, in part, due 
to a change in the nature of the medium. 

In addition to the preceding facts, the similarity of the structure 
of the hydrate to that of acetals and the fact that the reaction is acid- 
catalyzed (See Table 2) suggests a mechanism similar to the hydrolysis 
of acetals (6). The observation of about five per cent of chloral in 
equilibrium with the hydrate in acetone (or acetone-d 6 ) after a sufficient 
length of time also supports the proposal that chloral may be formed 
as an intermediate in the rate-controlling step. The mechanism shown 
below is consistent with all of the facts. Rapid equilibrium between 
chloral and its conjugate acid is predicted. Hence, 



H 



/ 



OH 



HB 



C1 CCH 

3 \ ^ 

OH 



CI CCH 



OR 



Cl-CCH^ 
3 \ 



OH 



B- 

fast 

equilibrium 



B 



HB ^ 
fast 
equilibrium 



C1 CCH / 
3 \ 



H 2 



OH 

OH 
Slow 



~ H 2° 



-ROH 



Cl^CCH - OH 



ROH 
fast 



B 



fast 
equilibrium 



C1 CCH 
3 X 



R 

M 

OH 



although the conjugate acid is written as the intermediate, it is 
reasonable that one observe chloral when there is no alcohol present or 
when the alcohol reacts only slowly (t-butyl alcohol). Moreover, the 
observation that the nmr signal for chloral appeared quickly (before 
adding the alcohol) for all cases in which acid was present but was 
slower in the absence of acid is also consistent with the proposed 
mechanism. 

This mechanism proposes that the rate-controlling step for the 
formation of both chloral and its hemiacetal is the same except for the 
t-butyl alcohol. For the "uncatalyzed" reactions the chloral hydrate 



Chemistry 



205 



may act as proton donor. The pK of chloral hydrate in water is reported 
to be 10.04 (4). It is proposed that the rate being measured in each 
case, except for t-butyl alcohol, is the rate of dehydration of chloral 
hydrate. 

It was anticipated that the catalytic effectiveness of the acids 
would correlate with their acidities. However, this was not observed 
as shown in Table 3 in which the acidities are reported for the acids in 
aqueous or aqueous alcoholic solutions or in dimethylsulf oxide (10, 
11). The lack of correlation probably results from different degrees of 
intramolecular, intermolecular and solvent-solute interactions (e.g., 
hydrogen bonding) in the different solvents. The difference in relative 
acidities of the acids (Table 3) in water or aqueous alcoholic solution 
vs. those in dimethylsulfoxide make a striking comparison. A less strik- 
ing difference is noted by Dippy (7) for the order of acid dissociation in 
methyl, ethyl or butyl alcohols (p-N0 2 > p-Cl> p-CH 3 0>H) compared 
with water (p-N0 2 > p-Cl> H> p-CH 3 0). Unfortunately, the relative 
acidities of these acids are not reported in acetone. 

In summary, the measured rates of formation of hemiacetals 
(except with t-butyl alcohol) afford a method for measuring the rate 
of dehydration of chloral hydrate to chloral. The reaction is first-order 
and is acid catalyzed. 

Table 3. Comparison of Catalytic Effectiveness with Acidities for Substituted Benzoic 

Acids. 



X-PhCOOH 


Relative Catalytic 


Relative Acidity 


Relative Acidity* 




Effectiveness 


in water or 


in 






Aqueous Alcohol 


dimethylsulfoxide 


X is 


R x / Rjj 


K x / K H 


K x / K n 


0-NH2 


0.74 


0.17 1 




H 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


0-NO2 


1.06 


6.30 2 


0.75 


p-Cl 


1.06 


6.00 3 


0.92 


P-NO2 


1.09 


1.693 


0.82 


P-CH3O 


1.19 


0.543 


(1.05 C2H5O) 


p-(CHs)2N 


1.66 


0.15 3 


(1.16 p-NH 2 ) 



1 Calculated from dissociation constants given by Brown et al (5). 

2 From Hine (8). 

3 From Hine (9). 

4 From Kolthoff, et al (10) and Ritchie, et al (11). 



Acknowledgment 

The author thanks Hitachi Ltd. for its generous provision of equip- 
ment, facilities, chemicals and financial support which made this study 
possible. Especial thanks are extended to Dr. S. Inoue, General Man- 
ager of the Instrument Division of the Hitachi Company, for his per- 
sonal interest and to Dr. S. Hishida and others of the Application 
Laboratory of the Instrument Division for helpful suggestions, en- 
couragement, and technical help in the execution of the research. 



206 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Bell, R. P. 1966. Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry. Vol. IV. Academic 
Press, New York, N.Y. p. 1-29. 

2. Bell, R. P. and Higginson, W. C. E. 1949. The catalyzed Dehydration of Acetalde- 
hyde Hydrate, and the Effect of Structure on the Velocity of Protsolytic Reactions. 
Proc. Royal Soc. (London). A 197:141-159. 

3. Bell, R. P. and Jensen, M. B. 1961. Kinetics of the Catalyzed Hydration of 
Synm. Dichloroacetone. Proc. Royal Soc. (London). A 261:38-42. 

4. Bell, R. P. and On wood, D. P. 1962. Acid Strengths of the Hydrate of 
Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde and Chloral. Trans. Faraday Soc. 58:1557-1561. 

5. Brown, H. C, McDaniel, D. H. and Hufligeb, O. 1955. Determination of Or- 
ganic Structures by Physical Methods. Brande, E. A. and Nachod, F. C, Ed. 
Academic Press, New York, N. Y., p. 588. 

6. Cordes, E. H. 1967. Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry. Vol. IV. Inter- 
science Publishers, New York, N. Y., p. 1-41. 

7. Dippy, J. F. J. 1941. The Influence of the Solvent on the Relative Strengths of 
Monocarboxylic Acids. Jour. Chem. Soc. (London) 550-552. 

8. Hine, J. S. Physical Organic Chemistry. Second Ed. 1962. McGraw-Hill, New 
York, N. Y., p. 87. 

9. Ibid. 99 p. 

10. Kolthoff, I. M. and Chantooni, Jr., M. K. 1971. Substituent Effects on Disso- 
ciation of Benzoic Acids and Hyperconjugation of Benzoate with p-Bromophenol in 
Acetonitrile, N,N-Dimethylformande, and Dimethyl Sulfoxide. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 
93:3843-3849. 

11. Ritchie, C. D. and Uschold. 1968. Acidity in Nonaqueous Solvents. VI. Further 
Studies of Weak Acids in Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solution. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 90: 
2821-2824. 



The Hydrolysis of Schiff Base Derivatives of p-Phenylazoaniline 

Robert F. Romanet and John A. Ricketts 

Department of Chemistry 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Abstract 

The rates of hydrolysis of N-benzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline, N-p-chlorobenzylidene- 
p-phenylazoaniline, and N-p-methoxybenzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline were investigated at 
25° C. in unbuffered ethanol-water mixtures spectrophotometrically. The rate of the 
hydrolysis increases with increasing water concentration. For water concentrations 
ranging from 28.7 molar to 9.1 molar the apparent first order rate constants varied from 
9.2 x 10-* sec.- 1 to 1.6 x 10- 4 sec.- 1 for N-benzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline, from 10.2 x 
10- 4 sec.- 4 to 1.4 x 10- 4 sec.- 1 for N-p-chlorobenzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline, and 10.7 x 
10- 4 sec.- 1 to 1.2 x 10- 4 sec.- 1 for N-p-methoxybenzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline. The substi- 
tuent effect that was observed for these compounds was CH30->C1->H at higher con- 
centrations of water while the order is reversed at lower concentrations of water. 
This anomaly can be explained by considering the effect of the changing dielectric con- 
stant of the medium with water concentration on the rate of the reaction. 

Introduction 

The hydrolysis of Schiff bases is postulated to involve the forma- 
tion and subsequent decomposition of the unstable carbinolamine 
moiety. 




^C = + - NH £ 



For a discussion of the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen double 
bond consult the review article (83 references), by Bruylants and 
Feytmantis-de Medicis (2). Experimentally a complex dependence of 
the rate of hydrolysis of aldimines on the pH of the medium is ob- 
served (5). In the case of the hydrolysis of a series of substituted 
benzalanilines Mesli and Tirouflet noted an acid catalyzed region, pH 
3-9, a region in which the rate was independent of pH, pH 9-12, and a 
region in which the rate was dependent upon the hydroxide ion con- 
centration, pH > 12 (7). To account for the complicated pH de- 
pendence, Reeves proposed a mechanism that involved proton addition 
equilibria to the neutral Schiff base or to the carbinolamine (strongly 
acid solutions) followed by the nucleophilic attack of water or the 
hydroxide ion on the protonated species with subsequent decomposition 
to products (8). Kinetic analysis of this reaction scheme led to an 
equation for the rate constant of the form, 

k(obs) = A + B (H+) + C (H + )2 



D + E (H+) + F (H + )-' 



which reduces to the form empirically observed by Willi — neglect of the 
quadratic term in the denominator — in those instances in which the 
system is weakly acid or weakly basic (9). 

This particular study examined the dependence of the hydrolysis of 
Schiff bases on the water concentration in neutral, unbuffered ethanol- 

207 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

water mixtures. The compounds studied were N-benzylidene-p-phenyl- 
azoaniline (I), N-p-chlorobenzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline (II), and N-p- 
methoxybenzylidene-p-phenylazoaniline ( III ) . 

Experimental 

The Schiff bases were available in this laboratory. Prior to their 
use they were purified by recrystallization from absolute ethanol and 
vacuum dried. Their melting temperatures agreed with those cited in 
the literature. The kinetics of hydrolysis were followed spectrophoto- 
metrically using a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 505 Spectrophotometer. 
All absorbance measurements were made using matched 1 cm. silica 
cuvettes at a temperature of 25.0 ± 0.1° C. In order to determine the 
optimum wave length to employ for the kinetic study the spectrum of 
each Schiff base p-phenylazoaniline, and the parent aldehyde was 
measured in absolute ethanol (benzene free) from 230-400 nm. At the 
wave length selected, 360 nm., the aldehydes were transparent; the 
molar absorbances expressed as log e are Schiff base I (4.56), II (4.40), 
and III (4.58). Log e for p-phenylazoaniline is 4.24 at 360 nm. 

Since absorbance measurements as a function of time were de- 
termined with an external recorder, it was necessary to calibrate the 
chart paper of the instrument in absorbance units. It was verified that 
the recorder response was a linear function of the absorbance of the 
solution. A change in absorbance of 0.4 units was represented by a 
deflection of 200 divisions on the recorder chart paper. Prior to each 
kinetic run the chart paper was calibrated using two potassium chro- 
mate solutions of differing concentrations; the calibration was checked 
at the conclusion of the kinetic run. 

A solid sample of the Schiff base was dissolved in absolute 
ethanol. Initial studies demonstrated that these solutions were spectrally 
stable for at least thirty minutes. The solution was filtered and the 
appropriate volume of Schiff base solution and the appropriate volume 
of water were mixed. The reaction mixture was introduced into the 
absorption cuvette. The absorbance was measured at 360 nm. as a 
function of time until no change in the absorbance was noted over a 
time interval of at least fifteen minutes. This value represented the 
"time infinity" absorbance; the value for the initial absorbance was 
obtained by extrapolation to zero time. The time required to dissolve 
the solid sample, add water, introduce the sample into the spectro- 
photometer, and begin measurements was no greater than five minutes. 
Absorbance measurements on the reaction mixture were begun within 
one minute after water was added. In order to realize reproducible 
results it was necessary to free both the ethanol and the water from C0 2 
and to minimize solution contact with air during the preparation of 
the reaction mixture. 

Results and Discussion 

In the case of the hydrolysis of the chlorosubstituted and the 
methoxy-substituted Schiff bases the expected first order kinetics were 
observed. The plot of log (Di„f-D t ) versus time was linear. D inr 
is the final absorbance of the reaction mixture, and D t is its absorbance 



Chemistry 



209 



at any arbitrary time. However, in the case of N-benzylidene-p-phenyl- 
azoaniline the expected linear plot was not obtained; Di„ f was greater 
than the value that was calculated if the hydrolysis reaction were as- 
sumed to proceed to completion. This result is expected if the hydrolysis 
was reversible. For a reversible reaction of the type, y 

A ■ + » B + C 



starting- with pure A, one form of the integrated rate expresion is (3), 



In 



f + f. - ff, 

fe-f 



2-fe 

fo 



[2] 



fo is the fraction of the reaction completed at "time infinity," and f is 
the fraction completed after t. Since the water concentration was essen- 
tially constant during the reaction, equation [2] can be applied. A 
represents the Schiff base, B the free amine, C the aldehyde, and ki, 
the product k (H-O) 11 , where k is the specific rate constant associated 
with the hydrolysis and n the order with respect to water. Since the 
aldehyde is spectrally inert at 360 nm., 



f = 



( D t - Do ) 



(e B 



) D t 



[3] 



e a and e B are the molar absorbances of the Schiff base and free amine 
at 360 nm., D t the absorbance of the reaction mixture at time t, and 
D„ the extrapolated value of the absorbance of the mixture to time 
zero. 

Table 1 summarizes the values for the apparent first order rate 
constant for the hydrolysis of the three Schiff bases. At least fifteen 
experimental points were used to ascertain the value of ki for a given 
kinetic run. In the case of simple first order kinetics the method of 
least squares was employed; for the reversible case an average value for 
ki was calculated. The initial concentration of Schiff base which was 
determined by the initial value, Do, for the absorbance varied within the 



Table 1. 


The hydrolysis ra 


te constants for Schiff bases 


in ethanol-water. 




Molality 


k i 


(avg.) x 


10 + 1 


Number 


Average 


Schiff Base 


H2O 




sec.- 1 




Runs 


Deviation 


N-benzylidene- 


28.71 




9.24 




8 


0.6 


p-phenyiazo- 


19.24 




3.55 




5 


0.04 


aniline (I) 


14.28 




3.01 




5 


0.2 




9.13 




1.61 




4 


0.07 


N-p-chloroben- 


28.71 




10.2 




5 


0.4 


zylidene-p- 


19.24 




3.93 




5 


0.2 


phenylazoaniline 


14.28 




2.32 




5 


0.05 


(II) 


9.13 




1.41 




4 


0.02 


N-p-methoxyben- 


28.71 




10.7 




5 


0.4 


zylidene-p- 


19.24 




4.36 




4 


0.02 


phenylazoaniline 


14.28 




2.48 




4 


0.2 


(III) 


9.13 




1.23 




4 


0.05 



210 Indiana Academy of Science 

range of 2 - 3 x 10~ 5 molar. The molarity of the ethanol-water solutions 
with respect to water were calculated using the experimentally de- 
termined density of the solution in conjunction with the data in the 
literature (6). 

From the results it appears impossible to make any conclusions 
concerning the effect of the substituent on the rate of hydrolysis since 
at the higher water concentration the order is CH 3 - > CI - > H — 
while the order is reversed at the lower water concentration. For 
water-ethanol mixtures the dielectric constant changes from a value 
of 24.3 in pure ethanol to 78.54 in pure water; the data in Harned and 
Owen can be used to determine the value for the dielectric constant in 
the solutions that were used in this research (4). The influence of the 
dielectric constant on reaction rates is extensively discussed by Amis in 
Solvent Effects on Reaction Rates and Mechanisms (1). The effect can 
be treated using the approximate equations, 

Za I e I Ub ,. .. 

In k D = In kmf -\ — — — (lon-dipole) [4] 

r 2 AB D k T 

Z A Z B |e„2| . 

In ko = In k inf ^ _ m — (ion-ion) [5] 

Tab D k T 
2 Ua Ub 

In k D = In kmf — - — - - (dipole-dipole) [6] 

t^abD k T 

which predict a linear semi-log k D versus 1/D relationship. In equations 
[4] - [6], k D is the value for the specific rate constant in a medium 
of dielectric constant D, k in f is the specific rate constant in the ref- 
erence state of infinite dielectric constant, |e | is the absolute value for 
the electronic charge, Z is the valence of the ion, T is the absolute 
temperature, k the Boltzmann constant, u is the dipole moment, and 
r AB is the distance of closest approach of reacting species A and B in 
forming the activated complex. 

Figure 1 is a graph of log k D versus 1/D for the kinetic results 
for the hydrolysis of the three Schiff bases. The negative slope of 
these graphs precludes ion-ion interaction being involved in the rate 
determining step, i.e., the attack on hydroxide ion on the protonated 
Schiff base. A consideration of possible ion-dipole interactions forces 
the conclusion that, if ion-dipole interaction is involved, the attack 
of water on the protonated Schiff base is not rate determining; how- 
ever, the attack of hydroxide ion on the carbinolamine is compatible 
with the results. Dipole-dipole interaction predicts a negative slope; 
hence, one can postulate the attack of the carbinolamine by water as 
being involved in the rate determining step. 

The experimentally determined specific rate constant ki, equals 
the product of the true specific rate constant and the concentra- 
tion of water raised to some power, the order with respect to 
water; i.e., ki = k (H 2 0) n . However, the graph of log ki versus log 
(H 2 0) is not linear. This result is expected since the concentration of 
water has a dual effect on the kinetics, the change of the dielectric con- 
stant and the concentration effect within the rate equation itself. 



Chemistry 



211 



Slope = -0.65 



N-benzylidene- 

p -phenyl azoaniline 

(I) 



Slope = -0.72 




N-p-chlorobenzyl- 
idene-p -phenyl azoaniline 
(ID 



Slope = -0.80 



N-p-methoxybenzyl- 
i dene- p -phenyl azo- 
aniline (III) 



■ t ■ i I ■ r t I i | I j | i I | 

1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 1.0 1 . <4 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.0 

100 

-it- 
Figure 1. The effect of the dielectric constant of the medium on the rate of hydrolysis. 



If it is assumed that k is independent of the dielectric constant, the 
value for the order can be calculated from the following equation 



k, 



Kpun 



(H,Q) 

55.36 



[7] 



kp U re represents the specific rate constant in pure water as determined 
from Figure 1. The values are 24.1 x 10~* sec. 1 for I, 25.7 x 10 -4 sec. -1 
for II, and 31.2 x 10 -4 sec. -1 for III. The average value for the order 
with respect to water using the experimental values for ki are 1.48 
for I, 1.68 for II, and 1.81 for III. These values indicate a complex 
dependence on the water concentration. In order to separate the con- 
centration dependence from the dielectric constant dependence one 
might vary the water concentration while holding the dielectric con- 
stant of the media constant which could be accomplished using different 
organic solvents. 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1 Amis, E. S. 1966. Solvent Effects on Reaction Rates and Mechanisms. Academic 
Press, New York, N. Y. 326 p. 

2. Bruylants, A. and E. Feytmants-de Medicis. 1970. Cleavage of the Carbon- 
nitgrogen Double Bond: in the series, The Chemistry of Functional Groups: The 
Chemistry of the Carbon-nitrogen Double Bond. S. Patai ed. Interscience Publishers, 
New York, N. Y.: 465-504. 

3. Frost, A. A. and R. G. Pearson. 1961. Kinetics and Mechanism, 2nd ed. John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. 404 p. 

4. Harned, H. S. and B. B. Owen. 1950. The Physical Chemistry of Electrolytic Solu- 
tions, 2nd ed. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, N. Y. 645 p. 

5. Jencks, W. P. 1964. Mechanism and Catalysis of Simple Carbonyl Group Reac- 
tions, Prog. Phys. Org. Chem., 2 :63-128. 

6. Lange, N. A., Editor. 1944. Handbook of Chemistry, 5th ed. Handbook Publishers, 
Inc., Sandusky, Ohio. 1777 p. 

7. Mesli, A. and J. Tirouflet. 1968. Influence of the Structure on the Polarography 
and Kinetics of Solvolysis of some Schiff Bases. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci., ser. C. 
268:838-41. 

8. Reeves, R. 1962. Schiff Bases. Kinetics of Hydrolysis of p-Trimethylammonium- 
benzylidene-p'-hydroxyaniline Chloride in Aqueous Solution from pH 1 to 11.5. J. 
Amer. Chem. Soc. 84:3332-7. 

9. Willi, A. 1956. Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Benzalaniline II: The pH Dependence 
of the Reaction Rate in Unbuffered Solutions and the Role of the Aminoalcohol 
Intermediate. Helv. Chim. Acta. 39:1193-1203. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman: Robert O. Petty, Department of Biology 
Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 

William B. Crankshaw, Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Seasonal Distribution of Brown Hydras. Donald E. Miller, Department 
of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Observa- 
tions were made, throughout the year, of hydra populations on vegeta- 
tion and artificial supports in Hamlin Lake, Mason County, Michigan. 
Some observations were made of accumulations of other materials on 
supports. Water temperature records were kept. An attempt was made 
to relate hydra populations to temperature and to the condition of the 
supports. Some observations were made relative to the reproductive 
state of the hydras. 

Asexual hydras were present throughout the year but they were 
most numerous in late spring, early summer, and autumn. Other organ- 
isms and accumulations on supports did not seem to be important 
factors in determining the number of hydras present. Physical, seasonal 
factors seemed to be most important in this regard. Temperature seemed 
to be most important in bringing about the formation of gonads. It 
seemed doubtful carbon dioxide in the surrounding water was very 
important in stimulating gonad formation. 

Occurrence of Argulus mississippiensis (Crustacea: Branchiura) in Indiana. 

Robert S. Benda, Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506. 

Argulus is the only genus of the subclass Branchiura recorded in 
the United States to date. There are presently 23 valid species of this 
genus in the United States (1). One of these fish parasites, Argulus 
mississippiensis, was described by Wilson in 1916 (2). According to 
Cressey (1) its known distribution was limited to Iowa. 

During the summers of 1969 and 1970 twenty-seven specimens of 
Argulus mississippiensis were collected in the White River from host 
species of longnose gar, Lepisosteus osseus and shortnose gar, 
Lepisosteus platostomous. The White River is in Pike County near 
Petersburg, Indiana below the confluence of the East and West 
Forks. They were identified by R. F. Cressey, Curator of Crustacea, 



1. Cressey, R. F. 1972. Biota of freshwater ecosystems-Identification Manual No. 2- 
The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura) of the United States. Proj. No. 18050 
ELD. Environmental Protection Agency. 

2. WILSON, C. B. 1944. Parasitic copepods in the United States National Museum. 
Proc. U.S. National Museum, 94:529-582. 

213 



214 Indiana Academy of Science 

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Twenty- 
one of the specimens are now in the Smithsonian Institution collection. 
Because individuals of Argulus are "loosely" attached to their hosts 
specimens are usually lost in the normal handling of collected fish. (1). 
This "loose" association rather than limited distribution is probably 
the reason no Argulus mississippiensis had previously been reported 
from fish in Indiana waters. 

A Study of Site Characteristics and Associated Plant Species of the 
Equisetaceae of Vigo County, Indiana. Max A. Reed, Department of 
Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

A study was conducted of Equisetum hyemale and E. arvense 

at 37 sites in Vigo County, Indiana, in an effort to determine the distri- 
butional requirements of the species. 

Equisetum hyemale was found most often on coarse sandy soils 
of neutral pH, with low nitrate and potassium, and high phosphorus 
and calcium levels. Shaded, humid floodplains were the most common 
sites, but dry railroad embankments also supported colonies of E. 
hymale. Equisetum arvense occurred in smaller habitats, but was less 
restrictive as to site requirements. Equisetum fluviatile, which was 
reported by Blatchley in 1896, was not located during this study. 

The most common plant species associated at high frequencies 
with both species of Equisetum included sycamore, sugar maple, black 
willow, poison-ivy, wild carrot, wild sweet potato, conyza and jewel weed. 

Cenococcum graniforme, a Mycorrhizal Fungus, in Relation to the Ecology 
and Distribution of Fagus grandifolia. Byron P. Hollett, Department 
of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

Soil samples were taken from around five large beech trees in 

each of ten old-growth forest stands possessing differences in site and 
vegetation attributes. In addition, five seedlings were extracted, intact 
with their root systems, from each of the same stands. In the laboratory, 
all root material was washed free of soil. Counts were made of the 
total number of tips in the seedling material and the total number of 
mycorrhizal tips in the large tree material. 

The mycorrhizal fungus, Cenococcum graniforme, appeared as a 
mycorrhizal associate of beech and showed its greatest importance in 
prairie border forest stands. Moisture relationships appear to be the 
most influential site factors in the distribution of beech and its 
mycorrhizal associates. 

Status of Former Wildlife Refuges in East-Central Indiana. Ralph D. 
Kirkpatrick, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

leased 2,872 small areas for development of wildlife habitat during 
the years of 1941-1959. Areas were posted as refuges for the ten-year 
lease period. Food and cover plantings were made. In 1974, land-use, 
ownership and value to wildlife of a sample of these former refuge 



Ecology 215 

areas were determined. Presence or absence of plantings was noted and 
a relative value to wildlife of each area was established. The sampled 
former refuges were, in most instances, of value to wildlife. Herbaceous 
plantings, with three exceptions, were no longer present; however, cer- 
tain woody plantings are present and are providing wildlife habitat. 



Floristic Change in the Ross Biological Reserve, 1950-1971 

Harvey J. Von Culin and Alton A. Lindsey 

Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

The flora of the Ross Biological Reserve of Purdue University's Department of 
Biological Sciences was first surveyed by Chester W. Miller in 1950. At that time 339 
taxonomic entities in 84 families were recorded including species, varieties, and forms. 
In 1960, Ronald deLanglade found 327 named entities in 82 families. The present (1971) 
survey revealed a total of 318 entities in 77 families. This trend toward decreased plant 
species diversity appears to parallel the general rate of successional advancement, par- 
ticularly in the old-field areas. Considering the entire 21 year span of these surveys, 
111 taxonomic entities have been lost since 1950 and 90 new entities were found for a 
net loss of 21. In the eleven years from 1960 to 1971, 53 new species and varieties 
were recorded. Twenty-eight of these new entities can be considered late successional 
in the Reserve, 12 are early successional and 11 are mid-successional or have wide ecologi- 
cal amplitudes and so do not fall conveniently in either of the first two categories. 
Further evidence of a shift from early to late successional species can be seen in the 
successional position of those plants present in 1960 but not found in 1971. There were 
86 species and varieties on this list, 40 of them early successional, 27 late successional 
and 19 mid-successional. The evidence points to a loss of plants common to such dis- 
turbed habitats as fallow fields and roadsides and an influx of herbs characteristic of 
the forest floor. 

Introduction 

A brief description and history of the Ross Biological Reserve, 
a 55-acre research tract in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, appears in the 
1972 paper by Von Culin and Lindsey (11) comparing 3 detailed 
vegetational surveys at 10-year intervals. The first floristic survey was 
made by Miller (7), reporting work done in 1950-1951. Ten years 
later another detailed report on the vascular flora was prepared by 
deLanglade (6). 

Bush (1) reported 13 types of vegetation there following consider- 
able disturbance, but a tendency toward convergence in the subsequent 
two decades has reduced this number (Von Culin and Lindsey (11)) 
and increased habitat uniformity for herbaceous species, particularly. 

Other work in the Ross Reserve, related more to the flora than the 
vegetation, was by Bush and Lindsey (2), Carpenter (3), Plummer 
(8), Rock (9), and Williams (10). 

Methods 

The field work and collecting was done by Von Culin during the 
growing seasons of 1971 and 1972. When necessary for positive identifica- 
tion, specimens were taken for the Kriebel Herbarium of Purdue 
University. To minimize disturbance in the natural area, a complete 
collection was not made. 

Observations were made and specimens collected at approximately 
weekly intervals with more frequent visits in the periods of most 
active flowering in spring and fall. Gleason (5), Deam's Flora of 
Indiana (4) and the Kriebel Herbarium at Purdue University were 

216 



Ecology 217 

used for specimen identification. Nomenclature used in this survey 
follows Deam (4). Although this reference is now dated, it was con- 
sidered desirable to maintain consistency with the previous surveys of 
Bush (4) and deLanglade (5). Von Culin (12) gives in Appendix B 
a complete floristic list for the Ross Reserve, incorporating the surveys 
reported in 1951, 1961, and the present one. Von Culin (12) in Appendix 
B gives a complete floral list for the Reserve in alphabetical order 
by families. 

Results 

About 1950, Miller (7) found 319 species, 16 varieties, and 4 
forms for a total of 339 named entities in 84 families. This figure 
decreased in 1960 to 327 named entities in 82 families (deLanglade 
1961, Appendix B). The 1971-72 survey revealed a total of 318 entities 
in 77 families. The continuing loss of taxonomic entities from decade 
to decade could be partly the result of difference in the methods and 
habits of the collectors. However, assuming that the intensity of effort 
was fairly equal in each survey, it may be concluded that there is a 
general trend in the Reserve toward a loss of plant species diversity. 
This trend was, of course, predictable and appears to parallel the gen- 
eral rate of successional advancement, particularly in the old-field 
areas. 

During the first decade of study, the rapid change in the vegetation 
of the old-field resulted in the loss of many weedy annuals and other 
early successional forms. Since the loss of this recently disturbed 
habitat reduces the overall habitat diversity of the Reserve, species 
diversity would be expected to decline as well. The loss of species was 
smaller during the period from 1960 to 1971-72. This change probably 
reflects the deceleration in successional change in these same old-field 
areas as the well-established herbaceous perennials slowly yield to 
invading woody species from the surrounding forest. 

There were actually many more entities lost during the decade 
intervals but these were balanced by new additions to the list. In 
1960, eighty-six new species were found and in 1971-72 fifty-three were 
added. In addition to these 53, twenty-nine species were relocated which 
had first been listed in 1950 but apparently missed in 1960. Considering 
the entire 21-year span of these surveys, 111 taxonomic entities have 
been lost since 1950 and 90 new entities found for a net loss of 21. 

Table 1 lists the species new to the Reserve in 1971-72 and classifies 
them in one of the three following categories: early successional 
species, mid-successional or wide-ranging species, and late successional 
species. This classification is based largely on the habitat descriptions 
in Deam (1940) and Gleason (1952) and is intended only to serve as 
an aid in characterizing overall trends in the flora and relating them 
to successional developments in the vegetation. The terms "early" and 
"late" refer only to the species position in relation to an assumed 
forest climax condition in most of the Reserve. Thus, many plants which 
would be considered late successional in a prairie situation are regarded 
here as belonging to the earlier successional stages. This method was 
also applied to species lost to the Reserve flora during the same period. 
These results are given in Table 2. 



218 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Plants neiv to the Reserve in 1971-72, showing approximate successional 

position of each species. 



Successional Position 



Species 



Early 



Middle 



Late 



Agrimonia pubescens 
Andropogon furcatus 
Apocynum cannabinum 

var. glaberrimum 
Arabis dentata 
Aster lateriflorus 
Carex bromoides 
Carex communis 
Carex convoluta 
Carex Davisii 
Carex laevivaginata 
Carex normalis 
Carex rosea 
Carex siccata 

Chaerophyllum procumbcns 
Corallorhiza odontorhiza 
Cyperus filiculmis 

var. macilentus 
Desmodium canescens 
Desmodium Dillenii 
Desmodium marilandicum 
Desmodium paniculatum 
Elymus virginicus 
Erythronium albidum 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica 
Galium Aparine 
Houstonia longifolia 
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 
Hypoxis hirsuta 
Lepidium virginicum 

var. typicum 
Medeola virginiana 
Oenothera lacinata 
Osmorhiza Claytoni 
Oxypolis rigidior 
Pastinaca sativa 
Phlox paniculata 
Physalis heterophylla 
Polygonum Persicaria 
Prunus americana 
Prunus nigra 
Ranunculus hispidus 
Ranunculus recurvatus 
Sanicula marilandica 
Senecio obovatus 
Silene noctiflora 
Sisymbrium Thalianum 
Sorghastrum nutans 
Sphenophlis intermedia 
Stachys tenuifolia 
Thaspium trifoliatum 
Uvularia grandiflora 
Veronica arvensis 



Ecology 



219 



Table 2. 



Plants found in the Reserve 1960 but not in 1971-72 showing approximate 
successional position of each species. 



Species 



Successional Position 



Early 



Middle 



Late 



Acalypha rhomboidea 
Agrimonia par vi flora 
Amaranthus blitoides 
Aplectrum hyemale 
Apocynum sibiricum 
Arabis viridis 
Aralia racemosa 
Arisaema Dracontium 
Asclepias phytolaccoides 
Aster novae-angliae 
Aster prealtus 
Aster puniceus 
Bidens bipinnata 
Bidens frondosa 
Bromus tectorum 
Botrychium dissectum 
Cacalia atriplicif olia 
Cacalia suaveolens 
Carex picta 
Cassia marilandica 
Chelone glabra 
Cirsium arvense 
Clematis Viorna 
Conyza canadensis 
Cuscuta compacta 
Cypripedium parviflorum 

var. pubescens 
Danthonia spicata 
Desmodium bracteosum 

var. longifolium 
Desmodium rotundi folium 
Dioscorea hirticaulis 
Dioscorea villosa 
Dirca palustris 
Drab a incana 
Draba reptans 
Dryopteris hexagonoptera 
Galium boreale 

var. intermedium 
Galium parisiense 
Gaura biennis 
Glecoma hederacea 
Habenaria lacera 
Helianthus divaricatus 
Hybanthus concolor 
Hypericum perforatum 
Impatiens pallida 
Iris brevicaulis 
Iris virginica 

var. shrevii 
Juglans cinerea 
Krigia biftora 
Lemna minor 
Lespedeza intermedia 
Linum virginianum 



220 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. (cont.) 



Successional Position 



Species 



Early 



Middle 



Late 



Lobelia spicata 

var. leptostachys 
Lycopus americanus 
Lysimachia lanceolata 
Malus angustifolia 
Medicago sativa 
Meliea mutica 
Onosmodium molle 
Orobanche uniflora 
Oxalis stricta 
Oxalis violacea 
Panax quinque folium 
Plantago aristata 
Plantago major 
Plantago virginica 
Potentilla monspeliensis 
Prunus avium 
Pseudotaenidia montana 
Ptcridium latiusculum 
Quercus macrocarpa 
Ruellia strepens 
Sagittaria latifolia 
Salix discolor 
Sambucus canadensis 
Silphium perfoliatum 
Sisyrinchium graminoides 
Solanum carolinense 
Solidago hispida 
Solidago media 
Specularia perforliata 
Syringa vulgaris 
Uvularia pudica 
Verbena urticaefolia 
Veronica verna 
Vitis cinerea 
Vitis labrusca 
Xyris torta 



Table 1 shows 28 new species which can be considered late suc- 
cessional in the Reserve. This list compares with 12 early successional 
species and 11 which do not fall conveniently in either of these two 
categories. Many of those new species listed as late successional are 
herbs of the forest floor such as Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, 
Erythronium albidum, Osmorhiza Claytoni, and Corallorhiza odontorhiza. 
Others on that list were obviously present in 1960 because of large 
size, as Fraxinus lanceolata, or widespread distribution, as in the case 
of Galium Aparine, and were simply missed or named differently. 

The shift from early to late successional species in the flora can 
also be viewed from the negative side. Table 2 lists 86 species which 
were present in 1960 but not found in 1971-72. In this case there are 
40 early successional species, 27 characteristic of more advanced suc- 
cessional stages, and 19 intermediate species which are mid-successional 



Ecology 221 

or have wide ecological amplitudes. There is evidence here for a trend 
toward the loss of plants common to such disturbed habitats as fallow 
fields and roadsides, and of several prairie species. Several of these 
plants might have been overlooked in 1971-72, but this probability 
should be nearly constant for each of the three categories. 

Conclusions 

The total number of taxonomic entities found in the Ross Reserve 
decreased gradually from 1950 through 1972. In 1950, 339 were re- 
corded, decreasing to 327 in 1960 and then to 318 in 1971-1972. This 
trend parallels the general rate of successional advancement, particu- 
larly in the old-field areas. 

Fifty-three new species and varieties were found and 86 were lost 
from 1960 to 1971-1972. The majority of new species can be classed 
as late successional in relation to the highest vegetational development 
occurring in the Reserve. Conversely, the largest group of those lost 
since 1960 were plants characteristic of early successional stages 
there. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bush, K. H. 1951. A vegetational analysis of the Ross Biological Reserve. M.S. 
thesis, Purdue University. 

2. Bush, K. H. and A. A. Lindsey. 1950. The outdoor laboratory idea. Turtox News 
28(6):110-112. 

3. Carpenter, I. W. 1950. Some effects of cross pollination in Liriodendron tulipifera 
L. on seed production and hybrid vigor. M.S. thesis, Purdue University. 

4. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, Indi- 
anapolis. 1236 pp. 

5. Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the north- 
eastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 
3 vols., 1727 p. 

6. deLanglade, R. A. 1961. The vegetation and flora of the Ross Biological Reserve. 
M.S. thesis, Purdue University. 

7. Miller, C. W. 1951. The vascular flora of the Ross Biological Reserve. M.S. thesis, 
Purdue University. 

8. PLUMMER, G. L. 1954. Cercis canadensis L.; an ecological life histox-y. Ph.D. thesis, 
Purdue University. 

9. Rock, L. 1952. An ecological life history of Arisaema atrorubens. M.S. thesis, 
Purdue University. 

10. Williams, J. L. 1949. An ecological study of Asarum canadense L. M.S. thesis, 
Purdue University. 

11. Von Culin, H. J., and A. A. Lindsey. 1972. Two decades of vegetational change 
in the Ross Biological Reserve. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:189-197. 

12. Von Culin, H. J. 1973. Two decades of vegetational and floristic change in the 
Ross Biological Reserve, Tippecanoe County, Indiana. Ph.D. thesis, Purdue Univer- 
sity. 



Analysis of Two Old-growth Forests on Poorly-drained Clermont Soils 
in Jennings County, Indiana 

Marion T. Jackson 

Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

and 

William B. Barnes 

Division of Nature Preserves 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Abstract 

The canopy tree, shrub and herb strata in Tribbetts and Commiskey Woods in 
Jennings County, Indiana, were sampled by taking nested 1/40, 1/400 and 1/4,000- 
hectare rectangular plots, respectively. Both stands have high basal areas (33.6 and 38.2 
square meters per hectare) and relatively low stand densities (184 and 242 trees per 
hectare, respectively). Dominant canopy tree species are Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., 
followed by Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Acer rubrum L., which collectively com- 
prise 76 and 69 per cent, respectively, of stand importance. Both stands are very 
similar in composition to presettlement forests on Clermont soils, and to contem- 
porary old-growth stands on similar sites. 

Smilax rotundifolia L., Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal and Lindera benzoin (L.) 
Blume dominate the shrub layer of both stands. Rhus radicans L., plus the above three 
shrub species and Nyssa sylvatica Marsh, seedlings dominate the herbaceous stratum. 
The shrub layer contains 23 and 26 species totally, and the herb layer 39 and 50 
species in Tribbetts and Commiskey Woods, respectively. 

Introduction 

Interest in locating and describing additional natural areas in 
Indiana remains at a high level. As a result of this continuing search, 
some 30 new areas have been reported since Natural Areas in Indiana 
and their Preservation was published in 1969 (6). The two stands 
reported herein were encountered during our visits to Indiana natural 
areas. 

Our aims are to provide detailed descriptions of these fine old- 
growth forest remnants, to compare our findings to presettlement forest 
composition, and to earlier studies of contemporary "flatwoods" stands, 
particularly those occupying poorly-drained Clermont silt loam soils. 

Few forested regions in the Indiana area have received greater 
attention from ecologists than the Illinoian tillplains. Braun (1), 
Chapman (2) and McCoy (8) studied major portions of that region. 
Earlier investigations of individual stands in the area include Officers 
South Woods (Jefferson County) and Conboy Woods (Jennings County) 
by Schmelz and Lindsey (12), Biehle and Guthrie Woods (Jennings 
County) by Secor (13), Klein Woods (Jennings County) by Keller (5) 
and succession patterns within several Ripley County stands by 
Potzger and Liming (10). Versailles State Park forests were examined 
in detail by Potzger (9), Potzger and Potzger (11), Stearns (14) and 
Jackson and Allen (4). 

222 



Ecology 223 

Description of Study Sites 

Tribbetts Woods is located approximately 5 miles northwest of 
the Village of Commiskey, Marion Township, Jennings County, Indiana. 
The old-growth section contains about 13.4 hectares (33 acres) in the 
SW %, NE !/4, Sec. 15, Twp. 5 N, Range 7 E. The present owner, 
Mr. Clifford Tribbetts, stated that his family has owned the farm 
since 1887, and that only dying trees (primarily species other than 
American beech) have been harvested during that period. The entire 
woods is on poorly-drained, Clermont silt loam soil, since the mean 
sea level elevation of 610 feet does not vary more than 1 or 2 feet. 

Commiskey Woods adjoins the southwest side of Commiskey in 
Montgomery Township. The mature portion contains 6 hectares (15 
acres) in the western part of the NW x A f SW %, Sec. 21 and the 
adjacent NE %, SE %, Sec. 20, Twp. 5 N, Range 8 E. Roger L. and 
Charles M. Wells are the current owners of the tract, which has been 
in continuous ownership by their family for about 80 years. According 
to the owners, the tract has never been grazed, with past cutting limited 
to the removal of dying or defective trees. The soil is mostly Clermont 
silt loam, grading to slightly better-drained Avonburg silt loam near 
the western stand border. Elevations vary from about 688 to 692 feet 
above mean sea level. 

Both stands are located on Illinoian age glacial till typical of the 
Muscatatuck Regional Slope Physiographic Province. Canopies are high 
and full as is characteristic of remnants of old-growth flatwoods of 
that part of Indiana. 

Methods 

Both stands were sampled by taking line strips located sys- 
tematically throughout the better old-growth sections. Nested rectangu- 
lar plots were taken as follows: 1) tree stratum — 10 m x 25 m (1/40 
ha); 2) shrub stratum — 2.5 m x 10 m (1/400 ha); and 3) herbaceous 
stratum — 1 m x 2.5 m (1/4,000 ha). Forty plots were sampled for 
trees in Commiskey Woods; 64 tree samples were taken in the larger 
Tribbetts Woods. Twenty samples were taken in the shrub and herb 
layer in each stand. 

Trees greater than 10 cm (4 inches) dbh were measured with 
diameter tapes. Densities of trees >3 m tall <10 cm diameter were 
recorded per plot by species. Densities of aboveground stems and per- 
centage cover estimates were determined for species in the shrub and herb 
strata. All woody individuals > V2 m < 3 m tall were considered 
as shrubs; all woody and herbaceous individuals < V2 m tall were 
tallied in the herb layer. Presence of species which fell outside the 
sampled areas was recorded by stratum. 

Crown height and length of clear bole were measured with an 
Abney level for several trees in each stand. Soil pH was determined 
by a Beckman pH meter. 

Importance values for tree species are averages of the relative 
values of density, frequency and basal area. Relative cover values were 
substituted for basal area when computing importance values for shrub 
and herb species. 



224 Indiana Academy of Science 

Stand Descriptions 

American beech heavily dominated the tree stratum at 44 and 54% 
importance values in Commiskey and Tribbetts Woods, respectively 
(Table 1). Red maple and sweet gum replace sugar maple, the usual 
co-dominant with beech on glaciated topography, on these acid, poorly- 
drained planosol soils. pH values of three topsoil samples in each stand 
averaged only 5.0 and 5.2 in Tribbetts and Commiskey Woods, re- 
spectively. 

Both stands are remarkable for their low densities (242 and 184 
trees per hectare), high basal areas (38.2 and 33.6 m 2 /ha) and large 
average tree size (41.4 and 43.9 cm diameter) (Table 1). These basal 
area values place Commiskey and Tribbetts Woods at the No. 3 and 5 
positions among all surveyed Indiana stands. Only Wesselman Woods 
(Vanderburgh County) at 43.0 and Davis Forestry Farm (Randolph 
County) at 39.8 m 2 /ha exceed the basal area in Commiskey Woods. 

Density-basal area relationships for the 10 most important species 
are shown in Figure 1. Oak and hickory species are represented by 
few large individuals, particularly in Tribbetts Woods. Beech, both 
gums and red maple have higher densities of smaller trees. 

Size-class relationships are depicted in Figure 2. Under-nepresenta- 
tion within the 8-inch size class plus numerous large stems distributed 
throughout both stands contribute to the large mean stem diameters. 
Our 2.6-hectare (6.4-acre) sample included 41 stems in the 75-cm (30- 
inch) or greater size classes for an average of 15.8 large trees per 
hectare. Large trees measured for key species (not all within sample 
plots) are: beech 94 cm (36.9 inches), sweet gum 78 (30.6), red maple 
102 (40.2), white oak 133 (52.2), black gum 72 (28.4), tulip tree 90 
(35.6), swamp chestnut oak 146 (57.6), red oak 96 (37.9), swamp white 
oak 91 (35.8), Shumard's red oak 98 (38.4), pignut hickory 76 (30.1), 
shagbark hickory 65 (25.5), big shellbark hickory 78 (30.9), red hickory 
(C. ovalis) 50 (19.7), green ash 80 (31.3), and pin oak 90 (35.5). 

Both stands have very high canopies and long, clear boles, even 
on relatively small diameter stems. Height data for eight trees taken 
at random in both stands follow: 





Diameter 


Total Height 


Clear Length 


Species 


in inches 




in feet 




in Feet 


Qmi (T) 


34.2 




152 




80 


Lt (C) 


33.6 




147 




70 


Qa (C) 


45.0 




141 




52 


Ls (C) 


15.0 




132 




72 


Or (C) 


38.1 




130 




54 


Qa (C) 


27.1 




126 




72 


Cov (T) 


26.4 




122 




77 


Lt (T) 


23.8 


cm) 


117 
133.4 


(40.7 


62 


Mean 


30.4 (77.2 


m) 67.4 (20.5 m) 



Species richness is not high in either stand (15 and 19 species). 
Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) is the most unusual tree 
present. 



Ecology 225 

The shrub stratum contains 26 and 23 species in Commiskey and 
Tribbetts Woods, respectively (Table 2). Seventeen species are common 
to both stands. Smilax rotundifolia, Asimina triloba and Lindera 
benzoin dominate both stands at combined importance values of 52 
and 49% (Table 2). Beech reproduction at 13% and wahoo (Euonymus 
atropurpureus) at 9% importance in Tribbetts Woods represent the 
major shifts in dominance. Six additional species, Juniperus virginiana 
L., Clastrus scandens L., Sambucus canadensis L., Viburnum dentatum 
L., Viburnum acerfolium L. and Rubus idaeus L. occurred in Commiskey 
Woods, but did not fall in the sample plots. All observed shrub species 
were tallied in Tribbetts Woods. 

The exotic Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica, is common 
along the south and east margins of Commiskey Woods. Roundleaf 
greenbrier is so dense in both stands that it hampers field work. Total 
shrub densities are quite similar in both stands (Table 2). 

The herbaceous stratum contained 50 and 39 species in Commiskey 
and Tribbetts Woods, respectively, 35 and 26 of which fell within 
our sample plots in late August (Table 3). Rhus radicans predominates 
numerically in both stands, totaling 56 and 39% relative densities. 
Euonymus atropurpureus replaces roundleaf greenbrier as the second 
dominant in Tribbetts Woods. Total densities were remarkably similar 
(Table 3). No rare or endangered species were observed in either 
stand. Additional species not recorded in sample plots appear in 
Appendix 1. 

Coefficients of community between the two stands were 57.5, 59.7 
and 75.3% for the herb, shrub and tree strata, respectively. Such high 
similarity values are expected for two stands occupying the same 
soil type, and which were part of a single presettlement plant com- 
munity, before widespread clearing isolated these remnants. 

Discussion 

Despite the numerous investigations of the forest communities 
on lllinoian Tillplain soils, our understanding of the vegetation pat- 
terns of that region is still incomplete. Of particular interest is the 
presence of American beech and white oak as principal canopy trees 
on very poorly-drained Clermont soils. These are most characteristically 
mesic and dry mesic to xeric species, respectively, rather than members 
of lowland-depressional forest communities. Also of interest is the 
replacement of sugar maple as a co-dominant by red maple, sweet 
gum and black gum. 

Crankshaw's (3) analysis of presettlement forest composition on 
Clermont soils revealed 59% importance value for beech and 9% for 
white oak (Table 4). Overall, 21 species contributed 122 stems and 
181 square feet of basal area per acre. Commiskey and Tribbetts 
Woods had similarity coefficients of 75 and 80% when compared with 
the presettlement "stand" on Clermont soil (Table 4). Such close cor- 
respondence reflects the homogeneity typical of uniform site condi- 
tions (such as level planosol soils) and the lack of modification of 
Commiskey and Tribbetts Woods from presettlement composition. 



226 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Ecology 



227 



Table 2. Comparison of species attributes for the major shrub species in Commiskey 

and Tribbetts Woods, Jennings County, Indiana. Importance values are averages of 

relative densities and relative frequencies. 





Density/0.1 ha 


Importance 


Value 


Species 


C 


T 


C 


T 


Simlax rotundifolia L. 


1,224 


318 


39 


15 


Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal 


292 


354 


13 


18 


Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume 


178 


346 


10 


16 


Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 


34 


24 


4.5 


3.1 


Liquidambar styraciflua L. 


38 


44 


4.2 


6.0 


Cornus florida L. 


30 


2 


4.0 


.45 


Rhus radicans L. 


64 


2 


3.2 


.45 


Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. 


14 


216 


2.8 


13 


Liriodendron tulipifera L. 


14 


— 


2.4 


— 


Acer rubrum L. 


12 


22 


2.3 


3.4 


Lonicera japonica Thunb. 


22 


— 


2.2 


— 


Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 


10 


30 


1.9 


3.7 


Prunus serotina Ehrh. 


10 


10 


1.9 


1.9 


Quercus michauxii Nutt. 


6 


4 


1.4 


.90 


Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 


6 


6 


1.4 


1.0 


Carpinus caroliniana Walt. 


14 


6 


1.2 


1.3 


Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch 


4 


10 


.90 


1.9 


Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. 


— 


164 


— 


9.0 


Ulmus americana L. 


— 


8 


— 


1.4 


Fraxinus americana L. 


— 


10 


— 


1.1 


Other species 1 


28 


20 


4.7 


2.6 


Total 


2,000 


1,596 







1 Other species are: 1) Commiskey — Quercus rubra L., Ribes cynosbati L., Rubus 
allegheniensis Porter, Aralia spinosa L., Morus rubra L., Quercus shumardii Buckl., 
Quercus alba L., Crataegus L. sp., and Ulmus rubra Muhl. ; 2) Tribbetts — Rubus al- 
legheniensis Porter, Sambucus canadensis L., Morus rubra L., Ulmus thomasii Sarg., and 
Vitis L. sp. 



Braun (1) listed the most important species on Clermont soil in 
the original forest of Ohio as beech, white oak, pin oak, red maple, 
American elm, hickory and sweet gum, in that order. The only major 
departure from Braun's sequence of species is the near-absence of pin 
oak in our data and those of Crankshaw. Successional studies (1, 10, 
11 and 14) suggest that pin oak is replaced by more mesophytic species 
as successional maturity is neared, possibly accounting for its near 
absence from the stands reported here. 

Sweet gum was a subdominant species in presettlement flatwoods 
stands (Table 4), and consistently fills that role in old-growth rem- 
nants, except Officers South Woods where it was not recorded (6). 
Black gum apparently had much lower importance than sweet gum 
in presettlement forests on Clermont soil and substantially lower than 
the 3.6 and 6% values recorded in these stands (Table 1). 

Red maple contributes about twice the 5.5% importance it had in 
presettlement forests on Clermont soil (Table 4). Several earlier studies 
(1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 13) listed red maple as the third or fourth most 
important species at importance values ranging from 5 to 8%, but 
listed sugar maple as an important component of flatwoods communities. 



228 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3. Comparison and species attributes for the major herb species in Commiskey 

and Tribbetts Woods, Jennings County, Indiana. Importance values are averages of 

relative densities and relative frequencies. 





Dnsi 


ity/.O.l ha 


Importance 


Value 


Species 


C 


T 


C 


T 


Rhus radicans L. 


6,960 


4,960 


32 


23 


Smilax rotundifolia L. 


1,480 


540 


13 


6.3 


Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 


780 


320 


8.3 


4.2 


Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume 


500 


460 


5.3 


5.1 


Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal 


360 


660 


4.7 


6.3 


Acer rubrum L. 


160 


180 


3.0 


2.8 


Comus florida L. 


120 


— 


2.3 


— 


Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. 


220 


840 


2.3 


6.2 


Quercus rubra L. 


140 


— 


2.0 


— 


Smilax glauca Walt. 


120 


— 


1.9 


— 


Impatiens biflora Walt. 


120 


600 


1.9 


4.0 


Liquidambar styraciflua L. 


100 


180 


1.8 


3.6 


Liriodendron tulipifera L. 


60 


— 


1.6 


— 


Lonicera japonica Thunb. 


220 


— 


1.4 


— 


Mitchella repens L. 


180 


— 


1.2 


— 


Prunus serotina Ehrh. 


40 


20 


1.1 


.50 


Geum canadense Rydb. 


40 


260 


1.1 


1.8 


Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. 


40 


300 


1.1 


4.1 


Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 


20 


280 


.54 


3.6 


Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch 


20 


80 


.54 


2.0 


Sanicula canadensis L. 


20 


80 


.54 


2.0 


Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. 


— 


2,340 


— 


13 


Galium triflorum Michx. 


— 


600 


— 


4.0 


Pilea pumila (L.) Gray 


— 


200 


— 


2.4 


Other species 1 


640 


280 


9.9 


5.7 


Total 


12,340 


13,180 







1 Other species are: 1) Commiskey — Carex L. sp., Rubus allegheniensis Porter, Ribes 
cynosbati L., Acer saccharum Marsh., (Carpinus caroliniana Watt., Euonymus obovata 
Nutt., Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw., Grass sp., Quercus shumardii Buckl., Sassafras 
albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Quercus michauxii Nutt., Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh, 
Quercus alba L., and Juniperus viriginiana L. ; 2) Tribbetts — Phryma leptostachya L., 
Quercus michauxii Nutt., Smilax hispida Muhl., Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Ulmus 
americana L., Senecio aureus L., Rubus allegheniensis Porter and Polygonum virginianum 
L. 



Mesic species typical of "better sites", such as tulip tree, white 
ash, black walnut, and sugar maple, consistently are weakly repre- 
sented on planosol soils. Braun (1) felt that low levels of organic 
matter (hence nitrogen) limited establishment of mesophytic seedlings. 
Chapman (2) attributed waterlogging of soils until late May with 
reducing both seed germination and seedling survival of all but swamp 
forest species. He felt that as the soils dry out in late summer, soil 
moisture is removed rapidly by the canopy trees and water levels drop 
faster than seedling roots elongate, thereby greatly increasing seedling 
mortality. Most mesic seedlings that do survive become established on 
better-aerated low mounds created by uprooted trees and other micro- 
relief features. 

Careful examnation of both Tribbetts and Commiskey Woods and 
other old-growth stands of the region reveals a patchwork pattern with 



Ecology 



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230 Indiana Academy of Science 

swamp species, such as red maple, sweet gum, swamp white and swamp 
chestnut oaks, American elm and wet-site hickories in the lower 
depressions which are always ponded in the spring and into midsummer 
during wet seasons. Beech, tulip tree, white and red oak, ash and 
sugar maple occupy the slightly better-drained sections. Such a pat- 
tern occurs even in Tribbetts Woods where the 1 to 2-foot elevation 
change is scarcely discernible to the eye, but which seems critical to 
success of mesic seedlings. 

As drainage improves, mesic species increase in importance. Pre- 
settlement forest data (3) for soil types in the same catena (Table 4) 
reveal substantial increases in sugar maple, white ash, tulip tree, 
black oak and ash, with corresponding declines in swamp species such 
as sweet gum, red maple, swamp white and swamp chestnut oaks 
and American elm. Since General Land Office surveyors lumped both 
wet and dry site species of hickory into a single category, little change 
in importance was detected or expected (Table 4). 

The decline in importance of beech with drainage improvement is 
also noteworthy (Table 4). Studies of contemporary old-growth stands 
on well-drained Cincinnati soils in Ripley County by Jackson and Allen 
(4) listed sugar maple as co-dominant with beech at importance values 
of 25 and 39% for the two stands examined. On Clermont soils, beech 
becomes the overwhelming dominant (59%, Table 4) by being the most 
shade tolerant species in the stand. Tolerance of wet, acid soils, which 
restrict sugar maple success, and a reproductive strategy which involves 
both seedling establishment on low mounds and vigorous root sprouting 
enhances the survival of beech. The sensitive control of sugar maple 
by drainage was noted in Commiskey Woods where the only two sugar 
maples (4.1 and 4.7 inches dbh) were tallied near the western edge of 
the stand where Clermont soil grades into Avonburg. No sugar maples 
were recorded in flatter Tribbetts Woods (Table 1). 

Both total basal areas and densities of presettlement forest decline 
with improved soil drainage, thereby keeping the mean tree diameter 
nearly constant (Table 4). Both stands reported herein had lower basal 
areas and densities than presettlement stands on Clermont soils, but the 
mean tree diameters are considerably larger. Species diversity increases 
rapidly in presettlement forests as drainage improves (Table 4), reflect- 
ing the increased availability of niches on heterogeneous topography. 

Both Commiskey and Tribbets Woods have reduced density of 
trees, particularly beech and both gums, in the 8 and 16-inch size classes 
(Figure 2). This situation contrasts with the usual survivorship 
curves for old-growth forests, which typically approach a downtrending 
straight line relationship on a log density plot. Although stand history 
indicates otherwise, such density-size class profiles suggest extensive 
grazing by cattle and possibly hogs for several years, then release from 
grazing perhaps 20 years ago. Grazing of even high quality woodlots 
is a common practice in that region. We doubt that these stands escaped 
grazing completely. Such disturbance would account for the paucity of 
small trees, which were in the sizes to be eaten or broken down when 
grazing occurred. The abundant 2-4-inch trees have grown up since 
grazing was discontinued. Over-representation of mid-sized trees repre- 



Ecology 



231 



sents release, faster growth and survival of those trees (which were 
above the animals when grazing occurred) in the absence of competition 
from smaller individuals. Reductions in the 34 and 38-inch size classes 
probably resulted from selective cutting. However, the presence of very 
large trees of several species (Figure 2), (with particularly large speci- 
mens of high quality oaks and tulip trees) indicate that cutting has 
been slight, as the owners suggest. Several very large white oaks 
escaped our samples in Tribbetts Woods. 

Reproduction of oak and hickory species is weak in both stands 
(Figures 1 and 2), a pattern which continues through the shrub and 
herb strata (Tables 2 and 3), except for red oak in the herb layer of 
Commiskey Woods. Improved drainage of surrounding tillplain soils 
for agriculture may favor oaks and hickories in the future. Other 
major canopy species are represented in both the shrub and herb 
strata and seem to be maintaining their contribution to the stand; 
black gum, especially, has high densities and may be increasing. Beech 
reproduction is much stronger in Tribbetts than in Commiskey Woods 
(Tables 2 and 3). Both stands are expected to maintain the present 
composition in the coming decades, if protection from disturbance con- 
tinues. It will be interesting to resurvey the stands at a future date to 
examine the expected recovery from density reductions in the smaller 
size classes as young trees grow into the canopy. 



125- 



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Figure 1. Composition diagrams for ten major tree species in Commiskey and Trib- 
betts Woods. The areas contained within the bars are proportional to the total basal 
areas per hectare for the respective species. Species symbols appear in Table 1. 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 




American Beech 




8 24 40 

Size Class Midpoint 



Red Maple 




Sweet 


Gum — 


Blac 


k G 


um 


is 


C 
T \ 



















Oa k — Hickory 



Remaining Species 




Figure 2. Comparison of percentage of total stems as distributed by size class mid- 
points for all species collectively and for selected canopy tree species for Tribbetts Woods 
(T) and Commiskey Woods (C). Subcanopy trees, such as blue beech and flowering 
dogwood, were omitted from the computations. 



Ecology 233 

Literature Cited 

1. Braun, E. Lucy. 1936. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Ohio. 
Ecol. Monogr. 6:89-149. 

2. Chapman, A. G. 1942. Forests of the Illinoian till plain of southeastern Indiana. 
Ecology 23:189-198. 

3. Crankshaw, William B. 1964. The edaphology of tree species in presettlement 
Indiana south of the Late Wisconsin Glacial Border. Unpublished Ph.D. Disserta- 
tion, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, Ind. 145 p. 

4. Jackson, M. T., and P. R. Allen. 1969. Detailed studies of old-growth forests in 
Versailles State Park, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78:210-230. 

5. Keller, Carl O. 1946. An ecological study of the Klein Woods, Jennings County, 
Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 8:64-81. 

6. Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz, and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural areas in Indi- 
ana and their preservation. Indiana Natural Areas Survey, Lafayette, Ind. 594 p. 

7. McCoy, Scott. 1937. An ecological study of the Guthrie Memorial Tract, a typical 
Illinoian Till Plain forest, Jennings County, Indiana. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, 
Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

8. McCoy, Scott. 1939. A phytosociological study of the woody plants constituting 
twenty-five type forests of the Illinoian till plain in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 48:50-66. 

9. Potzger, J. E. 1950. Forest types in the Versailles State Park area, Indiana. Amer. 
Midland Natur. 43:729-741. 

10. Potzger, J. E., and A. N. Liming. 1953. Secondary succession in stands of red 
maple-sweet gum-beech forests in Ripley County, Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 
11:50-59. 

11. Potzger, J. E., and Esther Potzger. 1950. Secondary succession in an Illinois till 
plain habitat. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 59:95-101. 

12. Schmelz, D. V., and A. A. Lindsey. 1970. Relationships among the forest types of 
Indiana. Ecology 51:620-629. 

13. Secor, Jack B. 1949. A comparative ecological study of two forest stands in the 
Illinois drift plain area of southern Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 9:60-79. 

14. Stearns, F. 1956. Forest communities in Versailles State Park, Indiana. Butler 
Univ. Bot. Stud. 13:85-94. 



Appendix 1. Presence list of species 1 appearing in the herbaceous stratum, but not 

within sample plots. 

Commiskey Woods: Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott, Asarum canadense L., 
Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb. ) Beauv., Circaea quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch. & 
Sav., Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad, Dioscorea villosa L., Dryopteris hexagonoptera 
(Michx.) Christens., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., Galium circaezans Michx., Phytolacca 
americana L., Prenanthes alba L., Saxifraga pennsylvanica L., Solidago caesia L., Vitis 
labrusca L. 

Tribbetts Woods: Amphicarpa bracteata (L.) Fern., Athyrium filix-femina (L.) 
Roth., Carex sp., Carpinus caroliniana Walt., Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch, 
Celastrus scandens L., Dryopteris noveboracensis (L. ) Gray, Dryopteris hexagonoptera 
(Michx.) Christens, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Galium circaezans Michz., Prenanthes 
alba L., Vitis labrusca L. 



1 Nomenclature in this list and throughout the text follows Gray's Manual of 
Botany. 



Donaldson's Woods : Two Decades of Change 

Damian V. Schmelz, St. Meinrad College, James D. Barton, Alfred 
University (U. Y.), and Alton A. Lindsey, Purdue University 

Introduction 

During the summer of 1974 the second 10-year study was made of 
the mature tree stratum of 19.6 acres of Donaldson's Woods, an 80- 
acre stand of original mixed woods forest (3) in Spring Mill State 
Park, Lawrence County, Indiana. As in the 1964 study (2), data were 
recorded directly on ozalid copy sections of the 1954 tree-by-tree scale 
map (1). Each surviving tree was measured with a diameter tape; 
trees growing across the 4-in. dbh threshold were added to the map, 
and trees that had died were deleted. This record provides the basis for 
a comparison between the two decades of population dynamics and for 
discerning the overall trend of species dominance. 

Replacement Size-Class 

Stability in species composition and dominance or the change which 
will alter the forest type is indicated partly by the additions to and the 
survival within the lowest size-class, in which both stand density and 
mortality are highest in an undisturbed old-growth forest. Species 
tolerance to suppressing conditions and competitive success for open- 
ings made available by the death of larger trees as well as response to 
any variation in the physical environment all find sharpest expression in 
these data, indicating how easily modified or reversed is the potential 
impact of a species in a stand. 

The total number of sugar maples 1 decreased during the second 
decade but increased for the whole 20 years (Table 1). More than half 
the new trees at each decade's end were sugar maples, accounting for 
more new basal area addition than the 24 other species combined. The 
number of entrants remained about the same, but mortality was much 
greater during the second decade. Nevertheless, there were net gains in 
both density and basal area during both decades. Very few areas within 
the tract are unsuited to sugar maple, the most widely distributed 
species. 

Less successful but continuing to compete strongly for sites on 
the variable topography, beech clearly ranked second in importance 
and potential. Although the net losses in density and basal area were 
small comparing new trees to deaths, there was a significant decrease 
in total number of trees throughout the 20 years, many trees growing 
into the next larger size-class. 



1 Qa is Quercus alba, Fg Fagus grandifolia, As Acer saccharum, Co Carya ovata, 
Qr Quercus rubra, Ns Nyssa sylvatica, Ar Acer rubrum, Cg Carya glabra, Fa Fraxinus 
americana, Qv Quercus velutina, Lt Liriodendron tulipifera, CI Carya laciniosa, Ov 
Ostrya virginiana, Cc Carya cordiformis, Cf Cornus florida, and others (less than 1 per 
cent density in tables) are Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Juglans nigra. Sassafras albidum, 
Ulmus rubra, U. americana, Carpinus caroliniana, Tilia americana, Celtis occidentalis, 
Ulmus thomasi and Morua rubra. 

234 



Ecology 



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236 Indiana Academy of Science 

The species of oak and hickory presented a sharp contrast, with 
little growth out of this size-class and few or no trees entering, 
mortality continuing to deplete representation. 

American ash was the only mesophytic species successful enough 
during these 20 years to hold promise for becoming important in the 
canopy. Both red maple and black gum, more site-restricted, showed 
slight net losses. The future of tulip, like that of the xerophytic white 
oak, continued to appear bleak. 

Stand density decreased by 4.9 trees per acre during the first 
decade even though there was a net gain of 2.30 trees per acre com- 
paring entrants to deaths, growth out of the size-class accounting for 
the difference. During the second decade the mortality nearly doubled, 
stand density decreasing by 7.4; the net loss, comparing entrants to 
deaths, was 3.76 trees per acre. Although stand density decreased by 
12.3 trees per acre over both decades, deaths exceeded entrants by 
only 1.4 trees per acre. The number of new trees was about the same 
during both decades, contributing about the same amount of new basal 
area. There was a small net gain of 0.03 in basal area during the first 
decade and a net loss of 0.93 during the second decade. 

Mortality 

It was evident in the field that mortality had been high during the 
second decade throughout all size-classes. Many large trees had been 
windthrown or were standing dead; especially hard hit were the oaks 
and hickories in the 22-inch size-class. In addition to shading and sup- 
pression, high mortality among the smaller sizes resulted from wind- 
throw damage, white oak bacterial bark disease, and the trampling 
along the bridle trail, now 50 ft. wide or more in many places. In all 
instances, as noted in 1964 (2), rate of decay was surprisingly rapid; 
frequently nothing could be found of small trees which had died. 

In 1964 trees per acre lost by white oak represented 24% of the 
total stand loss (Table 2); all oaks and hickories combined lost 45%, 
and beech and maple lost 25%. The 1974 losses were 22% white oak, 
38% oaks-hickories, and 36% beech-maple. The impact upon the 
stand is seen more clearly in the corresponding basal area losses. In 
1964 white oak lost 56% of the total, oaks-hickories 80%, and beech- 
maple 8%; the 1974 losses were 52% white oak, 74% oaks-hickories, 
and 13% beech-maple. 

The number of trees lost throughout all size-classes by all species 
increased by 82% from 1964 to 1974; basal area loss increased by 74%. 
During the 20 years the loss was 29.0 trees per acre and 20.8 sq. ft. 
basal area. 

Growth and Change 

The 118.6 trees per acre in 1954 (Table 3) had a basal area per 
acre of 121.8 sq. ft. and averaged 11.5 in. dbh. Of these 108.2 sur- 
vived to 1964, and their basal area had increased by 13.1, from 114.2 
to 127.3. In 1964 there were 9.1 new trees per acre, for a stand density 
of 117.3, a net loss of 1.3 trees per acre from 1954; these new trees 
had a basal area of 1.1, for a stand basal area of 128.4, a net gain of 



Ecology 



237 



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238 



Indiana Academy of Science 



6.6 from 1954. Average stem diameter had increased to 11.9 in. dbh. 
In 1974 there were 103.2 survivors; their basal area increased by 15.9, 
from 115.2 to 131.1. There were 9.0 new trees per acre, giving a stand 
density of 112.2, a decrease of 5.0 from 1964; their basal area con- 
tribution was 1.1, giving a stand basal area of 132.2, a net increase 
of 3.8. Average stem diameter had increased to 12.4 in. dbh. 

Density data by size-classes has been used to recognize past 
disturbance and stages of recovery in a stand (4). Such data, when 
plotted on semi-log paper, theoretically yield a straight line for the 
undisturbed stand; severe disturbance shows as one or more breaks in 
the slope of the line; recovery by increased reproduction and ac- 
celerated growth by survivors in the newly available space smooth out 
the line again. 

Information on Donaldson's Woods reveals little natural or human 
disturbance. Currently only the bridle trial still in use along the east 
edge of the study area continues to affect the stand adversely, the 
trail widening, erosion increasing, soil trampling not only killing 
small trees and preventing reproduction but probably impeding growth 
of larger trees. 

Table 3 and Figure 1A show which size-classes gained or lost 
during the 20 years. Losses were consistent during both decades for 



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DIAMETER BREAST HEIGHT 

Figure 1. Semi-log plots of tree densities by 4-inch size-classes for 195^ and 1974: 
A) all species combined; B) beech-sugar maple and oaks-hickories. 



Ecology 



239 



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240 Indiana Academy of Science 

size-classes 6 and 18 and in size-classes 14 and 22 represented reversals 
from gain during the previous decade. The pattern of plotted points 
changed in several significant ways. The line tended to straighten 
overall and its slope to flatten, an indication of some recovery. How- 
ever, the unexpected heavy natural losses, especially by white oak 
(Table 2), further depressed the portion of the slope (size-classes 18 
and 22) where disturbance had been evident in 1954 (2), not enough 
time having elapsed for growth into these sizes especially by beech 
and maple with their high rates of growth and survival. 

The decrease in stand density was accompanied by increased stand 
basal area (Table 3) as expected when density losses are not ex- 
cessively high especially among the larger trees. Gains and losses 
within most size-classes corresponded with density changes both 
in direction and percentage change. High variability is to be expected 
among the largest size-classes where there are few trees contributing 
low basal area sums. 

Although white oak (Table 4 and Figure 2) continued to be the 
single most dominant species, its importance declined through both 
decades, as measured by all absolute and relative attributes. The other 
oaks and the hickories all showed losses in density through each decade, 
yet for most the growth of survivors more than offset the basal area 
lost by deaths, and the importance values of red and black oaks and 
shellbark hickory increased during the 20 years. 

While the impact of sugar maple within the stand was still among 
the size-classes below 20 inches, this species clearly showed the greatest 
net gains in all attributes, ranking second in importance value, slightly 
above beech. Density losses by beech were small each decade; it re- 
produced, survived, and grew well enough that it became relatively 
more important. Among the other mesophytic species, only white ash 



Table 4. 


Comparison of species attributes 195U-7U and 
density and basal area. 


net 


gain (-{-) or loss ( — ) of 




Density per Acre (D2) 




Relative Density (D3) 


Species 


1954 1964 1974 


1954 1964 1974 



Qa 27.1 24.5 20.9 22.8 20.8 18.6 

Fg 26.9 26.5 25.9 22.7 22.6 23.1 

As 22.5 26.9 29.2 18.9 22.9 26.0 

Co 6.59 6.08 5.31 5.56 5.18 4.73 

Qr 4.75 4.49 4.04 4.00 3.83 3.60 

Ns 4.70 4.19 3.98 3.96 3.57 3.54 

Ar 4.65 4.29 4.09 3.92 3.66 3.64 

Cg 4.55 3.78 3.58 3.84 3.22 3.19 

Fa 3.58 3.78 4.14 3.02 3.22 3.69 

Qv 3.42 3.27 3.17 2.88 2.79 2.82 

Lt 1.94 1.89 1.69 1.64 1.61 1.50 

CI 1.58 1.48 1.23 1.33 1.26 1.10 

Ov 1.53 1.64 1.38 1.29 1.40 1.23 

Cc 1.33 1.18 0.87 1.12 1.00 0.77 

Cf 1.28 1.53 1.07 1.08 1.30 0.95 

Others 2.15 1.84 1.63 1.80 1.55 1.43 

Totals 118.6 117.3 112.2 



Ecology 



241 



Basal Area per Acre (B2) 



Relative Basal Area (B3) 



Species 



1954 


1964 


1974 


1954 


1964 


1974 


62.0 


62.3 


60.4 


50.9 


48.5 


45.7 


9.99 


11.9 


13.4 


8.20 


9.28 


10.1 


5.95 


8.29 


10.2 


4.88 


6.46 


7.72 


7.44 


7.69 


7.93 


6.11 


5.99 


6.00 


8.04 


8.74 


9.37 


6.60 


6.81 


7.09 


2.85 


2.79 


2.73 


2.34 


2.17 


2.06 


1.67 


1.57 


1.80 


1.37 


1.22 


1.36 


3.24 


3.11 


3.30 


2.66 


2.42 


2.50 


1.68 


1.90 


2.23 


1.38 


1.48 


1.69 


7.95 


8.51 


10.1 


6.53 


6.63 


7.67 


5.87 


6.33 


5.78 


4.82 


4.93 


4.37 


1.78 


1.91 


1.86 


1.46 


1.48 


1.41 


0.21 


0.23 


0.19 


0.17 


0.18 


0.14 


1.60 


1.54 


1.38 


1.31 


1.20 


1.04 


0.13 


0.16 


0.11 


0.11 


0.12 


0.08 


1.35 


1.40 


1.35 


1.12 


1.10 


1.02 



Qa „_ 
Fg ___ 
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Qr ___ 
Ns ___ 
Ar ___ 
Cg ___ 
Fa ___ 
Qv ___ 
Lt ___ 
CI ___ 
Ov ___ 
Cc ___ 
Cf ___ 
Others 



Totals 


. 121.8 


128.4 132.2 
















Importance (V3) 


% Change 1954-74 


Species 


1954 


1964 1974 


D2 B2 



Qa 36.9 

Fg 15.4 

As 11.9 

Co 5.84 

Qr 5.30 

Ns 3.15 

Ar 2.64 

Cg 3.25 

Fa 2.20 

Qv 4.70 

Lt 3.23 

CI „ 1.39 

Ov 0.73 

Cc 1.22 

Cf 0.59 

Others 1.46 

Totals 



34.7 


32.2 


15.9 


16.6 


14.7 


16.9 


5.58 


5.36 


5.32 


5.34 


2.87 


2.80 


2.44 


2.50 


2.82 


2.84 


2.35 


2.69 


4.71 


5.24 


3.27 


2.94 


1.37 


1.76 


0.79 


0.68 


1.10 


0.90 


0.71 


0.52 


1.32 


1.21 



— 3.7 
+29.8 
—19.4 
—15.0 
—15.3 
—12.0 

—21.3 
+15.6 

— 7.3 
—12.9 

—22.2 
— 9.8 
—34.6 
—16.4 
—24.2 



— 2.6 
+34.1 

+71.4 
+ 6.6 
+16.5 

— 4.2 
+ 7.8 
+ 1.8 
+32.7 
+27.0 

— 1.5 
+ 4.5 

— 9.5 
—13.8 
—15.4 

0.0 



— 5.4 



+ 8.5 



gained in all attributes. With fewer than 2 trees per acre, the im- 
pressive tulips became more restricted in their influence upon the 
stand. 

The semi-log density plot (Figure IB) of combined dominants in 
the beech-maple and oak-hickory forest types of Indiana clearly shows 
the shift from mixed-mesophytic to beech-maple dominance. Not only 
did beech and maple continue to dominate in size-classes 6 and 10 
and to increase in all size-classes but one, but also with oaks and 
hickories declining in all size-classes below 24 inches the curves 
crossed at a higher diameter. 



242 



Indiana Academy of Science 




MEAN BASAL AREA PER TREE 

Figure 2. Comparison of the moat important species for 195U-7U regarding basal area 
per acre (the area of the bar), the product of density per acre and mean basal area 

per tree. 



Trend 

A change in species dominance continued during the second decade, 
indicating a slow altering of forest type from mixed woods to 
beech-maple. Beech and sugar maple reproduced and survived in all 
size-classes at much higher rates than the oaks and hickories; only 5 
white oak grew across the 4-in. threshold during the 20 years. Al- 
though mortality increased for all species during the second decade and 
stand density decreased, the losses in the medium and large size-classes 
affected mainly the oaks and hickories. Survivors of all species grew 
well; stand basal area and average stem diameter increased. Overall, 
some degree of recovery from disturbance took place. 

Climatic data from Paoli (5, 6), the nearest weather station with 
long records, showed a mean annual temperature of 54.8 °F during the 54 
years preceding 1953, 52.9 °F for the period 1954-63, and 52.7 °F for 
1964-73. The corresponding annual precipitation means for the same 
periods were 42.2, 44.2, and 44.5 inches. For the April 1-August 31 
season, the mean temperature was 68.3 °F prior to 1953, 67.1 °F for 1954- 
63, and 66.7 °F for 1964-73; the corresponding precipitation means were 
19.4, 21.2, and 21.4 inches. These minor climatic changes to cooler and 
moister are consistent with beech-maple increase and oak-hickory de- 
crease. However, another nearby weather station recorded change to 
warmer and drier. Both a weather station in the woods and analysis of 
regional weather patterns are needed to assess climatic influence on 
observed forest changes. 



Ecology 243 

Literature Cited 

Lindsey, A. A., J. D. Barton, Jr., and S. R. Miles. 1958. Field efficiencies of 
forest sampling methods. Ecology 39:428-444. 

Lindsey, A. A. and D. V. Schmelz. 1965. Comparison of Donaldson's Woods in 
1964 and its 1954 map of 20 acres. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 74:169-177. 

. 1970. The forest types of Indiana and a new method of classifying 

midwestern hardwood forests. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:198-204. 

Schmelz, D. V. and A. A. Lindsey. 1965. Size-class structure of old-growth forests 
in Indiana. Forest Sci. 11:258-264. 

U. S. Dept. of Commerce. 1958. Climatic summary of the U. S. — Supplement 
for 1931 1952. Superintendent of Documents, Washington. 

U. S. Weather Bureau. 1954-1973. Climatological data. Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Washington. 



Lead Concentrations in Selected Streams and 
Fishes of Central Indiana 

Nicholas G. Schmutte and Philip A. St. John 

Department of Zoology 

Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

Abstract 

Water and fish samples were collected from three stations along the White River, 
and from Fall Creek and Eagle Creek near Indianapolis, and analyzed by atomic 
absorption spectrophotometry for lead content. Water samples collected at low flow 
were found to contain up to 120% more lead than the level found to inhibit bacterial 
decomposition, and 460% more than the maintenance level proposed by the Indiana 
Stream Pollution Control Board and the maximum allowable level for drinking water 
set by the Federal Health Service. 

Fish samples were found to contain as much as 350% more lead than the recom- 
mended concentration for sea foods. 

Introduction 

Among the adverse effects of lead are the inhibition of the ac- 
tivity of enzymes that are dependent on the presence of free sulfhydryl 
groups for their activity, such as those mediating the formation of 
heme. Enzyme inhibition is first noticed when the lead level in the 
blood rises above 0.3 mg/1 (2). When blood lead levels reach 1.5 
mg/1 (ppm), there is an increased loss of amino acids, glucose, and 
phosphates in the urine due to damaged kidney tubule cells. Chronic 
nephritis, as well as peripheral nerve diseases affecting the motor 
nerves of the extremities, are results of long-term over-exposure to 
lead (2). 

Most of the work on lead poisoning in aquatics has been done with 
acute toxicity levels, and very little is known of the ability of aquatic 
organisms to concentrate lead in their soft tissues. There is a need for 
long-term or chronic toxicity studies to investigate subtle changes in 
metabolism, appetite, or reproduction (3, 4, 5). Lead has been found to 
be concentrated at all levels of aquatic food chains (5), and some 
concentration factors have been determined (8), but there is a 
severe lack of data on residues of lead and concentration factors for 
fish (5). 

While Indiana has no large-scale lead mining or smelting op- 
erations, it ranked fifth in the nation in total lead consumption in 1968 
with 121,641 tons. Storage batteries and gasoline antiknock additives 
are the leading uses for lead (8). 

Methods 

Fish and water samples were collected from three sites along the 
west fork of the White River, one site on Eagle Creek, and one site on 
Fall Creek. The Fall Creek site was under the Interstate 465 bridge on 
the east side of Indianapolis, and samples from Eagle Creek were 
collected approximately 500 yards downstream from the 1-465 bridge 
on the west side of the city. The White River sites were collected at 

244 



Ecology 245 

the bridge north of Daleville (downstream from Muncie, Indiana), 
the bridge at Perkinsville (downstream from Anderson), and at the 
Southport Road bridge south of Indianapolis (approximately 500 yards 
downstream from the municipal sewage treatment plant discharge). 

The White River sites were chosen for their location with respect 
to the major industrial centers of Muncie, Anderson, and Indianapolis, 
while the Fall and Eagle creek sites were chosen for the absence of 
industrial effluents, but proximity to major highways. 

Fish were seined, transported to Butler University in stream 
water, identified, and placed at -20 °C for preservation until analysis 
could be performed. Water samples were collected in polypropylene 
bottles acidified with nitric acid, and refrigerated at 4°C until analysis. 

Standards were prepared by adding lead nitrate to deionized water 
in sufficient quantities to make 200 ml each of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm 
as lead. These standards, with a blank containing only deionized 
water, were processed with the 200 ml stream water samples by the 
method described by Fishman and Midgett (6). 

Tissue samples were processed by the wet ash method of Hoover, 
Reagor, and Garner (7). Standard solutions of lead nitrate were pre- 
pared to give 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 ppm lead each time the tissue samples 
were analyzed to establish absorption curves. One blank was com- 
pared with each set of samples to verify that no lead was added by 
the procedure. The samples were analyzed for lead content in a Unicam 
SP 1950 atomic absorption spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 217.0 
or 283.3 nanometers. 

Results 

Table I illustrates the amount of lead found in each stream on 
each collection date. On June 17, all streams except Eagle Creek were 
exceptionally high and turbid. The lead concentrations therefore were 
very dilute at the White River and Fall Creek sites. The flow of Eagle 
Creek is controlled by a dam and is maintained at a moderate level, as 
indicated by the clarity of the water and the rate of flow. 

On July 13, there was a slight but steady rain from early morning 
to late afternoon at all sites, though the stream levels were not visibly 
affected. Lead levels were considerably higher than on June 17. This may 
be accounted for by redissolved lead (4), or by tetraethyl lead from 
automobile exhaust emissions being washed down from roadside ditches. 

By August 8 there had been a lack of rain for two weeks or 
more, and stream flow appeared to be about normal based on stream 
movement and turbiditry. Lead levels dropped from July 13, but were 
still much higher than June 17. 

On August 20 the stream flow was very low at all sites, and the 
lead levels were at their highest along White River. 

In spite of the differences in stream conditions on the dates of 
collection, certain patterns are evident. On all collection dates except 
June 17, the stream lead levels were found to be as much as 46Q r /o 
higher than the maximum level proposed by the Indiana Stream Pol- 
lution Control Board (11). The lead level for Eagle Creek was higher 



246 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Lead in parts per million 

o o o 

'_ _ ro 
o 



Ol 





1 ! ■ 

UUNE 17 ! 






1 


Jjuly 13 : 




IAUGUST 8 ! 






,AUGUST 20 i 






[jUNE 17 ! 




IJULY 13 i 




[AUGUST 8 








IAUGUST 20 : 






UUNE 17 ! 






Jjuly 13 : 




IAUGUST 8 








[AUGUST 20 : 












JUNE 17 ! 




IJULY 13 ; 






AUGL 


ST 8 






AUGUST 20 




UUNE 17 






[JULY 13 : 






AUGUST 8 






[august 20 : 

















Table 1. Lead concentration (ppm) in stream water. 
(....) concentration at which bacterial decomposition is impeded. 
(----) maximum allowable concentration in drinking water. 



Ecology 247 

than the 0.05 ppm level prescribed by the Federal Health Service for 
drinking- water (5). The town of Speedway obtains its drinking water 
from Eagle Creek, and normal treatment processes for drinking water 
fail to remove significant quantities of lead (8). 

The highest readings, on July 13 and August 20, were as much as 
120% higher than the level of 0.10 ppm at which bacterial decomposi- 
tion is impeded (5). 

A possible explanation for the high lead levels on Eagle and Fall 
creeks on July 13 is the proximity of these sites to major highways. 
About V2 of the lead introduced into the atmosphere by automobile 
exhausts falls out again within 100 feet of the roadway (1). Since it 
was raining on that day, it is possible that this high level was caused 
by much of this precipitated lead being washed into the stream. 

Dilution plays an obvious role in the lead concentrations, as seen 
by the fact that with the exception of July 13, as the stream level 
dropped from a high on June 17 to a low on August 20, the lead 
concentration rose from a low on June 17 of 0.02 to 0.04ppm to a high on 
August 20 of 0.23 ppm. 

Table II illustrates the average lead content in fish muscle tissue, 
broken down according to collection site and feeding habit. The lead 
concentrations in fish at each site reflected very little variation during 
the investigation period, indicating that short-term fluctuations of 
stream lead levels apparently have little effect on the lead concen- 
trated in muscle tissue. 

While there are no regulations governing the amount of lead in 
sea foods (8), it has been suggested that a maximum concentration of 
2.0 ppm wet tissue be imposed (10). Lead levels found in fish seined 
from areas known to be frequented by fishermen were as much as 
350% higher than this recommended concentration. 

There were 37 carnivores, 15 bottom feeders, and 4 herbivores ex- 
amined for lead content during this investigation, and while there 
appears to be a higher concentration of lead in muscle tissue of 
bottom feeders than in carnivores, and more in herbivores than in 
bottom feeders, a statistically valid statement cannot be made in this 
regard due to insufficient data. 

Conclusions 

Lead contamination of the environment is widespread and in- 
creasing (9). Currently, water analysis is the only monitoring tech- 
nique utilized with any degree of regularity. These findings indicate 
that stream lead levels are less than stable and, depending on stream 
flow and local precipitation, may vary greatly from well within the 
"safe" limit to 400%) or more above this limit. Fish may be exposed 
to doses well above the norm as precipitated lead redissolves (4) or 
is washed down from roadside ditches after a rain. 

An area for further study would be an investigation of streams 
remote from heavy traffic as well as industry, to obtain some idea of a 
background or "normal" lead concentration for fresh water and fish. 






248 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Another area of interest would be a study of washout from road- 
side ditches to determine to what extent lead from exhaust emissions 
contribute to stream lead levels. 



Lead in parts per million 
1 1 



carnivores 



bottom feeders 



bottom feeders 



carnivores 



bottom feeders 



carnivores 



bottom feeders 



carnivores 



bottom feeders 



herbivores 



Table 2. Lead concentration (ppm) in fish muscle. 
(- - _ -) proposed maximum concentration in sea foods. 



Ecology 249 

Literature Cited 

1. Berry, James W., David W. Osgood, and Phillip A. St. John. 1974. Chemical 
villains: A biology of pollution. C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, Mo. 189 p. 

2. Chisolm, J. Julian, Jr. 1971. Lead poisoning. Scientific American 224:215-23. 

3. Davies, Patrick H., and W. H. Everhart. 1973. Effects of chemical variations on 
aquatic environments. Vol. III. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency no. EPA- 
R3-73-011c. 80 p. 

4. Dorfman, D. and W. R. Whitworth. 1969. Effects of fluctuations of lead, tempera- 
ture, and dissolved oxygen on the growth of brook trout. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. 
26:2493-2501. 

5. Engle, R. E., D. I. Hammer, R. J. M. Horton, N. M. Lance, and L. A. Plumlee. 
1971. Environmental lead and public health. Environmental Protection Agency no. 
AP-90. 34 p. 

6. Fishman, Marvin J., and Maryland R. Midgett. 1968. Extraction technique for 
the determination of cobalt, nickel, and lead in fresh water by atomic absorption. 
Trace inorganics in water. Advances in chemistry series 73. American Chemical 
Society. Washington D.C. pp. 230-35. 

7. Hoover, William L., John C. Reagor, and Julianne C. Garner. 1969. Extraction 
and atomic absorption analysis of lead in plant and animal products. J. of the 
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 52:4. 230-235. 

8. Lambou, Victor, and Benjamin Lim. 1970. Hazards of lead in the environment, 
with particular reference to the aquatic envix-onment. U.S. Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency (unpublished). 

9. Lazarus, Allan L. 1970. Lead and other metal ions in U.S. precipitation. En- 
vironmental Science and Technology 4:1 55-59. 

10. Pringle, Benjamin H. and C. N. Schuster, Jr. 1968. Trace metal accumulation 
by estuarine mollusks. J. of Sanitary Engineering 94 :SA3 pp. 455-475. 

11. Winters, John, (personal communication). Indiana State Board of Health, divi- 
sion of water quality. 



Threatened Species: A Review of the Eastern National 
Forests' Studies of These Animals 

H. E. McReynolds 
USDA, Forest Service 
Bedford, Indiana 47421 

Abstract 

The Eastern Region of the Forest Service has shown a deep interest in endangered 
and threatened species of wildlife. Throughout this Region, which corners roughly on 
Minnesota, Missouri, Maryland, and Maine, various studies of these rare animals have 
been undertaken. Most often, the Forest Service has preferred to contract with recog- 
nized authorities for these studies, rather than attempt to conduct them with Forest 
Service biologists. Many of these studies have been assigned to academic personnel, with 
generally favorable results. 

In the past two decades there has been an accelerating pressure to 
provide increased protection to species of animals in which populations 
have declined to dangerously low levels. This movement resulted in the 
Endangered Species Act in 1966. The Act amounted to a governmental 
recognition of the potential extirpation of certain animal species, and 
was basically a preservation act. 

In many respects, this Act was a palliative which did little to 
empower the actions needed to protect these species. The law failed to 
impose any restrictions on human activities, even though these ac- 
tivities were recognized as being the root cause of the precarious status 
of most of these threatened species. The Act, of course, provided no 
penalty provisions, nor any enforcement responsibilities, since it had 
prohibited no human actions. Further, it applied only to birds, mam- 
mals, and fish. 

A later 1969 amendment to the Endangered Species Act expanded 
coverage to other vertebrates, mollusks, and crustaceans, but was 
chiefly aimed at blocking importation of internationally endangered 
wildlife. Congress eventually became convinced that a program with 
no punitive measures for deleterious activities by humans, with no 
enforcement responsibilities, and no funding, could not attain the 
intended goals. They passed the Endangered Species Act of 1973 which 
corrects some of the weaknesses of previous legislation. 

Even before the 1973 Act, however, wildlife personnel of the Eastern 
Region of the Forest Service had become concerned about those species 
which had been nominated for the endangered species list. Originally, 
these animals had been categorized as "Endangered" (i.e., in imminent 
danger of extirpation); "Rare" (low population levels; potentially in 
danger, at least in some portions of its range); and "Status Undeter- 
mined" (species for which insufficient data were available). We felt 
there were still other species (not listed in any of these three cate- 
gories) which merited some consideration for special management. 
These were species that might be rare in the Eastern Region of the 
Forest Service (an area cornering on Minnesota, Missouri, Maryland, 
and Maine), but not threatened in other portions of their range. In 

250 



Ecology 251 

addition, we felt that trogloditic and troglophilic species (i.e., cave- 
dwelling animals) had received insufficient consideration. We added 
another Forest Service category which we termed "Unique." 

The development of a list of endangered, rare (later termed 
"threatened"), and unique species in the general area of the eastern 
National Forests was the simpler portion of our wildlife responsibilities. 
A more difficult assignment was the determination of what measures 
were necessary to protect the species of concern. As we confronted 
this issue, it appeared that we had by-passed an antecedent step. 
Before formulating elaborate management plans for a species — expen- 
sive in time, money, and personnel — we needed to know first that 
the particular species actually occurred within the National Forest. 
It would be not only embarassing, but wasteful also, to design intricate 
plans, only to discover later that the animal did not reside within the 
National Forests. 

Often our wildlife records or a literature search of faunal dis- 
tribution studies validated the animal's occurrence within our area of 
responsibility. 

Equally often, however, neither of these sources, nor correspondence 
with academic or State wildlife authorities, could establish the species' 
presence (or absence) on the National Forests. There remained a 
pressing need for this information before moving to the subsequent 
planning stage. 

The voids in data for many of these species is understandable when 
one recognizes that fisheries and wildlife training, as well as manage- 
ment of the wildlife resource, is generally directed toward commercial 
or sporting species. State wildlife biologists, like Forest Service wildlife 
personnel, are more knowledgeable concerning game or commercially- 
important animals. The problem, of course, is that many of the 
threatened species are non-game, non-commercial species. Few State, 
Forest Service, or Fish and Wildlife Service biologists have a signifi- 
cant knowledge of the Indiana bat, the spring cavefish, the grotto 
salamander, the White Mountain fritillary, or other threatened, but 
lesser known animals. Life histories of these unusual animals is the 
twilight zone of wildlife biology. 

Further, the Eastern Region of the Forest Service has a number 
of National Forests located in the karst-like regions of Missouri, 
Illinois, Indiana, and West Virginia. Because of its presence in these 
and other areas of limestone lithologies (New Mexico, Utah, California), 
the Forest Service may have more caves under its control than any 
other of the world's land managers. Attempts to acquire knowledge of 
the community interactions of cave fauna have not been productive; 
the synecology of troglophiles must be the midnight zone of wildlife 
biology. 

The Forest Service turned to Academia for assistance. Through 
some personal knowledge of areas of interest of university personnel, 
and selective inquiries where this knowledge was lacking, we compiled 
a list of experts on the species of our concern. We then approached them 
on the possibility of making faunal surveys for us. If they were in- 
terested in doing this work, these experts drew up survey proposals 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 

which the Forest Service reviewed. If the proposed survey met our 
needs, we issued cooperative agreement contracts for the work, and the 
studies were made, complete with terminal reports. 

The only thing unusual about this approach was that most of the 
studies were contracted directly with the individual investigators, 
rather than through the university structure of the institutions with 
which they were associated. Since our funding for these studies was 
very limited, the avoidance of university overhead charges permitted 
us to fund additional (perhaps 25-40% more) investigations. 

Although several projects have been completed, many are still in 
progress. The following list of studies will indicate the species, the 
area of interest, the investigator, and in some instances, a very terse 
summation of results. If more information is desired concerning a 
specific study, the Forest Service can provide the data in greater depth. 

1. Studies on the Hoosier National Forest in Indiana: 

A. Cave Inventory by Carroll Ritter, a biology teacher and spe- 
lunker. This was a general inventory of caves within the 
Hoosier National Forest. Its primary objective was the de- 
termination of the fauna of these caves, but information was 
also collected on archaeological, geological, historical, and 
aesthetic values of caves. An index of cave importance or qual- 
ity was developed. This survey pointed out 10 or 11 caves 
which should be explored more thoroughly for amblyopsid fish 
in their deeper zones. 

B. Deep Zone Cavefish Survey by Norbert Welch and James Keith, 
doctoral candidates at Indiana University and experienced spe- 
leobiologists. This survey was a follow-up of the previous one, 
and uncovered one significant population of cavefish (Amblyop- 
sis spelaea). We will attempt to acquire this cave and protect 
this population. 

C. Indiana Bat-Allegheny Woodrat Survey by Dr. Russell Mum- 
ford, Purdue University mammalogist and bat expert. Dr. 
Mumford's survey located no Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) nor 
any woodrats (Neotoma floridana magister) . Dr. Mumford 
feels the Forest should develop no Indiana bat or woodrat 
habitat management plans unless these species are subse- 
quently discovered within the Forest. One of Dr. Mumford's 
students will continue the search for the woodrat in the Perry 
County area. 

2. Studies on the Shawnee National Forest in Illinois: 

A. The Spring Cavefish Study by Norbert Welch, doctoral candi- 
date from Indiana University. The area of this study was the 
type locality for this species (Chologaster agassizi). The 
Shawnee National Forest staff was aware that the spring cave- 
fish (also called spring fish) occurred in 3 or 4 springs in the 
Forest's Larue-Pine Hills Ecological Area. They were, how- 
ever, troubled that C. agassizi numbers appeared to be de- 
creasing, that collectors frequently raided these springs, and 
that a proposed reservoir in the adjacent valley might ad- 



Ecology 253 

versely affect the flow regime of the springs. This study 
sought not only to determine the species distribution by 
searching other springs in the area, but to somehow meas- 
ure the density of these assumedly discrete spring populations. 
By using subcutaneous injections of colored printer's inks, Mr. 
Welch was able to establish an identification procedure for 
these fish. Population estimates were then made for 8 springs, 
and the collective population of Chologaster in these 8 springs 
was calculated to be only 983 individuals. Within our knowl- 
edge this is the first population estimate ever made for 
this species. This study also expanded the Illinois range of 
this species from 3 or 4 springs to 13 springs or caves. 

B. The Illinois Woodrat Survey by a student of Dr. Willard Klim- 
stra, Southern Illinois University. In recent years this species 
has declined from its few known localities in southern Illinois. 
This survey showed the woodrat still persisting in only two 
or three small areas in southwestern Illinois. Both numbers 
and range of this animal have decreased in the Shawnee Na- 
tional Forest area. 

C. Indiana Bat Survey by Dr. John Whitaker, Indiana State Uni- 
versity. Patterned after the Hoosier National Forest Survey 
by Mumford, this study is still in progress. Presently no 
Myotis sodalis have been found in the Shawnee National Forest. 
However, a significant colony of another rare bat, Myotis 
grisescens, has been recorded. This species, commonly known 
as the gray bat, or the gray myotis, is on the Illinois Threat- 
ened Species List. 

D. Rare Fish Studies by Drs. Phil Smith and Larry Page, Illi- 
nois Natural History Survey. Several relatively rare species of 
fish occur within the Larue Swamps on the Shawnee National 
Forest. These include three lepomine species: the spotted sun- 
fish (Lepomis punctatus) ; the bantam sunfish (Lepomis sym- 
metricus) ; and the banded pigmy sunfish (Elassoma zonatum). 
Other species under study by the Illinois Natural History 
Survey are the starhead topminnow (Fundulus notti) and the 
stripetail darter (Etheostoma kennicotti) . In addition, a sixth 
species, the blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus) , is under 
study by the author. In Illinois, it occurs only in the Clear 
Creek basin in Union and Alexander Counties. 

3. Studies on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia: 

A. Indiana Bat Survey by Dr. John Hall, Albright College, Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania. Dr. Hall has located colonies of Indiana bats 
in three caves within the Monongahela National Forest. One of 
these caves contains one of the largest known colonies of this 
myotis east of the Mississippi River. The southern part of the 
Forest still remains to be surveyed. 

4. Studies on the Ottawa National Forest in Michigan: 

A. Sucker Lake Eagle Study by James Matson, St. Cloud State 
College, St. Cloud, Minnesota. There was a proposal to improve 



254 Indiana Academy of Science 

this shallow, euthrophic lake by providing an outlet structure 
to deepen the lake by about 3 m (10 feet). However, one bay 
of this lake was reputed to be an important regional feeding 
station for immature Northern Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leuco- 
cephalus alascanus). In view of this critical wildlife value for 
a depleted eagle population, a study to evaluate this situation 
was contracted to a student of Dr. Dan Frenzel, an eagle author- 
ity. This study denned some habitat parameters for eagle feeding 
areas — one of which was quite puzzling and unanticipated. 
B. Endangered and Threatened Plans of the Sylvania Area by 
Dr. Forest Stearns, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The 
Sylvania Area, an 18,000-acre tract of nearly pristine lakes and 
forests, was acquired in 1966 by the U.S. Government and 
assigned to the Ottawa National Forest for management. A 
number of rare plants occur in the tract and the southern part 
of the area was designated as a botanical reserve. In an earlier 
botanical survey, Dr. Voss, University of Michigan, developed 
a list of plant species, occurring in Sylvania. Dr. Stearns' study 
will concentrate on validation, location, and protective measures 
for endangered and threatened plant species within the Sylvania 
area. This study is still in progress. 

5. Studies on the Huron National Forest in Michigan: 

A. Kirtland's Warbler Studies by the National Audubon Society, 
Michigan Department of Natural Resources, the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, and the Forest Service. These are continuing 
studies of this endangered warbler (Dendroica kirtlandi) which 
nests only in a small jack pine area of the Huron National 
Forest in Michigan. The recent decline in numbers of nesting 
Kirtland's Warblers has elicited much concern among Forest 
Service and ornithological groups. Emphasis of present studies, 
however, has shifted from the Michigan nesting grounds of 
the bird to its wintering grounds in the Bahamas. These studies 
are continuing. 

6. Studies on the Hiawatha National Forest in Michigan: 

A. Sandhill Crane Study by Dr. Ray Reilly, Lake Superior State 
College, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Greater Sandhill 
Crane (Grus canadensis tabida) nests in one area of the Hia- 
watha National Forest. This was an ecological study of that 
area aimed at determining the habitat selection and habitat 
requirements of this bird. This study has been completed. 

B. Scotts Marsh Study by Dr. William Robinson, Northern Michi- 
gan University. Dr. Robinson will determine the vertebrate 
species present, and their population densities and distribu- 
tions. This study will provide information on wildlife asso- 
ciated with various wetland types, with emphasis on unique and 
threatened wildlife. Scotts Marsh is a major proposed wetland 
development complex. 

7. Studies on the Nicolet National Forest in Wisconsin: 

A. Timber Wolf Survey by Dr. Ray Anderson and Richard Thiel, 






Ecology 255 

University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. This survey will deter- 
mine whether timber wolves presently exist on the Nicolet 
National Forest. Additionally, it will supply data on the efficacy 
of re-introduction of this species on this Forest. The survey 
is presently in progress. 

8. Studies on the Superior National Forest in Minnesota: 

A. Timber Wolf Studies by Dr. L. David Mech, U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. These have been the most comprehensive 
studies of this species yet undertaken in the United States. 
Research has included life history data; population studies by 
mark-and-recapture methods; and pack range and movement 
analysis by biotelemetry. These studies are presently continu- 
ing under U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service funding. 

9. Studies on the Chippewa National Forest in Minnesota: 

A. Bald Eagle Study by Dr. Dan Frenzel of the University of 
Minnesota. This study involves habitat preferences and nesting 
behavior of the Bald Eagle. The investigation began in 1970, 
and has had financial support from the University of Minne- 
sota and the Hunt-Wesson Company. 

B. Orchid Bog Study. This is a joint sudy by the Center for 
Environmental Studies of Bemidji State College and the 
Orchid Society of Minnesota. This study will provide a vege- 
tative inventory of the botanical study area, a potential national 
orchid bog. Many rare and endangered species of plants exist 
in this area. 

10. Studies on the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire 
and Maine: 

A. Study of the Habitat of the Fisher (Martes pennanti) by Dr. 
Wendell Dodge, University of Massachusetts. This is a two- 
year study to define habitat of the fisher. It will serve as basic 
data for the development of habitat management guides. 

B. Pine Marten Studies by Mark Mowatt of the University of 
Maine. The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and the 
New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. This is a two- 
year study with the first year devoted to an evaluation of the 
habitat of the pine marten (Martes americanus) , and the 
second year involving re-introduction of the animal. 

Future studies which may be undertaken if funding becomes available 
include: 

1. Major habitat survey and re-introduction of the Peregrine Falcon 
in the Green Mountain and White Mountain National Forests 
of Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine; 

2. Cave fauna of the National Forests in Missouri; 

3. Development of management guidelines for important feeding 
areas for Bald Eagles and Ospreys in the National Forests in 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

4. Studies of the habitat requirements of the Whooping Crane 
(Grus americana), and the potential for its re-introduction on 
the Hiawatha National Forest in Michigan; and 

5. A survey of threatened or unique species of fish on the Mononga- 
hela National Forest in West Virginia. 

R 4 — Indiana Soil Associations Compared to Earth Resources Technol- 
ogy Satellite Imagery. G. C. Steinhardt, D. P. Franzmeier, and 
J. E. Cipra. 7 pages. 

R 5 — Analyzing Indiana's Soil Associations for Future Land Uses. 
Harry Galloway, Joseph Yahner, Donald Franzmeier, and G. 
Srinivasan. (Abstract) V2 page. 

R 6 — Time of Plowing, Nitrogen Rate, and Cover Crop for Corn on 
Chalmers Silt Loam. Russell K. Stivers. 8 pages. 

S 1 — Dominance Rank and Physiological Traits as Affected by Shifting 
Cows from One Group to Another. C. W. Arave, J. L. Albright. 
V2 page. 

S 2 — Behavioral and Physiological Differences of Mice Grown at 4 C 

and 21 C. Jo Anne Mueller and Wayne Paul Mueller. % page. 
S 3 — What Is the Future for Biological Control of Insects? Harold L. 

Zimmack. (Abstract) % page. 
S 4 — Cadmium and Lead Levels in Palestine Lake, Palestine, Indiana. 

Randall S. Wentsel and James W. Berry. 8 pages. 
S 5 — Foods of Some Fishes from the White River at Petersburg, Indi- 
ana. John O. Whitaker, Jr. 10 pages. 
S 6 — Seasonal Activity of Bats at an Indiana Cave. Russell E. Mumford 

and John O. Whitaker, Jr. 7 pages. 
S 7 — Preliminary Evaluation of a Tooth Wear Aging Technique for 

the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus Fuscus. Ralph D. Kirkpatrick and 

Thomas W. Landrum. (Abstract) V2 page. 
S 8 — Phytoseiid Mites of Pease Woods, Johnson County, Indiana, A 

Preliminary Study. C. Barry Knisley. V2 page. 
S 9 — Effect of Aging on Erythrocytic 2, 3-DPG Concentration. Loren 

G. Martin, Kim L. Brokaw and James J. McGrath. V2 page. 
S10 — A Study of Iron Deficiency Anemia in College Females. Joseph M. 

Poland. V2 page. 
Sll — Evidence of Possible Superfetation or Delayed Implantation in 

the Opossum Didelphis Virginiana. Thomass Joseph. (Abstract) 

y 2 page. 
S12 — Studies of a Naturally Occurring Rudimentary Gonad Phenocyte 

in Drosophila Melanogaster. Lee Engstrom and Nick Pappas. 

V2 page. 
S13 — Studies on Experimental Hypertension in Rats. W. J. Eversole. 

V 2 page. 
S14 — STH Maintenance in Hypophysectomized Rana Pipens with a 

Synergistic Affect. Gregory Caplinger. V2 page. 
S15 — Blood Clearance and Tissue Uptake of AG in the Turtle, Pseudemys 

Scripta. Dianne Vermillion and William Brett. V2 page. 



Ecology 257 

S16 — Tissue Uptake, Accumulation, and Retention of AG in the Rat, 
Rattus Norvegicus. Sheri Parr and William Brett. V 2 page. 
The Respiratory Effects of Prostaglandin F2a in Anesthetized 
Cats. Max W. Talbott and Lloyd P. Gabel. 7 pages. 

L 1 — Localization of Proteolytic Activity on Low pH-Urea, BSA- 
Included Polyacrylamide Gels. Thomas A. Cole. 2 pages. 

L 7— >— Muricholate: A Rehabilitated Bile Acid of the Wistar Rat. 
D. C. Madsen, L. Chang, and B. Wostmann. 5 pages. 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: J. W. Delleur, School of Civil Engineering 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

John A. Spooner, School of Civil Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Civil Engineering Archaeology in Indiana: Programmatic Remarks. Aldo 
Giorgini, School of Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. A tentative definition of Civil Engineering Archae- 
ology is introduced in order to delimit the scope of the research. A pro- 
gram for the collection and the preservation of records related to Civil 
Engineering artifacts in Indiana is being developed in some detail, with 
a warm invitation to people concerned with the history of technology 
in the state to form a communication network for the exchange 
information. 

A Multispectral Satellite Land Use Survey of a Small Urban Area, 
Terre Haute, Indiana. M. T. Lewellen, Department of Geography and 
Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 and 
S. J. Kristof, Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Multispectral scanner 

data, obtained over Terre Haute, Indiana at an altitude of 915 km, were 
analyzed by computer-implemented techniques to evaluate the utility 
of satellite data for land use classification of a small urban area. 
Terre Haute and the surrounding area were used to define classes. The 
municipal boundary was then delineated on an IBM Image Display- 
System and only data points within the city were considered in the 
final land use survey. Several land use classes, such as commercial 
industry, residential, trees, grassy (open) areas, and water were identi- 
fied. In this study the percentage of correct classification of land use 
types was found to vary greatly with some classes, depending on the 
date the data were collected. Classes containing green vegetation were 
not spectrally separable using January data. Use of May data resolved 
this problem and improved the percentage of correct classification of 
the other land use types. 

Bedrock Geology as a Factor in Soil Slides in Southern Indiana. Henry 

H. Gray, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

Several types of landslide occur in southern Indiana. Prominent among 
these are soil slides, in which a soil blanket generally 5 to 15 feet 
thick moves down a sloping soil-bedrock interface. 

Soil slides occur where water percolating downward through the 
soil encounters impermeable argillaceous bedrock. The water collects 
at the soil-bedrock interface and seeps downslope along the interface. 
A zone of weathered rock at the interface appears to contribute to the 
instability, but the sliding itself usually is initiated by man's activities. 

259 



260 Indiana Academy of Science 

Natural soil sliding may have been common in the geologic past, 
but it is uncommon in the present climatic regime and is not a reliable 
guide to metastable slope conditions. The presence of a slide hazard 
must therefore be predicted on the basis of the geologic factors that 
make it possible — a sloping soil-bedrock interface and argillaceous bed- 
rock of low permeability. These conditions are especially associated with 
certain bedrock units in the southern Indiana uplands. Notable are the 
Kope Formation (Ordovician age) in southeastern Indiana, certain 
parts of the Borden Group (Mississippian) in south central Indiana, 
and shales of late Mississippian and Pennsylvanian ages in south- 
western Indiana. 

Multispectral Satellite Data Applied to Land Use Studies in Vigo 
County, Indiana. S. J. Kristof, Laboratory for Applications of Remote 
Sensing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, and M. T. 
Lewellen, Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. ERTS-1 multispectral data 

from four passes over Vigo County, Indiana were used for land use 
determination. Single channel and multiple channel data were inter- 
preted visually; the data were also analyzed using computer-aided 
analysis techniques developed at the Laboratory for Applications of 
Remote Sensing (LARS) at Purdue University. With the data over 
Vigo County it was possible to identify and map the following six 
Level I categories: urban and built-up land, agricultural land, forest 
land, water, non-forested wetland, and barren land. Also an attempt has 
been made to identify Level II categories of agricultural land: cropland 
and pasture; Level II categories of non-forested wetland: vegetated 
and bare; and Level II categories of water: streams, waterways and 
lakes. 

These results show that land use mapping appears feasible when 
using a combination of visual interpretation and computer-aided analy- 
sis of satellite multispectral scanner data. With these data it is pos- 
sible to formulate an up-to-date overview of land use on a basis that 
is uniform in date, scale and categorization in accordance with scheme 
described in Land-Use Classification System for Use With Remote-Sensor 
Data. 

Surface Diffusivities on Activated Carbon Adsorbing from Liquids. 

Charles D. Moseman and Kwang-Chu Chao, School of Chemical 

Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

Agitated slurries of activated carbon particles are of growing impor- 
tance for the adsorption and removal of pollutants found in the sec- 
ondary effluent of waste treatment facilities. For the purpose of 
engineering design of such systems information is required regarding 
the fluid-to-particle mass transfer rate and the rate of diffusion in the 
particles. 

In this study we determined the adsorption rates for carbon 
particles of various sizes, and from the experimental results evaluated 
the fluid-to-particle mass transfer coefficient, and rate of diffusion in 
the particles. The fluid-to-particle mass transfer coefficient was found to 



Engineering 261 

agree with Kolmogoroff's theory. Our main interest was therefore to 
study the rate of intraparticle diffusion. 

Intraparticle surface diffusivities were determined for xylose and 
arabinose. The two substances were found to have a linear equilibrium 
isotherm in the entire concentration range of this study and thus well 
suited to the study of intraparticle diffusion for the mathematical 
theory of such systems has been developed. 

Additional surface diffusivities were taken from the literature and 
a correlation of surface diffusivities on activated carbon is proposed 
D s = Do e- a( i/ RT 

where D„ and a are constants and q is the heat of adsorption. Values 
of q were determined in this investigation for the data used. 

Particle Contacts in Discrete Materials. D. Athanasiou-Grivas and 

M. E. Harr, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

This paper has as its objective the presentation of some recent findings 
concerning granular materials. Experiments were performed with ran- 
domly arranged bulky particles of odd shapes. The main characteristics 
of the samples tested were they drained readily and had little tendency 
to swell upon wetting. 

An experiment was devised to study the relationship between 
particle contacts and the porosity of various mixtures of granular 
materials. The number of contacts per particle was determined by 
pumping paint through the sample and allowing free drainage; after 
which, visual counts are made. It was found that the relationship 
N t .»n=3 can be answered for practical purposes, where N c is the number 
of contacts per particle and n is the volume porosity of the sample. 

The mode of deformation of some packings of glass balls were 
studied in a series of conventional triaxial tests employing a video 
camera and tape recorder. It was observed that sliding predominates 
at the upper and lower surfaces of the specimen while rotation is far 
greater at the curved surface of the specimen than its interior. Finally, 
the pattern of deformation along the curved surface was found to exhibit 
a spiral-like pattern. 

Isomorphism of Statistical Turbulence and Quantum Theory. 1 Czeslaw 
P. Kentzer, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Previous investigations of fluid turbulence 

reveal striking analogies between mathematical formalism of statistical 
turbulence and that of the quantum theory. It is shown that these 
analogies follow as necessary consequences of the Fourier representa- 
tion and of the uncertainty in simultaneous determination of conjugate 
variables, e.g., position and wavenumber or frequency and time. The 
quantum theory provides mathematical tools for treatment of strong 
interactions between normal modes of a turbulent field. An understand- 
ing of such interactions may be useful in studying generation of noise 
in turbulence as well as in predicting other processes in turbulent flows 
and in describing turbulent motion itself. 



1 Research supported by NASA, Grant NGR 15-005-174. 



262 Engineering 

Inventory Control of New Product Lines. Arunachalam Ravindran, 
School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. In the past, contagious distributions have been suc- 
cessfully applied in Bacteriology, Entomology and Accident Statistics. 
Here the notion of contagious distributions is applied in the inventory 
control of new products and seasonal goods, which have an underlying 
"true contagion" for their demands; namely, the influence of past 
demands on future occurrence of demands. 

A contagious distribution is derived by assuming a modified Poisson 
process where the demand rate at any instant of time depends on the 
past demands prior to that instant. Using this contagious distribution, 
a multi-period inventory model will be discussed for new product lines 
with a "fixed periodic review policy". An optimal s-S order policy is 
derived as a function of the initial stock level and the review period. 
Seasonal or style goods are treated as single-period inventory problems 
with contagious demands. An algorithm is developed to compute the 
iptimal order policy and the optimal length of the period. 

Other practical applications of this model in health services, library 
systems, and military combat operations will also be discussed. 



A Study of the Control of Electric Power Interchange in the 
Kentucky-Indiana Power Pool through the Use of Series Capacitors 

Peter W. Sauer, Gerald T. Heydt 

Purdue Electric Power Center 

School of Electrical Engineering 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Electric power interchange into a power system may be controlled in many ways. 
The method proposed in this paper involves the use of series capacitors to shunt bulk 
power away from heavily loaded key transmission system components. This technique 
allows the control of power interchange sources. The control of electric power inter- 
change and the improvement of simultaneous interchange capacity of a power system 
through the use of series capacitors is discussed and applied to a simplified model of 
the Kentucky-Indiana power pool. Some conclusions and economic comparison of series 
capacitive compensation are presented. In addition, introductory remarks concerning 
electric power interchange are given. 

Introduction — Interchanging Power 

Interchange of electric power via transmission lines which link 
electric power systems has become a way of life for the modern 
electric utility company. Typically, an electric power system is well 
tied to neighbors by transmission lines so that electric power genera- 
tion may be imported; interties permit more reliable and economic 
system operation. The United States and Canada are divided into nine 
electric reliability councils within which extensive interchange occurs. 
Interchange between and across reliability councils also occurs on a 
large scale. By way of example, one of the nine reliability councils, the 
East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR), extends 
over nine Midwestern and Central Atlantic states (Michigan, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and 
a small portion of Northeast Tennessee); within this region, 26 member 
utility companies supply bulk generation in an amount in excess of 
60,000 MW (1973) in generating stations ranging in size up to 1,300 
MW. Interchange into the ECAR system exceeded 2,000 MW in 1973 
(15). 

Control of electric power interchange is performed in a variety 
of ways including reactive power scheduling at generating stations, 
transmission line switching, and quadrature phase shifter placement 
in transmission circuits. On-line control of tie line flows is nonetheless 
difficult and limited in a wide variety of cases. The ability of an 
electric power system to accept power via interties is limited by finite 
ratings of transmission system components. In both the case of control 
of interchange power and improvement of simultaneous interchange 
capacity, the insertion of capacitors in series with transmission circuits 
offers an alternative which warrants serious consideration in some cases. 
In this paper, the use of series capacitive compensation is considered and 
applied to a subsystem of the ECAR council — the Kentucky-Indiana 
Pool (KIP) which extends roughly over the southern half of Indiana 

263 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

and virtually the entire state of Kentucky. The paper briefly reviews 
the mathematical model which describes interchange power flow and 
the mechanism by which the model is modified to permit the study of 
series capacitor insertion. 

The Power Flow Model in Linearized Form 

At this juncture, it is necessary to comment on the power flow 
problem which is stated in terms of a mathematical model of simul- 
taneous, algebraic, nonlinear equations relating system voltages, cur- 
rents, and injected power; the problem is, in essence, concerned with 
the calculation of how power flows from the sources to the loads. The 
volt-ampere response of the system is 

V = Z I 

bus bus bus 



where V. and I are n-vectors of bus voltages and injected currents 
throughout the system and Z bug is an n by n matrix of impedance 
coefficients (the bus impedance matrix). The number of system nodes 
or busses is n. Also, at all system busses except one, the injected 
power is known (or the load is known), 

S = v i* 

injected, bus L i i 

where (.)* denotes complex conjugation. At one bus, the swing bus, it 
is assumed that vi = 1/0 volts. These equations comprise 2n scalar real 
equations in 2n scaler, real unknowns. Ward and Hale (16) and others 
(2, 13) further describe this problem and alternate methods of solution. 
The solution is the line power flows given the bus demands. 

In a typical power system, the bus voltage profile vector is near 
to the generated voltage (1.00 on a per-unitized system), and therefore 
the injected power is very nearly the complex conjugate of the injected 
current. If S u is the complex line power flow in line ij metered at j, 
and S k is the bus injection at k, the line flow, as a function of bus 
injection, is approximately, 

3S„ V. 



3S k I k 

Furthermore, the line current Ijj is related to bus voltages at i ind j 
by Ohm's law (with y u as the primitive line admittance), 

l ± — r — v.. (v. — v.)i*. 

?)Vi ^Vj 

The partials and are elements of the bus impedance matrix, Zik 

and zjk respectively. Therefore, the line flow is approximately related 
to the swing in power demand or bus injection as 

r = *«<*«-■*> • (1) 



dS k 



Engineering 



265 



The right hand side of Equation (1) is called a distribution factor, and 
Limmer and others discuss many additional details in (3, 7, 8, 9). 
Figure 1 pictorially shows the approximate relationship between trans- 
mission line loading and change in bus demand or generation. 

The result of the foregoing discussion is that the power flow 
problem is linearized and reduced to the following form: 

D _A k 

S — S + S (distribution factors) A Sj 

irr 1 
_V. _A 

where S and S are line loads under different demand /generation 
schedules, and the ASj are the differences in the bus demands under 
the two schedules. In the foregoing development, different schedules 
occur on account of different bus power injections. Consider now dif- 
ferent schedules on account of different transmission system configura- 
tion. In particular consider the insertion of series impedence into 
line ij; in this case, the base loading schedule A is modified to 
schedule B on account of the change of the volt-ampere response 
of the system. In this case using the same linearization as shown 
above, Sauer and Heydt have shown (12), 



B _A 

S., = S., 



+ D, 



(2) 



where, 



(LINE FLOW 
POWER) 




S k (BUS INJECTED POWER) 

Figure 1. Transmission Line Loading As A Function of lius Demand Change. 



k/.j 



k/.j 



(3) 



266 Indiana Academy of Science 

Superscript "A" indicates base case values before insertion, superscript 
"B" indicates values after insertion, and the power transfer distribu- 
tion factors are the p's given by 



Pi 



j.k 



3S k 



(4) 



Evaluation of Equation (4) for schedule "B" is accomplished by the 
modification of the bus impedance matrix of schedule "A" to reflect 
the insertion of series impedance (12). 

Series Capacitive Compensation 

The modification of the system volt-ampere response results in 
modification of system power flow. One method of control of power 
flow, then, is modification of system configuration. Series insertion 
of capacitors into a transmission line of impedance z results in modi- 
fication to z', 

z' = z — jx c , 

where — jx c is the impedance of the series capacitor. The effects of 

series capacitors in high voltage transmission lines is discussed in 

reference (4). The most common application of series capacitors is 

compensation to improve power transfer capability, approximated 
as (14) 

E~E P 

P = -U: sine 6 , (6) 

where E s is the standing-end voltage, E R is the receiving-end- voltage, 
x L is the series inductive reactance between the two terminals, and 
is the phasor angle by which E s leads E R . The negative reactance 
of series capacitors serves to reduce the reactance x r in equation (6), 
and thereby increases the amount of power which can be transmitted 
over the line. The ability of a capacitor to lower line reactance can 
be used to shift power flow. Since the power flowing in a network is 
distributed according to network impedances, the power flow may be 
controlled by varying the system line impedances. If the reactance of 
a line ij is lowered by the insertion of series capacitance, the power 
flow in that line will increase whereas lines located in equivalent 
parallel paths would decrease. 

To this point, discussion of network response has been confined 
to sinusoidal steady state phenomena. Unfortunately, series capacitive 
compensation will in some cases create resonant circuits which may 
be excited at sub-synchronous (<60Hz) frequencies. This occurs in 
non-linear subsystems in which sub-synchronous frequency limit cycles 
occur; these limit cycles may excite resonant frequencies created by 
inserted capicitance and transmission line inductance. The result of 
these transient phenomena is the appearance of sub-synchronous volt- 
ages, currents, and generator shaft torques. These oscillations may 
not be damped — thereby creating a serious problem. In fact, the use 
of series compensation has been substantially curtailed by these 
transient phenomena. In this paper, the objective focuses on steady 



Engineering 267 

state power flow control and further elaboration on sub-synchronous 
oscillations is omitted. A complete discussion of the topic appears 
in (5, 11). Reference (5) presents corrective measures. 

Power Flow and Interchange Control Using Series Compensation 

The power flow in a network transmission line k/, resulting from 
a modification of the impedance in line ij, s given by Eq. (2). Con- 
sider the modification to be the insertion of series capacitive reactance 
such that 

— B — .- . (7) 

The insertion distribution factors (D k r, u ) have been formulated in ref- 
erence (12), for the schedule "B" modification shown in Eq. (7). 

A specific application of series capacitive compensation for load 
flow control is to shift power throughout the network in order to reduce 
the loading in a certain line. This is accomplished by determining the 

T> 2 

value of x ( . to be inserted in line ij such that |S k7 | is minimized. 
The minimization is presented in reference (12), yielding the follow- 
ing functions of x c , for the case where line kZ is not equal to line ij, 

W.i ~ Pk/.i ) (J z ij) 

= . (8) 

[X (p — n — 1) + JZ*P 

The solution of Eq. (8) will produce the value of x required to 
extremize the power flow in line ij. The solution may be effected in 
several ways — further comments relative to this solution are given 
later. The application in this case is interchange power control. The 
significance of the method is the presentation of a viable alternative 
for power flow control. 

Extending this approach to multiple line compensation, apply 
superimposition to distribution factors (9). The result n vector-matrix 
notation is, 

_ B _ _ 

S = S + DS, (9) 

_n _ 

where S and S are I by 1 vectors in an Mine system, and D is I by /. 

The minimization is therefore a gradient technique. For this purpose, 
an index of performance reflecting line power flows is written, this 
index is minimized by allowing the gradient to go to zero. Using the 
above vector-matrix notation, let IP denote a quality index or per- 
formance index which reflects line loading, 

-B " -B 
IP = (S ) k (S ), (10) 

where k is an / by / matrix of weights, and (,) H denotes complex 
conjugation followed by transposition. Subsequent discussion will relate 
to diagonal k, 

k = diagonal (k k . . . k ). 



Write the gradient, 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

VxJIP] = v x c [S kS] = 0, 

and apply Equation (9). The minimization yields an equation of the 
form [12], 

F(x) = 0, (11) 

where F(x) is a set of non-linear simultaneous equations of variable 
x t . it In an /-line network, F represents /-equations, each formulated as, 

f (x)=Re{2[2k E + ^D* k E ]S*S 

i ii- in jr jj ijj r i 

r=l j=l 

+ 2 [ 2 k E* D ] S* S 

jj jii ji i c 

C=l j=l 



+ 2S. S* [k.E... + 2 Re(k.. E*. D. )]]= 0, (12) 



where 



E 



3D 



dx ci 



Equation (12) represents the equation generated by the i th gradient 

d 

operating on the index of performance. For the special case of 

3x ci 

single line compensation with all weights zeroed except k kk = 1, 
Equation (12) degenerates to, 

dD kii _ _ 
f(x ) =2Re[ S (S +D S )*] = 0. (13) 

dx c l k ki ! 

When Equation (13) is satisfied, x c is the capacitive reactance required 
as series compensation in line i to minimize the power flow in line k. 
In this study, practical cases were examined for the single line compen- 
sation case only. Equation (12) simplifies to, 

f(x e )=Re[ 2 [2k E ]S* S + 2S S* [k E +2 

rr rii r i i i ii ill 

r=l j=l 

=^i (14) 

Re(k.. E. D . )]] = 0. 

JJ JU Jl 

When Equation (14) is satisfied, x t> is the capacitive reactance re- 
quired as series compensation in line i to minimize the index of 
performance. Since the index of performance represents a summation 
of all network line power flows, lowering its value for a given load 
schedule serves to add more "capacity" to the system. This point will 
be discussed further in subsequent analysis. 



Engineering 269 

The power which can be interchanged between networks is limited 
by many factors. Knowledge of the amount of power which can be 
imported into a network is useful to power system operators and 
planners. For import to one system, the "maximum simultaneous inter- 
change capability (SIC)" is that amount of power which can be inter- 
changed between any one system and all other systems without ex- 
ceeding continuous loading capabilities when all facilities are in service 
(1, 6). In this regard, the SIC is a measurement of system "capacity". 
The problem is formulated with the following assumptions: 

a. Line power flows respond in a linear manner to bus power 
injections. 

b. Neighboring generation supply is not a limiting factor (al- 
though limits of this kind are very easily added). 

c. Transmission system ratings are known. 

d. Base case line flows are known, and within rated limits. 

e. Power import is real. 

Using the linearized relationships, the power flowing in line ij subse- 
quent to power injections at designated busses is, 

J. _A NT 

k=i 

where NT is the number of tie busses used for interchange. For the 
power flow rating in line ij, R^, the simultaneous interchange capability 
problem is defined as follows : 



NT 

= 2 
k=l 



SIC = 2 AS k , AS R ^ (16) 



for all 

|S B | <R. . (17) 

Inequality (17) may be written as, 

Equations (16) and (18) may be solved via the simplex method of 
linear programming (10). When Equation (18) is maximized under the 
constraints of inequality (17), the SIC is determined. Since the p yk 
are functions of the bus impedance matrix, modification of network line 
impedances will affect the SIC. 

Control of Interchange Power in the KIP System 

The following application is presented to exhibit the effects of 
series capacitive compensation on a transmission system. Figure 2 
shows a portion of the KIP network in Central Indiana. Defining 
system parameters are given in reference (12). The system busses 
used for interchange tie are listed in Table 1. The following examples 
are provided as a demonstration of the use of series capacitive com- 
pensation as discussed in this paper. 



270 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. 1NTERTIE BUSSES. 
STAUNTON 
COLUMBUS 
INDIANAPOLIS— EAST 
HANNA 
NEW CASTLE 
BATESVILLE 
MADISON 
BEDFORD 
EDWARDS PORT 

Example 1: The simultaneous nterchange capability (SIC) was 
calculated for the base case network, and for the cases with series 
capacitive compensation varies from to 125% in one network line. 

Example 2: An index of performance denned by Eq. 10 was 
calculated for the base case with all weights equal to one, and for 
the cases with series capacitive compensation in one network line varies 
from 0-125%. This calculation was made using actual load flow solu- 
tions for increments of single line compensation. 

Example 3: The same index of performance studied in Example 2 
was minimzed using the linear approximaton of Eq. (12) for the 
cases with series capacitive compensation varied from 0-200%. 

Example 4: An index of performance was minimized using Eq. 
(12) for the cases with series capacitive compensation varied from 
0-200% with all line weighting factors equal to zero except lines 10, 
17, and 23, which are the lines which limited the interchange found in 
Example 1. 

Discussion of Results 

Examination of Table 2 shows that the SIC can be increased 
through the use of series capacitve compensation. The greatest im- 
provement (over 200%) was realized using 85% compensation in line 




EDWAROSPORT 



FIGURE 2 
EXAMPLE-PART OF THE KIP SYSTEM 



Engineering 



271 



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272 Indiana Academy of Science 

8 or 9. In Table 2, the lines which when compensated reduce the index 
of performance can be observed in the columns which refer to Example 
2. The Table indicates which lines may be used to affect the power flow- 
ing in all system lines. In the columns referring" to Example 3, the 
accuracy of the linearized equation used to generate the percent com- 
pensation required to produce a mnimum total system loading is 
observed. Table 2 in the rightmost columns shows which lines may be 
used to minimize the loading of lines 10, 17 and 23. The lines with 
zero percent compensation required are lines which when compensated 
will increase the loading n lines 10, 17 and 23. The solution to the 
minimized equation was found by consecutive evaluation rather than 
minimum value determination. This was done in order to reveal the 
overall effect of the series compensation in each line. 

Economic Considerations 

Series capacitive compensation has been shown to be an economic 
method of improvement of transmission capability in some cases (14). 
In the case of power flow control, the measure of improvement is typi- 
cally an index; and therefore the cost-to-benefit ratio is somewhat more 
difficult to evaluate. Therefore, it is reasonable to obviate the diffi- 
culty by considering the objective fixed and comparing costs of alterna- 
tive approaches. 

By considering a fixed objective (e.g. to obtain x units of SIC, 
or to obtain y percent improvement in performance index), the fol- 
lowing factors are ignored : 

i. Transient performance 

ii. Ancillary active power loss changes 

iii. Effective interfacing with existing facilities 

iv. Company experience and confidence with particular designs. 

Consider two parallel lines with different line reactance as shown 
in Figure 3a. If the line resistances are neglected, the amount of 
capacitive reactance required to reduce the power flowing in line 1 to 
one half the base case value is, 



x„ = 



X2 -p XjXo 



x 2 + 2x x 
where all values are in ohms. Allowing x 2 to be the equivalent "loop" 
reactance (Fig. 3b) as seen by line 1, the amount of capacitive reactance 
to be placed in line i or j to reduce the load in line 1 to one half is 



X ci 



X eq. ~r X l X eq. 
X oq. + 2X 1 



(21) 



An equivalent method of reducing the load in line 1 to one half would 
be the installation of a parallel line of equal impedance/mi. Assum- 
ing that the required value of capacitance can be installed in line i or 
line j, the cost of the capacitors may be calculated and compared with 
the cost of the parallel transmission line. For a 345 kv system, typical 



Engineering 



273 



line reactances are about 0.7 ohms/mi. Using- the method outlined 
above, the total capital investment required to reduce the load in a 
line to one half is calculated for various values of x,.„. and line lengths. 
The cost comparison is shown for line lengths of 20 to 100 miles in 
Figure 4. The point where series compensation costs are lower than new 
line costs vary with Xo,,. and line length. 



BUS A 



LINE 1 i 
(X,) 



BUS B 




BUS A 



BUS B 



LINE i 




(a) 



Figure 3. Economic Example — Single Line Unloading. 



Summary and Conclusions 

Electric power flow control and improvement of interchange ca- 
pacity of a power system may be effected using series capacitors. A 
useful method of analysis is linearization of the power flow problem. 
The economics of the application of series capacitors instead of trans- 
mission line construction suggests that in some cases, series capacitors 
may present an economic alternative to transmission installation. 

Additional rationale for series compensation involves such non- 
quantitative factors as more flexible control possibilities and less en- 
vironmental impact over the transmission line construction solution. 



274 Indiana Academy of Science 

lOCh 



COST 
(MILLIONS) 



1- 



100 mi 




•SERIES CAPACITOR COSTS 

■NEW LINE COSTS 



50 



100 150 

X LOOP (OHMS) 



200 



250 



Figure 4. 



Total Capital Cost Comparison for Series Compensation 
for li = 2000 amps. 



Line Construction 



Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, S., et al. 1974. Simultaneous Power Interchange Calculations. Purdue 
University Technical Report TR-EE 74-1, West Lafayette, Indiana. 86 p. 

2. Brown, H. E., et al. 1963. Power Flow Solution by Impedance Matrix Iterative 
Method. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol. 82. 10 p. 

3. El-Abiad, A. H., and G. W. Stagg. 1963. Automatic Evaluation of Power System 
Performance — Effects of Line and Transformer Outages. AIEE Transactions on 
Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol. 81 : 712-716. 

4. Johnson, A. A., et al. 1951. Fundamental Effects of Series Capacitors in High 
Voltage Transmission Lines. AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Sys- 
tems. Vol. 70: 526-536. 

5. Kilgore, L. A., et al. 1970. The Prediction and Control of Self Excited Oscillations 
Due to Series Capacitors in Power Systems. IEEE Paper No. 70 TP 626-PWR. 
7 p. 

6. Landgren, G. L., and S. W. Anderson. 1973. Simultaneous Interchange Capability 
Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. Paper T-73-075-9. 
13 p. 



Engineering 275 

7. Limmer, H. D., and E. D. Hines. 1963. Rapid Load Flow Program Using Super- 
position. First Power System Computational Conference. Paper 1-2. London, Eng- 
land. 6 p. 

8. Limmer, H. D. 1969. Techniques and Applications of Security Calculations Applied 
to Dispatching Computers. Third Power System Computational Conference. Paper 
STY. 4. Rome, Italy. 10 p. 

9. MacArthur, C. A. 1961. Transmission Limitations Computed by Superposition. 
AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol. 80: 827-831. 

10. PIERRE, D. A. 1969. Optimization Theory with Applications. John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. 612 p. 

11. Rustebabke, H. M., and C. Concordia. 1970. Self-Excited Oscillations in a Trans- 
mission System Using Series Capacitors. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus 
and Systems. Vol. 89: 1504-1512. 

12. Sauer, P. W., and G. T. Heydt. 1974. Electric Power System Load Flow Control 
Using Series Capacitors. Purdue University Technical Report, to be published. 

13. Stagg, G. W., and A. H. El-Abiad. 1968. Computer Methods in Power System 
Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y. 427 p. 

14. Taylor, Jr., E. R., et al. 1974. New Approaches in the Application of Series Ca- 
pacitors. 1974 Electric Utility Engineering Conference. Subject No. 61. 23 p. 

15. Technical Advisory Committee, National Electric Reliability Council. 1973. Re- 
view of Overall Adequacy and Reliability of the North American Bulk Power Sys- 
tems (Third Annual Review). NERC, Princeton, New Jersey. 48 p. 

16. Ward, J., and H. Hale. 1956. Digital Computer Solution of Power Flow Problems. 
AIEE Transactions. 75, Pt. Ill: 398-404. 



Pollutional Load Allocation Study of the Grand Calumet River and 
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal 

Robert B. Wrightington 

Project Manager 

MATHEMATICA, Inc. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 
specify that all pollutional discharges shall implement a minimum 
acceptable level of wastewater treatment by July 1977. Additional 
wastewater treatment would be required as necessary to insure water 
quality stream standards. In those stream segments where additional 
treatment is believed required, Section 303(e) of the Amendments 
stipulates that a pollutional load allocation study be performed to 
assign maximum allowable loads for each discharge. One such segment 
which flows into Lake Michigan is the Grand Calumet River and Indiana 
Harbor Ship Canal located in northwest Indiana. 

The Indiana Harbor Ship Canal is dredged to an approximate depth 
of twenty-four feet, slightly more than half way up the 4-mile main 
stem and one-half mile up the Lake George Branch. In this section, the 
complicated flow occasionally reverses away from the Lake for short 
periods of time due to effects of wind on the Lake's surface elevation. 
The remainder of the main stem continually flows towards the lake 
but the rate is very dependent on conditions in the dredged portion. 
The upper end of the Lake George Branch is slow moving and shallow 
and is only flushed during storms. 

The nine-mile east branch of the river flows into the canal at an 
average discharge rate of approximately 950 cfs with an average 
velocity of 1.3 fps and a river depth of generally less than 8 feet. 
The flow of the west branch is complex as it divides into two sections; 
one generally flowing east to the canal and the other westward into 
Illinois. The point of equilibrium is in part affected by the climatic 
conditions on Lake Michigan and during extreme conditions the entire 
flow may shift westward. However, the dominant day-to-day factor is 
the culvert system in Hammond. Average velocity is not meaningful on 
the west branch but depths range from one to four feet. The major 
sources of flow are the municipal wastewater treatment facilities of 
Hammond and East Chicago whose combined flow averages 85 cfs. 
The only other municipal facility is Gary which discharges 82 cubic 
feet/ sec. into the east branch. 

Eight industries presently discharge through fifty-six existing pipes 
either to the canal, harbor or the river. The major portion of the flow 
(1.75 BGD) is provided by the three major steel industries; U.S. Steel, 
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, and Inland Steel Company. 
ARCO and E. I. duPont have significant discharges while U.S.S. Lead 
Refineries, Union Carbide and American Steel Foundries release minor 
volumes of wastewater. 

276 



Engineering 277 

Water quality throughout all sections is poor due to these waste- 
water discharges whose flow for all practical purposes represents the 
entire dry weather flow. The water quality standards for the problem 
constituents are given in Table 1. They are not those of a natural 
water system. As minimal as they first appear, they are now consistently 
violated and will cost millions of dollars to meet. 



Table 1. Water quality standards. 

for problem constituents 

Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and the Grand Calumet River 

Dissolved Oxygen ave. 3.0 mg/1 min. 2.0 mg/1 

BODs max. 10.0 mg/1 

Ammonia max. 1.5 mg/1 

Phenols max. .010 mg/1 

Cyanide max. .100 mg/1 

Phosphorus* max. .100 mg/1 

Sulfates max. 75.0 mg/1 

Chlorides* max. 35.0 mg/1 

For waters which flow to Lake Michigan. 



The minimum dissolved oxygen standard of 2 mg/1 is often violated 
in the west branch, the Lake George Branch and the lower half of the 
Canal and at times the dissolved oxygen is completely exhausted. The 
low DOs are a result of high concentrations of BOD 5 and ammonia. 
BOD 3 values as high as 32 mg/1 have been recorded in the west 
branch while the much larger flow of the east branch has remained 
below 10 mg/1. While major portions generally have ammonia concen- 
trations 10 times above the standard, sections of the west branch con- 
sistently reach unbelievable values of 90 mg/1. This exorbitantly high 
concentration is due to potent coke plant discharges to the East Chicago 
sewer system from Youngstown and Inland. The east and west branches 
combine and quickly degrade, producing low DOs in the lower portion 
of the canal. 

Although phenol violations are the most predominant in smaller 
flows of the west branch, violations are recorded throughout the system. 
Cyanides are a major problem in the east branch which in recent years 
recorded a maximum 15 times the standard. Even though both of these 
constituents are biologically reduced as flow proceeds to the lake, viola- 
tions still occur at water quality stations nearest the lake. These high 
concentrations are primarily the result of discharges from the coke 
plant and blast furnace operations of the steel industries. 

Phosphorus, which has shown a marked decrease due to the 
statewide ban, still violates the standard. However, this situation appar- 
ently is aggravated by the resuspension of phosphorus in river bed 
deposits which have accumulated over the years. One study estimates 
that the phosphorus load in the east branch alone exceeds 2.9 million 
pounds. 

Major violations of sulfate only occur in the Lake George and west 
branches and do not pose a serious problem. On the other hand, chloride 
violations are system-wide and predominate in the winter. The annual 
loads related to the point sources and the road salt program, are 



278 Indiana Academy of Science 

approximately equal depending on the severity of the winter. However, 
the road salt load is discharged within a four-five month period causing 
the bias to winter violations. 

The load allocation study is required to concentrate on the next 
five years by making allowances for economic and demographic growth. 
In the well established Calumet area there is little evidence of trouble- 
some increases in population, additional sewer hook-ups, new industry 
or industrial restarts. Population trends during the 1960-70 decade 
shifted markedly from the previous decade, dropping from a 40% 
increase to around a 10% increase. The State Bureau of Census projects 
a 12.5% increase for the 1970-80 decade based on a constant com- 
pleted fertility rate of all women. As family planning information 
and aid is disseminated and economic conditions continue to pinch, 
this rate is likely to continue to drop. With a dampened economic pic- 
ture signified by the closing of several refineries, out-migration should 
negate some of the natural population increases. 

East Chicago and Hammond are 98-99% sewered. Gary does have 
some sizable unsewered areas. The exact timing of sewering is always 
difficult to project but even so, these areas represent only a 5% 
increase in flow. Based on the factors just discussed, municipal flow 
was projected to increase 4% in East Chicago, 4.5% in Hammond and 
6% in Gary in the next five years. 

Discussions with local agencies revealed no major plans of increase 
in industrial discharges due to new industries nor do any of the exist- 
ing industries plan to increase their discharges in the short time 
horizon of five years. The only real possibilities for increase are the 
refineries restarting. These would come under the new discharge 
restriction and therefore, would be severely limited. 

The load allocation analysis was performed utilizing MULQUAL, 
a computerized water quality simulation program which projects tem- 
perature, dissolved oxygen concentration, nitrogenous and carbonaceous 
biochemical oxygen demands, benthal demands, and up to eight con- 
servative minerals. MULQUAL is an extension of the Streeter-Phelps 
equations and expands on prior versions by O'Conner, Dobbins and 
others. The program has been interfaced with a non-linear programming 
algorithm allowing for the solution of the following general problem. 

Minimize: Total Cost of Wastewater Treatment 
Subject to: Water Quality Goals Satisfied 

The Model was fit to the River and Canal by providing for 54 
reaches. A total of 37 reaches had industrial and municipal wastes 
flowing into them. Many segments required incremental inflows and 
outflows. Special outflows were required as several swampy areas acted 
like reservoirs in the east branch causing reductions in flow. Combined 
sewer and water intakes were also included as incremental flows. 
Three headwaters were assumed in the basin; the east branch, and the 
west branch at the normal point of equilibrium, and the upstream 
end of the Lake George Branch. 

The loads were allocated to account for differences due to seasonality 



Engineering 279 

and flow so that each constituent is allocated with respect to its critical 
conditions. The headwater flows under critical conditions were assumed 
to be zero for all constituents so that stream flow began with the first 
pipe discharge into each headwater section. As would be expected, dis- 
solved oxygen was most depleted during warmer periods. In addition, 
we expected the decay of BOD 5 , ammonia, phenols and cyanide to 
reflect seasonal changes since rates of oxidation are a function of 
temperature. However, seasonality of BOD 5 , ammonia, and cyanides 
was not readily observable. Phenol samples exhibited a definite trend 
in changing rates of degradation. In the summer, phenol loads were 
reduced 50% while under the more critical conditions of winter the 
reduction dropped to 10%. Phenols were modeled as conservatives to 
allow for some error in the relationship between the discharges and the 
river in favor of water quality. Since minimum required treatment 
levels were stringent enough not to require major additional reductions 
when cyanides are treated as a conservative, the need for a more 
sophisticated approach diminished. 

BODs and ammonia were handled as non-conservatives in accord- 
ance with decay rates established in the field survey. These rates were 
adjusted so that better fits with the stream BOD and ammonia 
profiles were obtained. The traditional equation relating reaeration rates 
to stream velocity, depth and discharge was not well suited to the 
Canal. The depth was more controlled by lake elevation than by the 
discharge passing through it. The final reaeration rates represented 
the best compromise between acceptable values and best fit with the 
dissolved oxygen profile. Phosphorus, sulfates and chlorides were mod- 
eled as conservative minerals. 

Average as well as the required maximum loads were allocated to 
better gauge the treatment cost, consequences to the lake and to apply 
minimum treatment levels which were specified as average values. After 
some investigative simulations, it was determined that the average 
loads should be allocated to insure values which were better than 
the stream standard by 30%. This slack would allow for allocation 
of maximum values which would insure standards. Once the model 
was calibrated, then initial computer runs set the discharges at minimum 
required treatment levels. This allowed for the isolation of discharges 
responsible for violations in each reach of the system. Cost functions 
were developed where responsibility rested with more than one dis- 
charge and the economic model was employed to yield a cost effective 
solution. This approach was required for BODn, ammonia, dissolved 
oxygen, chlorides and phenols. 

The results of the study were submitted to the Indiana Stream 
Pollution Control Board in January of 1974. In March of 1974, pre- 
liminary conclusions from a study of the lake by IIT Research Insti- 
tute revealed that the ammonia standards for the Canal would not 
insure water quality standards in the lake. The state made proper 
adjustments to the load allocations presented based on information 
provided by IIT Research Institute. In addition, they were able to 
equalize the responsibility for abatement of ammonia between all dis- 
chargers. The new ammonia loads along with the load allocation for 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 



other problem constituents were approved in July of 1974, and are pre- 
sented in Table 2. To simplify the presentation, only the total loads 
to the system are given. They include allowances for intake loads as 
well as the net loads established for each discharge. 

As one can see in the summary Table 2, drastic reductions are 
required of industries in phenols* (89%) and cyanides (90%). Both 
municipalities and industries must share the responsibility of reducing 
ammonia (64%). Reductions are needed at the three municipal discharges 
for phosphorus (38%), and BOD 5 (28%). Minor reductions were required 
in sulfates to meet standards on the west branch of the river. 

Table 2. Total loads allocated. 

to the 

Indiana Harbor Ship Canal and Grand Calumet River 

Average Maximum 

Lbs/Day Lbs/Day 
(% Reduced) (% Reduced) 

Phenols 102 89 158 9 7 

Cyanides 55490 161280 

Ammonia 11916 4 2258376 

Phosphorus 71038 153856 

BODo 5734928 120182 39 

Sulfates 5977376 lOOOOOOn 

Chlorides 390668i 760800i 

Recommendations were not made to reduce chlorides. The major 
concentrated sources were the municipal discharges. It was determined 
that the environmental and economic cost of the brine disposal related 



FIGURE 1 

CALUMET STUDY AREA 



Y - Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. 
I - Inland Steel Company 
USS - United States Steel Co. 
A - ARCO 
D - E.I.duPont 
H - Hammond Municipal STP 
EC - East Chicago Municiapl STP 
G - Gary Munical STP 




'Multiple discharges to indicated 
segment. 



* ( ) % reduction required in existing total average load. 



Engineering 281 

to treatment was prohibitive. The other major source of chlorides in 
the system is the winter road salting- program. Based on the loads 
derived for this source it is impossible to meet required chloride con- 
centrations in the winter unless a substitute for salt were to be 
adopted. To date alternatives such as the use of cinders have presented 
even greater problems. Control of chlorides through diversion of the 
highly concentrated loads away from the lake was investigated. While 
the limited time did prevent a very detailed study there was substan- 
tial evidence that the consideration of a dam located at the junction 
of the river and canal to control water quality is worthy of immediate 
intensive investigation. The board has specifically recommended this 
be investigated. 

For the loads which were allocated to insure water quality 
standards, a word of caution is in order. These loads were based on 
existing flows. If recycling is widely used by the industries, the drastic 
reduction in flow could spawn violations under the allocated loads. The 
banning of recycling is not an answer. Flow augmentation to replenish 
the system to the existing flows or complete diversion of the lower 
recycled flow away from the lake are better alternatives. The latter on 
presents the greatest reduction possible of the discharge of pollutants to 
the lake. It is expected this problem will be addressed as negotiations 
proceed between the dischargers and the state. 

In summary, many specific questions of how to meet water 
quality standards and greatly reduce existing discharges of pollutants 
to the lake were answered. However, the detailed analysis has led 
to more general questions regarding the future of the river and canal 
and their relationship to Lake Michigan and the populace of the 
Calumet region. 



References 

1. Combinatorics, Inc. "Load Allocation Study of the Grand Calumet River and 
Indiana Harbor Ship Canal," January, 1974. 

2. EPA, "Draft Guidelines Water Quality Management Plans," Section 303(e), Fed- 
eral Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. August 1973. 

3. Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. 

4. Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, Regulation SPC 7R-2, Water Quality 
Standards for the Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, July 
1973. 

5. Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, "Summary Waste Load Allocations Grand 
Calumet River and Indiana Harbor Canal, Lake County; Indiana," May 1974. 

6. Pingry, David E., and Whinston, Andrew B., "A Regional Planning Model for 
Water Quality Control," Models for Environmental Pollution Control, Ch. 3, pp. 

61-90. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman : Darryl P. Sanders, Department of Entomology 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Robert W. Meyer, Department of Entomology, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

New Records of Indiana Collembola. John W. Hart, Hayes Research 

Foundation, Inc., Richmond, Indiana 47374. One hundred twenty four 

species and forms of Collembola have been reported by the author 
(2, 3, 4, 5). This paper lists an additional fifteen. In the list of new 
records which follows, those collected from the Brookville Ecological 

Research Center are indicated by an asterisk (*). 

Hymenaphorura sibirica (Tullberg), 1876; Hands chiniella parvi- 
cornis (Mills), 1934; Hypogastrura harveyi (Folsom), 1902; 
Tomocerus bidentatus Folsom, 1913 [Christiansen]; Folsomides 
marchicus* (Frenzel), 1941; Isotoma albella Packard, 1873; Iso- 
toma notabilis Schaffer, 1896; Isotoma tariva* Wray, 1953; En- 
to?nobrya atrocincta (Schott), 1896; Willowsia buskii (Lubbock), 
1870; W. nigromaculata (Lubbock), 1873; Pseudosinella argentea 
Folsom, 1902; Odontella (Xenyllodes) armata* (Axelson), 1903; 
Microgastrura minutissima* (Mills), 1934; Micanurida pygmaea* 
Borner, 1901. Author's voucher specimens are located in the Joseph 
Moore Museum, Earlham College. 

The Ensifera (Orthoptera) of Indiana. J. L. Stein and W. P. Mc- 
Cafferty, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. On the basis of research involving field 

collecting, literature review, and the examination of specimens housed 
primarily in the entomological collection of Purdue University, but 
also the University of Michigan, and the Illinois Natural History 
Survey, a systematic review of the Ensifera (Orthoptera) species of 
Indiana has been completed. A total of 82 species of this suborder 
were found to occur in Indiana with an additional 11 species which 
may occur in the state but have not been taken within its borders. 
For 61 of the Indiana species, 400 new county records have been 
established. Species have been categorized according to Mumford's 
(1969) faunal distributional areas of Indiana. The nomenclatural 
synonymies for the species involved have been updated, and illustrated 
identification tables have been constructed for all of the 93 species 
treated. 

Eusociality in Ceratina calcarata Robt. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). 
Leland Chandler, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Species of Ceratina possess many 

attributes prerequisite to social behavior, such as female-progeny 

283 



284 Indiana Academy of Science 

association, interacting overwintering aggregations, and cooperative 
prehibernation food storage. Species of related genera have evolved 
social habits and others have developed as social cleptoparasitoids. C. 
calcarata nests containing females and developing brood were placed in 
the Purdue Comparative Ethology Chambers where favorable weather 
conditions were programmed continuously. The emergence of the brood 
was followed by a short period of quiescence, and then by a burst of 
unique activity. Several females from each of three nests began col- 
lecting pollen; returning to their respective nests; and, forming, 
cooperatively, pollen balls which were not separated from one another 
by cell partitions. While each pollen ball received one egg, larval 
feeding was unrestricted over the accumulation. The founding female 
from one nest maintained a peculiar dominance over the others with no 
nest activity beginning until she had flown to each nest, had circled 
and partially entered the burrow. 

Additions to the life history of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom 
(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). GERTRUDE L. Ward and KATHERINE J. 
Cole, Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 
47374. During the summer of 1974, a study of Chalybion zimmer- 
manni Dahlbom in Indiana added two araneid spiders (Mangora 
gibberosa (Hentz) and Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer) ) to the list 
of food provided for the developing young wasps. Either live larvae or 
exuviae of Trogoderma spp. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were found in 
11 per cent of unsuccessful C. zimmermanni nests and appeared to be 
the major cause of death of the young wasps. In captivity, two species 
of flowering plants, Conium maculatum L. and Pastinaca sativa L. 
were attractive to adult C. zimmermanni. 

Blood meal identifications of Culex pipiens pipiens (northern house 
mosquito) collected during 1972 and 1973 in Delaware and Henry 
Counties, Indiana. R. E. Siverly, Public Health Entomology Laboratory, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A total of 111 blooded 

C. p. pipiens collected from five different sites in summer and early 
fall were tested for blood meal identification by the preciptin tech- 
nique. Almost half of the engorged specimens were taken from a 
chicken house and 96 percent of these had fed on chickens. However, 
the same incidence of chicken feeding prevailed when all sites were 
considered. Other avian hosts available included pigeons and passerine 
birds. Mammal hosts available included horses, goats, cattle, dogs 
and humans. 

All collecting sites were located near industrial waste lagoons 
where mosquito production was very high. 

Transport of Fungi by Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: 
Rhinotermitidae) . Cathy Coyle, 1 Life Science Department, Indiana 
State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Eighteen fungi, in- 
cluding one oomycete, three zygomycetes, and fourteen Fungi Im- 
perfecti, were isolated from workers of the eastern subterranean 



1 Present address : Box 306, Sharpsville, Indiana 46068. 



Entomology 285 

termite, Reticalitermes flavipes (Kollar). These fungi were isolated 
from the integument of the termites as well as from the foregut, 
midgut, hindgut and pellets. The relationships between the fungi and 
termites remain obscure, although some forms of the fungi associated 
with the termites were also present in wood cultures. 

The Effect of Tobacco Brown Pigments on Tumorigenicity in 

Drosophila melanogaster. JAMES C. TAN and SUZANNE E. Hamada, De- 
partment of Biology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383. 

Brown pigments in cigarette and cured tobacco leaves are high 

molecular weight substances and heterogeneous in chemical composi- 
tion. They have been suspected to possess carcinogenic activities. 
This is a study of their effects on tumorigenic activity in highly 
inbred strains of the tu50j stock in Drosophila melanogaster. 

F x larvae from the mating of tu50j young adults were either 
allowed to grow continuously in a standard Drosophila medium con- 
taining the experimental agent or treated for one hour in an aqueous 
solution at various concentrations of pigment (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 1%) 
prior to their transfer to the normal medium. Normal and tumor- 
bearing Fi young adults were recorded. The results indicated that 
there were statistically significant differences in the proportion of 
tumor-bearing flies among the treated groups as well as between the 
treated groups and the control. 

Computer Simulations as a Research Tool for Agricultural Entomol- 
ogists. F. T. Turpin, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. As part of a continuing effort at 

Purdue University to gain insight into questions regarding insect 
management on corn, we have simulated the population dynamics of 
the corn rootworm. This simulation has been used to study the effect 
of cultural factors on the population of the rootworm and the related 
impact on resulting crop loss. The model can be used as an aid to 
projecting the need for plant protection measures and allows re- 
searchers to look at various factors influencing rootworm populations 
without costly field experiments. 

Entomological Problems, Programs, and Progress at the Federal Uni- 
versity of Vicosa. Vicosa, M. G., Brasil. Leland Chandler, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana 47907 
and Jose A. H. Freire, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade 

Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. The foundation of 

entomology at the Federal University of Vicosa were established by 
the late Prof. Frederico Vanetti. The present staff of four (J.A.H. 
Freire, J. O. de Lima, S. B. Nogueira, and J. C. Zanuncio) were his 
students; he wrote three texts (Entomologia Geral, Entomologia Agri- 
cola, Cursa de Entomologia); he initiated the research and teaching 
collections; and, he bestowed upon the department a philosophy of 
inspiration, achievement, pride and scholarliness. Prof. Vanetti's tenure 
was the era of the "chair professor"; however, as the University 
developed this era closed and has been replaced by a "land grant 
philosophy". 



286 Indiana Academy of Science 

Entomology is a section within the Department of Fitotecnia, al- 
though it was recently and temporarily a part of the Biological 
Institute. Presently, the staff offers four courses (General, Agri- 
cultural, Forest, Methods of Insect Control) as service courses since 
entomology has no individual curriculum. Teaching occupies a major 
portion of staff time and classes have an exceptionally large enroll- 
ment. The courses are excellent in content and presentation but are 
quite rigorous, fully equivalent to our dual-level courses for entomology 
majors at Purdue. 

A variety of research is conducted but the lack of personnel and of 
time prevents any sustained research program development. Currently, 
research is being carried out on bananas (rhizome borers), coffee 
(berry borer, leafminer), vegetables (black cutworm, diamond-back 
moth), stored grain (pest complex), and on the omnipresent "sauva" 
(leaf-cutter ants) and mound-building termites. 

As agricultural development intensifies, pest problems have become 
seriously acute and in many crops are limiting factors. Considering 
that the state of Minas Gerais is slightly larger in area than the 
state of Texas, these problems become almost incomprehensible. Crops 
such as rice, cotton, citrus, sorghum, soybeans and roses receive 
little or no attention, and forestry, livestock, and pasture problems 
are grave. 

Summarily, entomology at Vicosa is faced with one of the most 
intriguing scientific challenges of our time. Fortunately, the founda- 
tion which was established by Prof. Vanetti is of such excellence that 
the challenge can be met. The staff is fully capable of providing the 
leadership and guidance required in this accomplishment. The critical 
need is for additional personnel, the initiation of an entomological 
curriculum through which new entomologists can be educated, and 
appropriate funding to perform the research which is so essential. 



The Occurrence of the Pigeon Fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart) 

in Indiana 1 

Darryl P. Sanders 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

John L. Petersen 

Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Abstract 

During the early part of 1974, entomologists at the University of Notre Dame 
and Purdue University received requests for assistance in solvirg a problem of flies 
biting people in the Navarre Junior High School in South Bend, Indiana. It was deter- 
mined that the flies in question were of the species commonly called the "pigeon fly", 
and Purdue University received requests for assistance in solving a problem of flies 
Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart). To the authors' knowledge, there are no pre- 
vious published accounts of the occurrence of this species in Indiana. Based upon 
interviews of affected people, these flies apparently had been biting custodial staff and 
teachers on the upper floor of the school during the night or early morning hours for 
at least two years. The source of the flies was found to be pigeons roosting above a 
false ceiling and in connecting ventilator shafts opening onto the roof of the school 
building. Specimens collected are housed in the departmental museums of the respective 
authors. 

Five species of the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera) have previously 
been recorded from Indiana (8). These are Lynchia albipennis (Say), 
L. americana (Leach), L. angustifrons (van der Wulp), Melophagus 
ovinus (L.) and Ornithomyia fringillina Curtis. The pigeon fly, Pseudo- 
lynchia canariensis (Macquart) is reported here for the first time in 
Indiana. This fly is an Old World immigrant to the New World (3). 
The earliest published record in North America was by Knab in 1916 
(6) of specimens taken on pigeons at Savannah, Georgia in 1896. It 
has been recorded from any other locations in the U.S. since that time by 
various authors (1, 2, 4, 7, 8), the closest of these records to Indiana was 
in Chicago, Illinois by MacArthur (8). 

The fact that pigeon flies occurred in Indiana came to the attention 
of entomologists in early 1974 when members of the custodial staff at 
Navarre Junior High School in South Bend Indiana collected specimens 
and sent them to the University of Notre Dame and to Purdue Uni- 
versity for identification. Operating independently and later as a 
team the authors determined the flies to be the above reported species. 

Personal interviews revealed that members of the custodial staff 
and several teachers had been bitten by the flies. There was no evi- 
dence that any students had been attacked. The flies were apparently 
most active at night and in the early morning before students arrived 
at the school. One custodial staff member reported being bitten in- 
termittently over a two year period of time resulting in 12-15 total 
bites. One of these bites resulted in a severe swelling and pain of the 
arm that required emergency medical care. It was reported that the 



1 Journal Paper No. 5722 of the Purdue University Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

287 



288 Indiana Academy of Science 

flies often crawled under the clothing: or beneath the hair of the head 
before biting-. This mode of attack appears to be in keeping; with its 
habits on live pigeons (4). 

Investigations of the school premises were conducted to collect 
the flies and determine their source. All reported bites of people 
occurred while these people were on the second floor of the two-story 
building. Most of the flies collected were found in the windows of 
rooms on the second floor. A rather large population of domestic 
pigeons had found access to a space above a false ceiling via ventilator 
shafts to the roof. The pigeons apparently had been roosting and 
nesting in this space above the ceiling as pigeon feathers droppings 
and nesting debris were found there. 

Screening of the outside openings of the vents to prevent access 
of the pigeons and a general spraying of the infested area with an 
insecticide has apparently been successful in eliminating the problem. 
Over 6 months has now passed with no additional reports of flies or fly 
bites. 

The act of the pigeon fly biting man is accidental and apparently 
common only of persons who regularly handle pigeons (5). The domes- 
tic pigeon is the only reported natural host for this species. It is a 
very irritating and debilitating parasite of pigeons and the proven 
biological vector of a serious disease of pigeons called pigeon malaria 
(4). 

The majority of specimens collected are deposited in the Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame Biology Department Collection and the remainder 
in the Purdue University Entomology Department Museum. 

Acknowledgement is extended to Dr. George Craig Jr. of the Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame, to Mr. Richard Mrozinski and Mr. Dan Marosz 
of Navarre Junior High School, and to Mr. Stan Klaybor of Washington 
High School for their assistance. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bequaert, J. C. 1952-53. The Hippoboscidae or louse-flies (Diptera) of mammals 
and birds. Part I. Structure, physiology and natural history. Entomol. Amer. 32-33: 
1-442. 

2. Bequaert, J. C. 1954-56. The Hippoboscidae or louse-flies (Diptera) of mammals and 
birds. Part II. Taxonomy, evolution and revision of American genera and species. 
Entomol. Amer. 34-36:1-611. 

3. Bequaert, J. C. 1965. Family Hippoboscidae. In A Cataloque of the Diptera of 
America North of Mexico. U.S. Gov't. Printing Office, Washington, pp. 916-921. 

4. Drake, C. J. and R. M. Jones. 1930. The pigeon fly and pigeon malaria in Iowa. 
Iowa St. College J. Sci. 4 :253-261. 

5. James, M. T. and R. F. Harwood. 1969. Herm's Medical Entomology. MacMillan Co., 
Collier-MacMillan Ltd., London. 484p. 

6. Knab, F. 1916. Four European Diptera establishes in North America. Insecutor 
Inscitiae Menstr. 4:1-4. 

7. Maa, T. C. 1969. A revised checklist and concise host index of Hippoboscidae 
(Diptera). Pacif. Insects Monogr. 20:261-299. 

8. MacArthur, K. 1948. The louse-flies of Wisconsin and adjacent states (Diptera: 
Hippoboscidae). Bull. Pub. Mus. City Milwaukee 8:367-440. 

9. WILSON, N. 1964. Records of Hippoboscidae (Diptera) from Indiana. J. Med. 
Entomol. 1:128-130. 



Observations on Periodical Cicadas (Brood XIV) 
in Indiana in 1974 (Homoptera-Cicadidae) 1 

Frank N. Young 

Zoology Department, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Emergence of Brood XIV of periodical cicadas (Magicicada) in Indiana began 
about one week later than on the last emergence in 1957. Emergence was again re- 
stricted to two apparently separated areas: 1) Brown and Morgan counties, 
and 2) Crawford, Harrison, Perry, and Washington counties. Again as in 1957, all 
three 17-year species were not found in both of these areas but only M. septendecim 
and septendecula were found in Brown County and only M. septendecim and caasini 
in the southern counties. Emergence in Lawrence and Orange counties reported in 
1957 could not be reconfirmed. Emergence in Crawford, Morgan, and Perry counties was 
not reported in 1957. Scattered emergence observed in Monroe County probably repre- 
sents a 4 year delay of individuals from Brood X which was very abundant in 1970. 
Brood XIV has been greatly reduced in Indiana since the early 1900's. In 1923 it was 
reported from many of the southern counties and as far north as Tippecanoe, Carroll, 
Grant, and Wayne counties. 

Periodical cicadas of Brood XIV (Magicicada septendecim L., M. 
cassini Fisher, and M. septendecula Alexander and Moore) emerged in 
moderately large numbers in two apparently separated areas in 
southern Indiana in May and early June 1974. No evidence of reduction 
in intensity of emergence could be detected in Brown, Harrison, or 
southeastern Crawford counties, but 1957 records of emergence near 
Orleans, Orange County (Marshall, CEIR) and Lawrence County 
(Alexander and Moore, 1962) could not be reconfirmed. Cicada flagging 
was apparent in part of Washington County in the late summer, but 
no specimens were observed there in May or June. Flagging was also 
reported from Crawford, Harrison, and Perry counties (Sproat, CEIR). 
A single M. septendecim was observed in Monroe county by Prof. Val 
Nolan, and a specimens of M. septendecim and two nymphal skins 
were collected by Mrs. D. G. Frey near Bloomington, Monroe County. 
These records probably represent a 4 year delay of individuals from 
Brood X which was very abundant in the same areas in 1970 (Young, 
1971). 

The first emergence of M. septendecim was observed in Brown 
County on May 21, about one week later than reported in 1957 
(Hamilton, CEIR). M. cassini, however was reported calling in Har- 
rison County on May 20 (Dr. D. Dunning and John Byers). M. 
septendecula was first observed emerging in Brown County on May 24, 
but may have begun somewhat earlier. 

By May 30, M. cassini was calling in nearly every clump of trees 
from Motts Station, Harrison County, along Ind. Hwy. 135 into Meade 
County, Kentucky, and back along western edge of Harrison County 
to near Leavenworth in Crawford County. Many choruses of M. 



Contribution No. 985 from the Zoological Laboratories of Indiana University. 

289 



290 Indiana Academy of Science 

septendecim were heard at the same time along this route but seemed 
to occur largely in more extensive stands of timber. 

The emergence in Brown County was less apparent than in the 
southern counties, but M. septendecim appeared in considerable num- 
bers in Brown County State Park and along Ind. Hwy. 135 north through 
Nashville to the vicinity of Bean Blossom and to the east. M. septen- 
decula was found calling in large numbers on drier cut-over slopes 
along Bear Wallow Road just south of Nashville. 

The 1957 and 1974 records of Brood XIV indicate that there has 
been a considerable reduction in the area over which this brood 
occurs since the early 1900's. Periodical cicadas were reported in 
massive swarms in Brown and Perry counties in 1923, and in smaller 
numbers in Clark, Clay, Daviess, Dearborn, Floyd, Fountain, Grant, 
Harrison, Johnson, Knox, Monroe, Morgan, Orange, Putnam, Ripley, 
Scott, Sullivan, Tippecanoe, Warrick, Washington, and Wayne counties. 
Older and doubtful records are for Boone, Carroll, Dubois, Crawford, 
Greene, Jackson, Lake, Lawrence, Pike, Posey, Steuben, Vanderburg, 
and Vigo counties. Some of the latter records may actually be for 
Brood XXIII of 13-year cicadas which emerged along with Brood XIV 
in 1872. 

In 1957 periodical cicadas were recorded only from Brown, 
Harrison, and Lawrence counties (Alexander and Moore, 1962), Orange 
County (Marshall, CEIR), and Brown County (Hamilton, CEIR). 

An attempt was made to determine whether or not Brood XIV 
overlapped extensively with Brood X. This attempt was hampered by 
lack of precisely located stations for Brood X in most of the area of 
overlap. The situation in Brown County is particularly uncertain. The 
late Prof. J. J. Davis told me that in 1936 (following an emergence of 
Brood X) that the canopy of the forest in Brown County State Park 
was brown over a large area by late summer from the nagging caused 
by cicada oviposition. In 1970, however, cicadas were not found in 
Brown County State Park, although they were collected in large num- 
bers in Yellowwood State Forest to the west and near Story along Jnd. 
Hwy. 135 to the south. No emergence of Brood XIV was detected in 
either of the latter areas. Extensive nagging was not evident in Brown 
County in late summer of 1974 to the extent that it was to the east in 
Bartholomew County and to the west in Monroe County in 1970. 

An extensive survey was made in Brown County during the 
emergence and 17 stations at which cicadas were collected established. 
The area is bounded as follows: S. W., 3.0 mi. S. W. of Nashville on 
Ind. Hwy. 46; W., 0.3 mi. W. of Bean Blossom on Ind. Hwy. 45; N., 
5.2 mi. N. of Bean Blossom on Ind. Hwy. 135; E., 5.0 mi. E. of Bean 
Blossom approximately along Clay Lick Road; S., vicinity of Lake 
Strahl within Brown County State Park. No signs could be detected to 
the east along Ind. Hwy. 135 south of Ind. 46. Outside the area 
bounded above cicadas could not be detected either by their calls or 
by examining the ground for emergence signs. Within Brown County 
State Park, the main emergence appeared to be along the west edge 
near Ind. Hwy. 46 and east to around the Abe Martin Lodge. Only a 



Entomology 291 

few scattered individuals and nymphal skins were found near the 
Hoosier Nest area or in the vicinity of Kelp Post Office and Lake 
Strahl. The area of emergence in Brown County thus seems to be very 
sharply bounded and possibly isolated from any emergence in Morgan 
County. No signs of cicadas could be detected in Morgan, Johnson, 
Bartholomew, Jackson, or Monroe counties during May and June nor 
was any unquestioned cicada flagging observed in these counties in 
the late summer, but they were heard calling (Gene Kritsby). 

The emergence in the southern counties appears to represent an 
extension of Brood XIV into the state from Kentucky where emergence 
was heavy and widespread in the eastern counties. Six stations were 
established in Harrison and Crawford counties for future studies. In 
addition recordings were made at approximately 1 mile intervals from 
Motts Station down Ind. Hwy. 135 to the Ohio River and northwest 
through Valley City to U. S. Hwy. 460 and the vicinity of Wyandotte 
Cave. 

In addition to the observations and collections cited above, a 
survey was made of 12 stations in southwestern Indiana which were 
positive for periodical cicadas of Brood XXIII (13-year periodicity) 
in 1963. All of these stations were negative in 1974 although visited 
on May 31 when emergence was nearly completed in Harrison County 
and large scale choruses were in evidence. These stations were also 
visited in 1970 for the purpose of seeing if Brood X had emerged in 
the same places. Only one area and that not immediately at the station 
at which Brood XXIII was collected showed suspicuous signs of 
flagging in late summer. 

Except possibly in Brown County State Park, little evidence of 
overlap of Brood XIV with Brood X or Brood XXIII was found in 
Indiana. However, in Trimble and Henry counties, Kentucky, M. septen- 
decim and M. cassini were collected either at or very near stations 
positive for the same species in 1970. Stations on the Indiana Uni- 
versity Campus (Young, 1971) were without exception completely 
negative for cicadas in 1974. 

Other Broods of Periodical Cicadas in Indiana 

The broods of periodical cicadas numbered by Marlatt (1923) have 
without exception been reduced in range since the early 1900's. This, of 
course, correlates with the fact that forest tracts have generally been 
reduced over vast areas during this period, and the periodical cicadas 
are closely related to trees upon whose roots the nymphs feed. Some 
of the numbered broods, however, either never existed or have been 
exterminated (Alexander and Moore, 1962). The broods and their next 
year of emergence (in parentheses) are as follows: . 

The 17- Year Broods 

Brood I (1978): Reported by Marlatt in 1910 from Knox, Posey, and 
Sullivan counties. However, this emergence corresponded to that of 
the 13-year Brood XXII which could be expected in the southern Wabash 
Valley. The previous record of Brood I from Indiana in 1859 cor- 
responds with that of Brood XXIII of 13-year cicadas which is known 



292 Indiana Academy of Science 

to occur widely over the lower Wabash Valley. Specimens, unfortunately, 
seem to be lacking to confirm that the 1910 records are for M. 
septendecim, cassini, or septendecula rather than for the 13-year 
species M. tredecim (Walsh and Riley), M. tredecula, and trecassini 
(Alexander and Moore). 

Brood II (1979): Reported from Dearborn, Fountain, and questionably 
from Posey County in 1911. This emergence corresponded with that of 
Brood XXIII of 13-year cicadas, and these records probably represent 
the 13-year species. 

Broods III, IV, and V (1980, 1981, 1982) occur to the west or east of 
Indiana and have not been reported from the state. 

Brood VI (1983): Reported by Marlatt in 1915 from Boone, Brown, 
Carroll, Grant, Johnson, Laporte, and Wells counties and by Deay 
(1953) from 24 Indiana counties. Emergence of periodical cicadas was 
observed in Monroe County and elsewhere in southern Indiana in 1966, 
but the numbers were small and probably represent a four year ac- 
celeration of Brood X which emerged in large numbers in 1970. 
Brood VII (1984) was not reported for Indiana in 1967 but a single 
M. septendecim was purportedly found in Bloomington, Monroe County. 
Brood VIII (1985) was not reported for Indiana in 1968 but a single 
M. septendecim was captured on the I.U. Campus in Bloomington, Mon- 
roe County. Brood IX (1985) has not been reported from Indiana. 
Brood X (1987) is the major brood of 17-year periodical cicadas in 
Indiana. It has in the past been reported from every Indiana county, 
but in 1970 the emergence was considerably reduced (Young, 1971). 
Broods XI and XII (1988, 1989) are of doubtful occurrence in Indiana 
although Brood XII is reported from Allen County by Marlatt in 1921 
and from Orange County (Davis in Deay, 1953). 

Brood XIII (1990) was recorded from Lake, LaPorte, and Porter 
counties in 1956, but it may occur in other counties in the northern 
part of the state. 

Brood XIV (1991) is apparently now restricted in Indiana as detailed 
above. 

Broods XV, XVI, and XVII (1975, 1976, 1977) have never been 
recorded from Indiana, and, in fact, may not exist (Alexander and 
Moore, 1962). 

The 13- Year Broods 

Only two of the 13-year broods of periodical cicadas have been 
recorded from Indiana. 

Brood XIX (1985) is the largest of the 13-year broods and has been 
reported from Vanderburgh, Posey, and Warrick north to Newton and 
Jasper Counties (Deay, 1953). However, an extended search along 
roads in the counties bordering the Ohio River and in the lower 
Wabash Valley failed to uncover any evidence of emergence in May, 
1972. Records were obtained, however, for Pope and Gallatin Counties, 
Illinois, during the same period. 

Brood XXIII (1976): This brood has been recorded from Bartholomew, 
Daviess, Fayette, Floyd, Gibson, Jackson, Jennings, Knox, Montgomery, 



Entomology 293 

Owen, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, Spencer, Sullivan Vanderburg, Vigo, 
and Warrick counties in 1911 by Marlatt. Those underlined were recon- 
firmed in 1963. (See also Hamilton and Cleveland, 1964). 

Economic Importance of Brood XIV 

Brood XIV caused relatively little damage in Indiana in 1974. 
Forest trees were not heavily flagged even in areas where emergence 
was considered heavy. In Kentucky and elsewhere, however, considerable 
damage to orchards and trees was reported (CEIR). 

Voucher Specimens and Specific Localities 

Voucher specimens for records included in this paper are deposited 
in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, and in the 
collection of Indiana University. 

Anyone desiring specific locality records on the collecting stations 
and dates may obtain them in mineographed form from the author. 



References Cited 

Alexander, R. D. and T. E. Moore. 1962. The evolutionary relationships of the 17-year 
and 13-year cicadas, and three new species (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada) . 
Misc. Publ. Mtiseum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 121:59 pp., illus. 

Deay, H. O. 1953. The periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecium (L.) In Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 62 :203-206. 

Hamilton, S. 1957. In Cooperative Economic Insect Reports. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 
7 (22):421. 

Hamilton, D. W. and M. L. Cleveland. 1964. Periodical Cicadas in 1963, Brood 23. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 73:167-170. 

Marlatt, C. L. 1923. The periodical cicada. U. S. Dept. Agric, Bur. Ent., Bull. 71:183 
pp., illus. 

Marshall, G. E. 1957. In Cooperative Economic Insect Reports. U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture. 7 (22) :421. 

Sproat, B. B. 1974. In Cooperative Economic Insect Reports. U. S. Dept. Agriculture 
24 (31):609. 

Young, F. N. 1971. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood X) in Indiana in 1970 
(Homoptera-Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 80:247-252, 1 map. 



Institutional Insect Collections 
in Indiana 1 

W. P. McCafferty 

Department of Entomology, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A survey was conducted in order to determine the extent and functionality of 
the entomological collection resource in the State of Indiana. The study was re- 
stricted to institutionally owned collections. Inquiries centered primarily around quanti- 
tative aspects of the functional, taxonomic, and geographic makeup of the collections. 
Extensive data are presented in discussion or tabular form. Of 68 contacts made, 42 
replies were received, and 33 were affirmative concerning the presence of collections. 
There are approximately 1 million specimens housed in the state of which approximately 
65 percent are representative of Indiana fauna. In terms of functional institutional 
involvement, teaching predominates ; however, over 80 percent of all specimens are for 
research. Over 50,000 species are represented. Significant systematics collections include 
type collections, international reference collections, historically unique collections, 
comprehensive collections of certain groups, and detailed collections of certain local 
fauna. 

Collections of biological specimens have become increasingly recog- 
nized as a resource of value to research and education; but also they 
form a priceless and often irreplaceable heritage of our environment, 
past and present. Recently there has been a national movement to 
coordinate museum activities, to gain financial support, and to impress 
upon the public the importance of these collections (2,5). A national 
plan is currently underway (4) by the Advisory Committee for Syste- 
matic Resources in Entomology of the Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica. This plan is concerned with how systematic entomological resources 
— personnel, collections, data, and facilities — may best be used to serve 
society and systematics, both now and in the foreseeable future. 

The insect collections housed throughout the state of Indiana, from 
all preliminary indications, had been thought to comprise a significant 
regional resource, and also in some cases important national and even 
international systematic resources. Unfortunately, however, little has 
been known in regards to the extent, distribution, function, and di- 
versity of the various insect collections in Indiana. A symposium on a 
century of entomology in Indiana in 1955 (3) did not treat the insect 
collections nor did Natural Features of Indiana (1966) (6) which dealt 
primarily with the natural resources of the state. 

In order to help promote the value of systematic entomological 
collections as they pertain to the natural history of Indiana, but also 
as an adjunct to the national movements mentioned above, and to 
provide a needed reference base of information beneficial to scientists, 
educators, and the general public, a comprehensive study of the insti- 
tutional insect collections was undertaken. Of particular interest to the 
several entomologists throughout the state who are currently involved 



1 Published with the approval of the Director of the Purdue Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station as Journal Series No. 5724. 

294 



Entomology 295 

in the faunistic analysis of Indiana insect populations is the fact that 
the information resulting from this study will allow all of us to evaluate 
needs, coordinate efforts, and help form a state network of cooperation 
and information retrieval. The data presented herein will also hope- 
fully provide supportive evidence for receiving- financial assistance 
vital to the maintainance and completion of our knowledge of the insects 
and the environment as is preserved and researched through the en- 
tomological collections. 

This study is also timely in light of the fact that one of the 
current aims of the Indiana Revolution Bicentennial Commission is that 
of inventorying and cataloging holdings of the museums of Indiana. 

This study has been based primarily on the response to a survey 
questionnaire consisting of 29 questions regarding possible insect 
holdings. The questionnaire was designed so as to provide both quali- 
tative and quantitative data of value as reference material to the 
increasing numbers of users of insect collections, and to provide a 
basis for comparative evaluation. It must be stressed that the study 
deals exclusively with institutionally owned collections. Personal col- 
lections, although of great worth in some instances, were not treated 
due to their often transient nature and also because it would be ex- 
tremely difficult to survey all of these. The institutional mailing list 
was compiled with the aid of the Indiana Commission of Higher Educa- 
tion, among others, for the intended purpose of including all institutions 
either known to house natural history collections or to have any 
remote possibility of housing insect specimens. Unfortunately, as in all 
surveys of this type, 100% response was not attained and it is 
emphasized that quantified findings as presented herein are based 
solely on the information gained via the questionnaires. As might also 
be expected, some of the returned questionnaires were incomplete. With 
this in mind, total numbers given in many cases may be presumed to 
be low. Questionnaires were mailed in January of 1974, with the final 
returns having been received in June of 1974. The data herein, therefore, 
are applicable to the year 1974, with most collections expected to 
increase their holdings with time. 

A total of 68 questionnaires were sent out to various institutions 
throughout the state. These institutions included private and public 
colleges and universities, and other post high school educational insti- 
tutions in the state. Also included were federal, state, and municipal 
institutions and museums, along with privately supported natural history 
museums. 

Note in Table 1 (and others) the institutional categories that will 
be used for comparative purposes in many cases throughout. Universi- 
ties with biological research graduate programs are those universities 
offering post graduate degrees in non-teaching oriented, biological 
research programs (biology being used in its broadest sense). All other 
institutions of higher education are included as a second broad category 
composed of institutions where teaching is the prevailing function. 
Nonhigher educational institutions include all others such as private 
museums, governmental agencies, and private firms. 

Of the 42 replies received, 33 or 79.0 percent- indicated the 



296 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Response to collection questionnaires. 



Institution 


Questionnaires 


Replies 






Bent 


received 


% returned 


Univ. with Biol. 








Res. Grad. Prog. 


8 


8 


100.0 


Other Inst, of 








Higher Educ. 


38 


23 


60.5 


Total Inst, of 








Higher Educ. 


46 


31 


67.4 


Non-Higher 








Educ. Inst. 


22 


11 


50.0 


Total Inst. 


68 


42 


61.8 



presence of a collection or collections of insects. An alphabetical list of 
these 33 institutions is presented in Table 2. Of the 26 institutions that 
were queried but did not return the questionnaire, some of them are 
known or thought to house collections. These probably include such 
institutions as Goshen College, St. Mary's College, and Wabash College, 
and possibly a few others. Unfortunately no data can be included 
concerning these institutions. 

Table 2. List of institutions housing collections. 



Aquatic Control 
Ball State University 
Bethel College 
Butler University 
DePauw University 
Earlham College 
Evansville Museum of Arts 

and Sciences 
Fort Wayne Bible College 
Franklin College 
Hanover College 
Huntington College 
Indiana Central College 
Indiana Department of Natural 

Resources 
Indiana State University 
Indiana University 
IUPU-Indianapolis 



Indianapolis Children's Museum 

Manchester College 

Marian College 

Marion College 

Joseph B. Moore Museum 

Purdue University 

Purdue University (Hammond) 

Purdue University (Westville) 

St. Francis College 

St. Joseph's College 

St. Mary of the Woods College 

Taylor University 

USDA (Humid Areas Deciduous Fruit 

Insects Laboratory) 
University of Evansville 
University of Notre Dame 
Valparaiso University 
Vincennes University 



The majority of collections or institutions housing collections are 
invovled in more than one function and can be noted in Table 3. The 
Indianapolis Children's Museum uses its insect collection as a display 
item only occasionally, and is not included in the table. In numbers of 
collections, teaching or the combination of teaching and display are by 
far the most prevalent situations making up 64.5 percent of the pos- 
sible functions or combinations of functions. This percentage reflects 
the relatively large number of teaching institutions represented. It 
should be noted here that under research is also included reference 
collections for nonsystematic research. 



2 All percentage figures throughout this paper are to the nearest one-tenth percent. 



Entomology 297 

Table 3. Distribution of functionality of collections. 1 





Univ 


. with 














Biol 


. Res. 


Other Inst. 


Total Inst. 


Non-Higher 




Function 


Grad 


Prog. 


Higher Educ. 


Higher Educ. 


Ed 


uc. Inst. 


Total Inst. 


Teaching only 




3 


7 


10 







10 


Research only 















2 


2 


Display only 





















Teach, and Res. 


only 


3 


2 


5 







5 


Teach, and Disp 


only 





9 


9 




1 


10 


Res. and Disp. only 













1 


1 


Teach and Res. 
















and Disp. 




2 


1 


3 







3 



1 Based on 31 institutions indicating presently functional collections. 

In total 28 or 90.3 percent of the institutions utilize collections for 
teaching-, 11 or 35.5 percent for research, and 14 or 45.2 percent for 
display. Although only 11 institutions utilized collections for research 
purposes, on a specimen per specimen basis many more (80.1 percent) 
are used for research (see Table 4). Table 4 also indicates the distri- 
bution of total specimens according to institutional categories. These 
totals must be somewhat low since six institutions did not provide any 
numerical data concerning their specimens. As could be expected re- 
search specimens from universities are by far the largest category 
contributing to the total. 

Table 4. Numbers of specimens according to function. 1 



Institution 


Teaching Spec. 


Research spec. 


Display spec. 


Total spec. 


Univ. with Biol. 










Res. Grad. Prog. 


131,200 


737,500 


1,300 


870,000 


Other Inst, of 










Higher Educ. 


53,126 


2,000 


5,650 


60.476 2 


Total Inst. 










Higher Educ. 


184,326 


739,500 


6,950 


930,476 


Non-Higher 










Educ. Inst. 





39,800 


3,000 


42,800 


Total Inst. 


184,326(18.9%) 


779,300(80.1%) 


9,950(1.0%) 


973,276 



1 Only 27 of the 33 institutions which indicated the presence of collections provided 
information on the number of specimens. 

3 300 of these specimens were used for both teaching and display. 

Eight of 19 institutions maintain separate collections for separate 
functions, and this situation is more prevalent in institutions with 
graduate research programs where large research collections are 
maintained and also in the non-higher educational institutions. This 
is a matter of policy, however, it is felt that separateness helps ensure 
the longevity of the important research collections. 

Table 5 is very enlightening as to the kinds of courses for which 
insect collections are being used in Indiana. To illustrate the tables 
usage, 18 institutions indicated that their collections were used in 



298 



Indiana Academy of Science 



teaching general entomology. These 18 institutions made up 66.6 
percent of the institutions that indicated any course usage. Of the 18 
institutions, 14 indicated that general entomology was the primary 
subject area for which specimens were being utilized either in numbers 
of specimens or frequency of usage. Two institutions indicated that 
the specimens were of more importance in one other course, and two 
other institutions indicated that the specimens were of more importance 
in two subject areas other than general entomology. The high ranking 
of zoology is accounted for by those teaching institutions not offering 
general entomology in their curriculum. Since the greatest usage is 
coming from general rather than specialized courses it can be assumed 
that the teaching specimens are being utilized by a relatively large 
number of Indiana students. 

Table 5. Subject areas of educational usage. 1 







(%) 


Of 1st 


Of 2nd 


Of 3rd 


Of 4th 


Subject area 


No. of Inst. 




import. 


import. 


import. 


import. 


General entomology 


18 


(66.6) 


14 


2 


2 


— 


General zoology 


12 


(44.4) 


10 


2 


— 


— 


General biology 


11 


(40.7) 


4 


6 


1 


— 


General nature study 


7 


(25.9) 


— 


4 


2 


1 


Specialized entomology 


5 


(18.5) 


— 


1 


3 


1 


Ecology 


2 


(7.4) 


— 


1 


1 


— 


Invertebrate zoology 


2 


(7.4) 


— 


2 


— 


— 


Systematic entomology 


1 


(3-7) 


— 


1 


— 


— 


Parasitology 


1 


(3.7) 


— 


1 


— 


— 



1 Based on 27 responding institutions. 



Two-thirds of the institutions indicating the presence of collections 
possess collections which are taxonomically comprehensive. Taxonom- 
ically comprehensive in this instance is taken to mean that all major 
orders and most orders of insects are represented in the collections. 
This is the case at all universities with a biological research graduate 
program, while non-higher educational institutions tended to be much 
more taxonomically specialized. No direct correlation with the size of 
the collections could be made although this might be expected. 

Table 6 deals with the ordinal areas of research as was surveyed. 
Institutions involving their collections in research were asked to list 
up to five orders of insects in order of decreasing usage. To il- 
lustrate the table's usage, five institutions indicated that research 
involving insects of the order Diptera was currently being undertaken, 
and Diptera was the second most commonly mentioned order as far as 
research is concerned. Of the five institutions listing Diptera, two listed 
this order first, none listed it second, none listed it third, two listed 
it fourth, and one listed it fifth. It may be of passing interest to note 
that the relationship of the usage of the first four major orders listed 
reflects their relationship in terms of number of species for North 
America. 

Since Blatchley's time the Coleoptera have received a relatively 
great deal of systematic attention in Indiana and the associated re- 



Entomology 299 

searchers have contributed and continue to contribute a great deal 
concerning the systematics of beetles. Although the Odonata have re- 
ceived attention for some time, only in the last few years have other 
aquatic groups, particularly the Ephemeroptera, received considerable 
attention in Indiana. Purdue University, for example, now possesses one 
of the largest and best identified collections of North American mayflies. 
It is fair to say that much of the future complexion of Indiana col- 
lections (as has been the case in the past) will reflect the interests and 
expertise of the entomologists in this state. Hopefully, however, the 
present study will help guide workers as to areas of potential and 
need at least in terms of the state collections and faunistics. 

Table 6. Ordinal areas of primary research usage. 









Of 1st 


Of 2nd 


Of 3rd 


Of 4th 


Of 5th 


Group 


No. 


of Inst. 


import. 


import. 


import. 


import. 


import. 


Coleoptera 




6 


5 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Diptera 




5 


2 


— 


— 


2 


1 


Hymenoptera 




4 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


Lepidoptera 




2 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Hemi-Homoptera 




1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Collembola 




1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Siphonaptera 




1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ephemeroptera 




1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Odonata 




1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


Orthoptera 




1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Aquatic immatu 


•es 


1 


1 


— 


— ■ 







As a reference guide, Table 7 lists alphabetically under each 
taxonomic group the localities of research activity that was reported. It 
should be noted that other orders are the subject of research at Purdue 
University, such as the Hymenoptera, but only the five currently 
receiving the most emphasis were included according to the ques- 
tionnaire. 

Most institutions in the state that are involved in collection re- 
lated research are concerned with state-oriented faunistic studies 
rather than revisionary work applicable to broad geographic areas, as 
follows: Among the universities with graduate research programs, 
three are involved in state-oriented faunistics, one with broad geograph- 
ically applicable revisonary work, and three institutions (Indiana Uni- 
versity, Purdue University, University of Notre Dame) are involved in 
both categories of systematic research. Among other institutions of 
higher education, three are involved in state-oriented faunistics, and 
two are involved with broad geographically applicable revisionary 
work. Among the non-higher education institutions, two are involved in 
state-oriented faunistics, and one with revisionary work. In total 53.3 
percent of these institutions are involved with state-oriented faunistics, 
26.7 percent with broad geographical revisionary work, and 20.0 
percent with both areas; Although only 11 institutions had indicated 
that their collections were used in research, 15 chose to reply to this 
particular subject. Nevertheless, there is a good mix of both types of 
systematic endeavors currently in the state. 



300 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Twenty-two institutions make their insect specimens available on a 
loan basis for scientific purposes, and only eight institutions do not. A 
total of nine institutions have made such loans in the past 10 years and 
thus their resources are being recognized and called upon for usage by 
outside researchers throughout the world. As a reference, it should be 
noted that the following institutons will not loan specimens: Fort Wayne 
Bible College, Franklin College, Marian College, Purdue University 
(Hammond), Purdue University (Westville), St. Joseph's College, and 
Vincennes University. 

Table 7. Localities of primary research areas. 



COLEOPTERA 
Indiana University 
Manchester College 
Purdue University- 
Purdue Univ. (Westville) 
St. Francis College 
Valparaiso University 

DIPTERA 

Hanover College 
Manchester College 
Notre Dame University 
Purdue University 
St. Francis College 



HEMI-HOMOPTERA 
Manchester College 



COLLEMBOLA 

J. B. Moore Museum 



SIPHONAPTERA 
J. B. Moore Museum 



EPHEMEROPTERA 
Purdue University 



ODONATA 

Purdue University 



HYMENOPTERA 
DePauw University 
Indiana State University 
Manchester College 
St. Francis College 



ORTHOPTERA 
Purdue University 

AQUATIC IMMATURES 
DePauw University 



LEPIDOPTERA 
Manchester College 
St. Francis College 



Do these collections serve as a reference base for persons (scientists 
or otherwise) who may require species identification of specimens? 
Based on 27 replies, four or 57.1 percent of the universities with biologi- 
cal research graduate programs indicated this activity, two or 12.5 
percent of other institutions of higher education indicated the activity, 
and three or 75.0 percent of the non-higher education institutions indi- 
cated the activity. In total one-third of the institutions are involved in 
this vital service. A correlation between these particular institutions 
and the degree to which their collections are identified will be seen 
later. 

Entomological collections are extremely important for the training 
of future researchers and so derive value not only from classroom 
utility but also from their usage for student research whether it be 
undergraduate or graduate. Based on 30 replies regarding student 
research usage, the following data was obtained concerning Indiana's 
role in this area. Specimens and associated data are so used at five or 
41.7 percent of the universities with biological research graduate 



Entomology 301 

programs, six or 35.3 percent of other higher education institutions are 
so involved, and only one or 16.7 percent of the non-higher education 
institutions are so involved. In total 40.0 percent of the institutions 
have student research associated with their collections. It should be 
pointed out here that student research associated with entomological 
collections is not necessarily systematic in nature but may involve 
many aspects of experimental and applied entomology. 

In Table 8 can be seen the distribution of personnel associated in 
some way with the various collections. In addition to this data is the 
fact that only three institutions employ systematic entomologists pri- 
marly as such. Only four such individuals are located at institutions in 
the state currently (three at universities and one at a college), and 
all have additional duties besides systematics. This presents a rather 
meager ratio of workers to specimens held (see Table 4). 



Table 8. Institutions with collections employing persons with some working knowledgi 

of systematic entomology. 





No. 


having 


% having 










Total 




associated 


associated 


No. with 


No. with 


Nc 


i. with 


asso. 


Institution 


personnel 


personnel 


1 person 


2 persons 


>2 


persons 


personnel 


Univ. with Biol. 


















Res. Grad. Prog. 




5 


71.4 


4 







1 


11 


Other Inst, of 


















Higher Educ. 




10 


55.5 


8 


2 







12 


Total Inst, of 


















Higher Educ. 




15 


60.0 


12 


2 




1 


23 


Non-Higher 


















Educ. Inst. 




2 


33.3 


2 










2 


Total Inst. 




17 


54.8 


14 


2 




1 


25 



1 Based on 31 replies and 17 institutions with associated personnel. 

Data were also ascertained concerning exhibits of insects at institu- 
tions around the state. At six of the 15 institutions which maintain 
collection displays, these specimens are part of larger more compre- 
hensive natural history exhibits. This is the case at both non-higher 
educational institutions involved. In total also, 13 or 86.7 percent of 
the institutions indicated that their displays were intended primarily 
for the general public. 

A considerable amount of information is available in Table 9 
concerning institutions that provided data on specimen make-up. The 
percent the specimens contribute to the total is calculated from Table 4. 
Note the six institutions that indicated the presence of more than 10,000 
specimens. These six institutions hold 95.1 percent of the specimens 
in Indiana. As far as the proportion of specimens from Indiana goes, 
the range for all institutions is from 30.0 to 100.0 percent with the 
average percent being 80.1. Also, it can be calculated from the data 
that over 626,000 specimens or 64.6 percent of the total specimens 
accounted for were collected in Indiana. These specimens are an invalu- 
able heritage of Indiana and must be so maintained. 



302 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 9. Specimen make-up of collections. 



Institution 



No. of 
specimens 



% of total 
inst. spec. 



No. collected 
in Indiana 



% specimens 

collected in 

Indiana 



Ball State University 


3,000 


0.3 


2,700 


90.0 


Butler University 


6,000 


0.6 


5,700 


95.0 


DePauw Unversity 


52,000 


5.3 


46,800 


90.0 


Earlham College 


3,000 


0.3 


2,400 


80.0 


Fort Wayne Bible College 


120 


<0.1 


120 


100.0 


Franklin College 


3,000 


0.3 


900 


30.0 


Hanover College 


700 


0.1 


693 


99.0 


Huntington College 


300 


<0.1 


297 


99.0 


Indiana Department of 










Natural Resources 


2,000 


0.2 


1,600 


80.0 


Indiana State University 


9,300 


1.0 


9,114 


98.0 


Indiana University 


80,500 


8.3 








IUPU-Indianapolis 


1,800 


0.2 


1,710 


95.0 


Indianapolis Children's 










Museum 


3,000 


0.3 








Manchester College 


500 


0.1 


400 


80.0 


Marion College 


1,634 


0.2 


654 


40.0 


Joseph B. Moore Museum 


33,800 


3.5 


27,040 


80.0 


Purdue University 


659,000 


67.7 


461,300 


70.0 


Purdue University 










(Hammond) 


200 


<0.1 


180 


90.0 


Purdue University 










(Westville) 


1,400 


0.1 


560 


40.0 


St. Francis College 


40,000 


4.1 


28,000 


70.0 


St. Joseph's College 


950 


0.1 


931 


98.0 


Taylor University 


1,000 


0.1 








University of Evansville 


2,000 


0.2 


1,960 


98.0 


University of Notre Dame 


60,000 


6.2 


30,000 


50.0 


USDA (Humid Areas 










Deciduous Fruit 










Insects Laboratory) 


4,000 


0.4 


3,200 


80.0 


Valparaiso University 


4,000 


0.4 


2,800 


70.0 


Vincennes University 


72 


<0.1 


72 


100.0 



Applies only to institutions providing information on this subject. 



Table 10 deals with the species make-up of the collections, and 
therefore, is in many instances based on the best estimates of the 
institutions replying. Interestingly, 31 institutions provided some nu- 
merical data concerning species holdings while only 27 institutions 
provided any numerical data on specimen holdings. In comparing 
Tables 9 and 10, it may be noted that four of the six institutions indi- 
cating over 1,000 or more species were also institutions that had 
indicated the presence of over 10,000 specimens. To reiterate, these 
four institutions are Indiana University, the Joseph B. Moore Museum, 
Purdue University, and St. Francis College. Obviously from the data 
it cannot be calculated how many different species in total are held 
in Indiana Institutions since there is undoubtedly some overlap. It can 
only be said that there is with certainty over 50,000 different species 
held and over 32,500 of these are from Indiana. The range of percent 
of species from Indiana among the institutions was from 10.0 to 
100.0 percent with an average percent of 79.1. 



Entomology 

Table 10. Species make-up of collections. 1 



303 





No. of 


% of specimens 


No. of species 






estimated 


identified to 


collected in 


% species 


Institution 


species 


species 


Indiana 


from Indiana 


Aquatic Control 


200 


25.0 


20 


10.0 


Ball State University 


500 


10.0 


300 


90.0 


Bethel College 


750 


<1.0 


563 


95.0 


Butler University 





5.0 








DePauw University 


200 


25.0 


180 


90.0 


Earlham College 


400 


50.0 


380 


95.0 


Evansville Museum of 










Arts and Sciences 





100.0 








Fort Wayne Bible College 


100 


10.0 


100 


100.0 


Franklin College 


700 


0.0 


140 


20.0 


Hanover College 





<10.0 








Huntington College 


100 


20.0 


99 


99.0 


Indiana Department of 










Natural Resources 





60.0 





70.0 


Indiana State University 


1,500 


10.0 


1,425 


95.0 


Indiana University 


4,000 


60.0 


2,400 


60.0 


IUPU-Indianapolis 


500 


5.0 


475 


95.0 


Manchester College 


350 


2.0 


343 


98.0 


Marian College 








— — 


75.0 


Marion College 


1,000 





500 


50.0 


Joseph B. Moore Museum 


4,600 


50.0 


4,370 


95.0 


Purdue University 


50,000 


90.0 


32,500 


65.0 


Purdue University 










(Hammond) 


150 


100.0 


150 


100.0 


Purdue University 










(Westville) 


300 


60.0 


240 


80.0 


St. Francis College 


30,000 


75.0 


21,000 


70.0 


St. Joseph College 


300 


50.0 


294 


98.0 


St. Mary of the Woods 











75.0 


Taylor University 





1.0 





90.0 


University of Evansville 


250 


<2.0 


248 


99.0 


University of Notre Dame 2 


200 


50.0 


50 


25.0 


USDA (Humid Areas 










Deciduous Fruit 










Insects Laboratory) 


700 


50.0 


665 


95.0 


Valparaiso University 


500 


30.0 


400 


80.0 


Vincennes University 


72 


100.0 


72 


100.0 



1 Based on data from 31 institutions. 

- Numbers available only for the Culicidae. 



The survey also revealed that only two institutions in the state 
housed type specimens. Purdue University houses approximately 900 
type specimens on a permanent basis and is available as a type deposi- 
tory. Indiana University presently houses between 700-1000 type speci- 
mens but only on a temoprary basis. 

Some institutions chose to indicate that their collections were pri- 
marily specialized in certain groups. Aquatic Control indicated imma- 
ture aquatic insects for reference purposes; DePauw University also 
indicated immature aquatic insects; Indiana University indicated aquatic 
Coleoptera; Marion College indicated tropical Lepidoptera; Purdue 
University at Westville indicated aquatic Coleoptera; and the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame indicated arthropods of medical importance. 



304 



Indiana Academy op Science 



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Entomology 305 

The taxonomic make-up of the Indiana collections is reflected in 
numbers of specimens per order as can be seen in Table 11. Total num- 
bers will not correspond to total numbers in Table 4 since fewer insti- 
tutions provided information on the taxonomic make-up of their collec- 
tions. The relatively large number indicated for the Hemi-Homoptera 
is most likely attributable to the large holding of aphids in the state. 
Also a good deal of the "all others" category is evidently based on 
aquatic orders such as Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. An 
almost direct correlation between numerical representation of the 
orders and research activity among the orders can be seen (compare 
Tables 6 and 11). 

Regarding financial support for the collections, two institutions indi- 
cated that support for their collections was primarily federal, four 
institutions indicated primarily state support, 19 institutions indicated 
some type of private support, two institutions indicated no support 
at all, and six institutions gave no reply concerning support. Unfor- 
tunately, collections do not maintain themselves. These collections must 
be curated and utilized to their fullest, neither of which in most cases 
can be done under current levels of funding. Hopefully this paper 
will be the first step in rectifying this situation. 

Finally, on the questionnaire institutions were asked to elaborate 
on any aspect or aspects of their entomological collections that they 
believed were of particular significance either historically or in terms 
of scientific value. The results are as follows: The Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources contains some Blatchley Coleoptera and Orthoptera, 
some Aldrich Diptera, some H. Morrison Homoptera, and V. Knapp 
Aphididae. Indiana University has a teaching collection which con- 
tains specimens from the A. C. Kinsey and W. S. Blatchley collections. 
Purdue University houses the major W. S. Blatchley collection of 
Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera including types, and also con- 
tains several other collections of historical value including the Ashton 
Coleoptera collection, the Adams Diptera collection, the Mitten and 
Troxler collections of Lepidoptera, and the Monell and Davis aphid col- 
lections. For more details concerning named collections at Purdue see 
Chandler (1). Purdue also houses one of the largest collections of 
Coleoptera in the United States and possesses the most complete 
representation of the Indiana insect fauna in existence. St. Francis 
College possesses a relatively large and well identified collection of 
foreign specimens. The University of Notre Dame is the designated 
World Health Organization International Reference Center for Aedes 
mosquitoes, maintaining about 30 species and more than 200 strains. 
Notre Dame also possesses the world's largest collection of Culicidae. 
Valparaiso University contains an important research collection of 
cavernicolous carabids, primarily trechines. 

Summary 

Some 33 institutions in Indiana have indicated the presence of 
entomological collections. In terms of numbers of institutions teaching 
is the primary function for which insect specimens are maintained, 
and they are used in several subject areas, general entomology being 



306 Indiana Academy of Science 

the most frequent. Based on numbers of specimens used, however, 
research is of prime importance. Approximately 1 million specimens 
and over 50,000 different species are housed in Indiana institutions. 
Of all the specimens found in the institutions, 64.6 percent were taken 
from Indiana and therefore are a regional resource. 

A total of 25 people who have some knowledge of systematic 
entomology are associated with 17 of the institutions. Financial sup- 
port for the collections is private in most cases, and nonexistent in 
some cases. Research associated with the collections mostly concerns 
state oriented faunistic studies, but there is also a considerable 
amount of more broadly applicable revisionary work being carried on at 
the present. 

Several of the institutions possess unique and irreplaceable col- 
lections. Those institutions possessing over 10,000 specimens in order 
of decreasing numbers are Purdue University (659,000), Indiana Univer- 
sity (80,000), University of Notre Dame (60,000), DePauw University 
(52,000), St. Francis College (40,000), and the Joseph B. Moore Museum 
(33,800). Several institutions either are involved in research dealing 
with the Coleoptera or have predominant collections of this group. 
Interestingly, several institutions in Indiana are involved with collec- 
tions of aquatic insects at the present. 

This data will hopefully provide a basis for communication among 
the institutions involved, and serve as useful reference for entomologists 
and others in the state of Indiana, and systematic entomologists at 
large. The worth and utility of these collections illustrates the need 
for public recognition and financial support. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank D. LaBella and A. V. Provonsha of Purdue Univer- 
sity for aiding in the tabulation of data from the questionnaires. I 
also wish to acknowledge C. B. Kirsch, Research Analyst for the 
Indiana Commission for Higher Education, and Dr. L. Chandler of 
Purdue University for assisting me in the compilation of an institutional 
mailing list. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chandler, L. 1959. The Purdue entomological collection. Proc. North Centr. Br. 
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 14:12-14. 

2. Conference of Directors of Systematics Collections. 1971. The systematic biology 
collections of the United States: as essential resource. Part I. The great collections: 
their nature, importance, condition and future. New York Bot. Gard., N.Y. 33p. 

3. Everly, R. T. (ed.). 1955. A symposium on a century of entomology in Indiana. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 64:140-174. 

4. Hurd, P. D. Jr., R. L. Fischer, K. L. Knight, C. D. Michener, W. W. Moss, P. 
Oman, and J. A. Powell. 1974. Report of the advisory committee for systematics re- 
sources in entomology. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 20:237-242. 

5. Irwin, H. S., W. W. Payne, D. M. Bates, and P. S. Humphrey. 1973. America's 
systematics collections: a national plan. Ass. Syst. Coll. xiii + 63p. 

6. Lindsey, A. A. (ed.) 1966. Natural features of Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci. Indianapolis. 
xxix + 600p. 



Host List of Indiana Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) 

Virgil R. Knapp 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Abstract 

A list that gives the common and/or scientific names of 173 plant species, which 
are hosts for 218 species of aphids in Indiana is presented. Included are 8 species of 
aphids reported in Indiana for the first time. 

Accompanying an alphabetical list of hosts are the names of aphid species occurring 
on each. Eight new records of aphids from the state are listed with annotations. Some 
of these species, it is believed, have been referred to previously in the literature by 
other investigators under general nomenclatux-e but not by their scientific names. The 
hosts are cross referenced by common name with the corresponding scientific names 
where known. 

New Indiana Records of Aphids 

Unless noted, all collections were made by the author. 

Aphis abbreviata (Patch). Buckthorn Aphis. 
Aphis rhamni Fonscolombe. 
Aphis frangulae Kalt. 
Okra. Elkhart Co., Sept. 26, 1974. 

Cinara glabra (Gillette & Palmer). 

Lachnus glabra (Gillette & Palmer). 

Austrian Pine, Pinus niger Arnold, Clinton Co., July 21, 1969. 

Cinara sibiricae (Gillette & Palmer). American Juniper Aphid. 
Lachnus sibiricae (Gillette & Palmer). 
Prostrate juniper, Juniperus horizontalis L. Grant Co., June ,3 1969. 

Cinara thatcheri Knowlton & Smith. 

Austrian pine, Pinus niger Arnold, County not noted. July 9, 1968. 

Cinara winonkae Hottes. American Arbor-vitae Aphid. 

American arbor-vitae, Thuja occidentalis L, Vanderburgh Co., Aug. 
17, 1972. 

Dysaphis tulipae (Fonscolombe). 
Aphis iridis Del Guercio. 
Gladiolus sp., LaPorte Co., July 30, 1971. 

Mastopoda pteridis Oestlund. Viburnum — Fern Aphid. 
Common bracken fern, Elkhart Co., Aug. 30, 1972. 

Tuberolachnus saligna (Gmel.). Giant Willow Aphid. 
Wisconsin Willow, Salix sp., Howard Co., 1974. 

Hosts and Associated Aphids 

Numbers following aphid species refer to the author's original 
article. "Preliminary Annotated List of Indiana Aphididae", Proc. Indi- 
ana Acad. Sci. 82:242-263. 1972. Species reported as new records are 
indicated as such. Additions will be made to this list. 

307 



308 



Indiana Academy of Science 



1. 


Acalypha virginica 

Aphis miadiradicia Forbes. 249 


20. 


2. 


Achillea sp. 

Macro8iphum frigidicola 
(Gillette & Palmer). 255 


21. 


3. 


Agroatis atalinifera 
Sipha flava (Forbes). 247 


22. 


4. 


Alfalfa, Medicago sp. 
Macroaiphum creelii Davis. 254 


23. 


5. 


Anemone cylindria, Windflower. 
Neomyzus circumflexua 


24. 




(Buckton). 257 


25. 


6. 


Apple, Pyrua malua. 
Aphia avenae Fab. 248 






Dyaaphia plantaginea 


26. 




(Passerini). 251 






Myzua peraicae (Sulzer). 257 


27. 


7. 


Aquilegia sp. 

Myzua eaaigi (Gillette & Palmer). 






257 


28. 


8. 


Arbor-vitae, American (Thuja) 
occidental (L.). 
Cinara winonkae Hottes. New 




9. 


Ash, Fraxinua sp. 
Prociphilua venafuacus 


29. 




(Patch). 260 


30. 


10. 


Ash, Mountain, Pyrua americana 






Erioaoma lanigerum 


31. 




(Hausmann). 258 




11. 


Aater sp. 






Aphia maidiradicia Forbes. 249 


32. 




Dactynotua rudbeckiae (Fitch). 251 




Prociphilua erig eronenaia 






(Thomas). 259 




12. 


Barley, Hordeum aativum 






Geoica aquamoaa (Hart). 259 


33. 


13. 


Basswood, Tilia americana 






Chaitophorua amithiae 


34. 




(Monell). 247 






Longiatigma longiatigma 






Wilson. 244 


35. 




Setaphia viridia van der Goot. 24T 




14. 


Bean, Phaaeolua sp. 
Aphia medicaginia Koch. 249 
Prociphilua erigeronenaia 
(Thomas). 259 


36. 




Trifidaphi8 phaaeoli 


37. 




(Passerini). 260 


15. 


Begonia sp. 

Macroaiphum begoniae Shout. 254 




16. 


Birch, Betula sp. 

Euceraphia betulae (Koch). 245 


38. 




Hamemeliatea apinoaua Shimer. 261 


39. 


17. 


Black Locust, Robinia paeudo-acacia 
Aphia medicaginia Koch. 249 




18. 


Blue Grass 

Rhopaloaiphum poae Gillette. 252 




19. 


Boxelder, Acer negundo 
Drepanaphia acerifoliae 






(Thomas). 246 


40. 




Periphyllua negundiniq 






(Thomas), 247 





Braaaica sp., Brussel Sprouts 

Brevicorune braaaicae (L.). 251 
Braaaica sp., Cabbage 

Hyadaphia paeudobraaaicae 
(Davis). 253 
Bryophyllum sp. 

Myzua peraicae (Sulzer). 257 
Calendula 

Macroaiphum euphorbiae. 254 
Callirhoe alcoeoides 

Aphia goasypii. Glover. 248 
Cannas 

Macroaiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Capaella sp., Shepherd Purse 

Aphia maidiradicia Forbes. 249 
Carrot, Wild, Daucus carota L. 

Rhopaloaiphum melliferum 
(Hottes). 252 
Cherry, Prunus sp. 

Aphia feminea Hottes. 248 

Aphia peraicae-niger Smith. 249 

Myzua ceraai (Fab.). 256 
Cineraria sp. 

Myzua peraicae (Sulzer). 257 
Clover, Red, Trifolium sp. 

Therioaphis trifolii (Monell). 246 
Cocklebur, Xanthium sp. 

Prociphilua erigeronenaia 
(Thomas). 259 
Corn, Zea Maya 

Aphia armoraciae Cowen. 248 

Aphia maidiradicia Forbes. 249 

Rhopaloaiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 
Cotoneaster 

Aphia pomi DeGreer. 249 
Cotton, Goaaypium sp. 

Macroaiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Cowpeas, Vigna catjang 

Aphia medicaginia Koch. 249 
Crataegua sp., Crabapple 

Aphia bakeri Cowen. 248 

Aphia brevia Cowen. 248 

Aphia pomi DeGreer. 249 
Crabgrass, Digitaria 8anqinnalia 

Amphorophora aingularis 
Hottes & Frison. 253 

Aphia maidiradicia Forbes. 249 
Currants, Ribea sp. 

Cryptomzus ribia (L. ). 253 
Dahlia sp. 

Macroaiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 

Prociphilua erigeronenaia 
(Thomas). 259 

Rhopaloaiphum maidi8 
(Fitch). 252 
Dandelion, Taraxacum sp. 

Anoecia corni Fab. 243 

Aphia maidiradicia Forbes. 249 



Entomology 



309 



60. 



61 



Forda formicaria Heyden. 260 

Forda olivacea Rohwer. 260 

Trama rara Mordvilko. 244 

Trama troglodytes Heyden. 244 
Daucus carota L., see Wild carrot. 
Delphinium sp. 

Pemphigus populitransversus 
(Riley). 259 
Dock, Rume sp. 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Dog-bane, Apocynum sp. 

Aphis lutescens Monell. 249 
Eggplant, Solanum melongena 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Elder, Sambucus sp. 

Aphis sambuci L. 250 
Eleagnus augustrifolia 

Capitophorus hippophaes 
(Walker). 254 

Myzus elaegni Del Guercio. 257 
Elymus canadense 

Eriosoma americanum (Riley). 258 

Gobaishia ulmifusus 
(Walsh & Riley). 258 

Rhopalosiphum rhois Monell. 252 
Elymus virginicus 

Forda occidentalis Hart. 260 
Erigeron canadensis 

Aphis middletonii (Thomas). 249 
Euonymus europea 

Aphis caliginosa 

Hottes & Frison. 248 
Euphorbia corollata 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Fern, Bracken sp. 

Mastopoda pteridis Oestlund. New 
Fescue 

Geoica radiciola (Essig). 259 
Forsythia sp. 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 
Foxglove, Digitalis sp. 

Myzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 
Foxtail grass, Setaria glauca 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Funkia lily, Hosta sp. 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

Rhopalosiphum maidis 
(Fitch). 252 
Gladiolus sp. 

Aphis gladioli Felt. 248 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

Dysaphis tulipae 

(Fonscolombe). New 

Myzus solani (Kalt. ). 257 
Golden Glow, Rudbeckia 

laciniata var. hortensia 

Dactynotus rudbeckiac (Fitch). 251 
Golden-rod 

Macrosiphum solidaginis 
(Fab.). 256 



62. Gooseberry, Ribes hirtellum 

Cryptomzus ribis (L.). 253 
Kakimia houghtonensis 
(Troop). 254 

63. Grape, Vitis sp. 

Aphis illinoissnsis Shimer. 249 
Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae 

(Davis). 253 
Monellia caryae (Monell). 245 

64. Grapefruit, Citrus grandis 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

65. Grasses, Misc. sp. 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 
N eocceruraphis viburnicola 

(Gillette). 251 
Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy). 252 
Colopha ulmisacculi (Patch). 258 
Forda formicaria Heyden. 260 

66. Hens-and-Chickens 

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 

67. Ivy, Hedra helix 

Aphis pseudohederae Theobald. 250 

68. Ivy, English 

Aphis hederae Kalt. 249 

69. Ivy, German 

Myzus monardae (Davis). 257 

70. Honeylocust, Gleditsia triacanthos 

Phenacaspis spiricola D & M. 261 

71. Honeysuckle, Lonicera sp. 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

72. Horse Radish, Radicula armoracia 

Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae 
(Davis). 253 

73. Hibiscus sp. 

Myzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 

74. Jimpson Weed, Datura sp. 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 

75. Juniperus horizontalis 

Cinara sibiricae 

(Gillette & Palmer.). New 

76. Kale, (Brassica oleracea) 

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). 251 

77. Lamb's quarters, Chenopodium sp. 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 
Aphis persicae-niger Smith. 249 
Hyalopterus atriplicis (L.). 252 

78. Lepidium rumex altissima, Cress or 

Peppergrass. 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 

79. Lily, Lilium sp. 

Neomyzus circumflexus 
(Buckton). 257 

80. Lymus sp. 

Forda occidentalis Hart. 260 

81. Mahonia, Oregon grape. 

Rhopalosiphum berbcridis 
(Kalt). 252 

82. Maple, Black, Acer nigrum. 

Drepanaphis monelli (Davis). 246 



310 



Indiana Academy of Science 



83. 


Maple, Norway, Acre plantoides. 
Drepanaphis monelli (Davis). 246 


102. 




Neoprociphilus aceris (Monell). 259 


103. 


84. 


Maple, soft, Acer saccharum. 






Prociphilus tessellatus (Fitch). 260 


104. 


85. 


Melon, Cucurbits, sp. 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 




86. 


Milkweed, Asclepias sp. 






Aphis lutescens Monell. 249 


105. 




Myzocallis discolor (Monell). 245 






Myzocallis maureri Swain. 245 


106. 




Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 




87. 


Millet, Panicum milaceum L. 
Sipha flava (Florbes). 247 


107. 


88. 


Muhlenbergia sp., (grass). 






Anoecia querci (Fitch). 243 


108. 




Sipha flava (Forbes). 247 






Toxoptera muhlenbergiae 


109. 




Phillips & Davis. 253 




89. 


Mulberry, Red 
Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 




90. 


Nasturtiums, Tropaeolum sp. 
Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 




91. 


Nicotiana. sp., Flowering. 






Macrosiphum euphorbia 


110 




(Thomas). 254 






Myzocallis aonidis (Kalt. ). 245 


111. 




Myzocallis punctata 






(Monell). 245 


112 




Periphyllus populicola 






(Thomas). 247 


113 




Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 




92. 


Oak, Quercus sp. 
Longistigma longistigma 


114. 




Wilson. 244 


115. 




Stegophylla quercicola 






(Monell). 244 




93. 


Oak, Quercus palustris 
Drepanaphis acerifoliae 
(Thomas). 246 


116. 




Myzocallis bella (Walsh). 245 


117 


94. 


Oak, Quercus rubra 

Myzocallis punctata (Monell). 245 






Myzocallis walshii (Monell). 246 


118 


95. 


Oak, Quercus alba 

Neosymydobias albasiphus 
(Davis). 246 




96. 


Oats, Avena sp. 

Schizaphis graminum 






(Rondani). 253 


119 


97. 


Okra 

Aphis abbreviata (Patch). New 




98. 


Onchus sp. 

Dactynotus rudbeckiae 
(Fitch). 251 


120 


99. 


Onions 

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). 251 


121. 


100. 


Palm 

Cerataphis lataniae 






(Boisduval). 260 


122. 


101. 


Panicum milaceum L. f see Millet. 





Parsnip 

Hyadaphis pastinacae (L.). 253 
Parthenocissus quinguefolia. 

Aphis folsomii Davis. 248 
Pastinaca sativa 

Hyadaphis siphocoryne 
Xylaster. 253 

Hyadaphis pastinacae (L.). 253 
Peanuts 

Aphis bakeri Cowen. 248 
Peppers, green 

Myzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 
Philodendron, cut-leaf 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Pigweed 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Pine, Austrian 

Cinara pinea (Mordvilko). 243 

Cinara glabra ( Bill & Pal. ) . New 

Cinara thatcheri 

Knowlton & Smith. New 

Eulachnus agilis (Kalt.). 243 

Neoprociphilus attenuatus 
( Osborn & Sirrine) . 259 
Pine, Jersey 

Cinara schwarzii (Wilson). 244 
Pine, Red 

Eulachnus rileyi (Williams). 243 
Pine, Scotch 

Cinara pinea (Mordvilko). 244 
Plum 

Aphis persicae-niger Smith. 249 
Polygonum sp. 

Aspidaphis polygoni Patch. 250 
Polygonum cristatum 

Macrosiphum venaefuscae 
Davis. 250 
Polygonum roots 

Prociphilus erigeronensis 
(Thomas). 259 
Polymiria canadensis 

Neomyzus circumflexus 
(Buckton). 257 
Poplar sp. 

Longistigma caryae Harris. 244 

Mordvilkoja vagabunda 
(Walsh). 259 

Pemphigus populivenae 
(Fitch). 259 
Poplus Carolina 

Mordvilkoja vagabunda 
(Walsh). 259 
Poplus deltoides 

Chaitophorus smithiae 
(Monell). 247 
Poppy 

Aphis rumicis L. 250 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 
Potato 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 



Entomology 



311 



Hyalopterus atriplicis (L.). 252 
Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

(Thomas). 254 
Rhopalosiphum fitchii 

(Sanderson). 252 

124. Radish 

Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae 
(Davis). 253 

125. Ragweed 

Aphis helianthi Monell. 249 
Dactynotus rudbeckiae 

(Fitch). 251 
Prociphilus erigeronensis 

(Thomas). 259 

126. Rhubarb 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 
Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

(Thomas). 254 
Myzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 

127. Romisae polium 

Aphis lutescens Monell. 249 

128. Rosa sp. 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

(Thomas). 254 
Macrosiphum porosum 

(Sanderson). 256 
Macrosiphum pseudodirhodum 

Patch. 255 
Macrosiphum pseudorosae 

Patch. 255 
Macrosiphum rosae (L.). 255 
Myzus lycopersici (Clark). 257 

129. Rudbeckia laciniata 

Neomyzus circumflexus 
(Buckton). 257 

130. Rye, Lolium sp. 

Forda occidentalis Hart. 260 
For da olivacea Rohwer. 260 
Macrosiphum granarium 

(Kirby). 255 
Sipha flava (Forbes). 247 

131. Salsify 

Prociphilus erigeronensis 
(Thomas). 259 

132. Silphium perfoliatum 

Dactynotus rudbeckiae (Fitch). 251 

133. Snapdragon 

Myzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 

134. Smartweed, roots 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 

135. Snow-on-the-Mountain 

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 

136. Solidago 

Pemphigus lactucae Fitch. 259 

137. Sonchus oleraceus 

Rhopalosiphum sonchi 
Oestlund. 253 

138. Sorghum 

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 

139. Soybeans 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 



140. Spanish Needle 

Prochiphilus erigeronensis 
(Thomas). 259 

141. Spartina michauxiana 

Colopha graminis (Monell). 258 

142. Spirea, Anthony- water 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

143. Spirea sp. 

Aphis spiraephilia Patch. 250 

144. Spruce, Picea excelsa 

Cinara fornacula Hottes. 243 
Lachnus hyalinus. 244 

145. Sunflower 

Rhopalosiphum maidis 
(Fitch). 252 

146. Sweet Pea 

Prociphilus erigeronensis 
(Thomas). 259 

147. Sweet sultana 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Prociphilus erigeronensis. 
(Thomas). 259 

148. Swiss Chard 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 

149. Sycamore 

Longistigma longistigma 
Wilson. 244 

150. Thistle, Bull 

Macrosiphum solidaginis 
(Fab.) 255 

151. Tobacco 

Muzus persicae (Sulzer). 257 

152. Tomato 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

(Thomas). 254 
Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 

153. Trumpet Vine 

Anoecia querci (Fitch). 243 
Aphis helianthi Monell. 249 

154. Tulips 

Macrosiphum euphorbiae 
(Thomas). 254 

155. Turnips 

Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). 251 
Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae 
(Davis). 253 

156. Verbena alternifolii 

Macrosiphum frigidae 
(Oestlund). 255 

157. Verbena sp. 

Myzus convolvuli (Kalt. ). 256 

158. Vernonia sp. 

Aphis vernoniae Thomas. 250 

159. Viburnum dentatum 

Aphis viburniphila Patch. 250 

160. Viburnum sp. 

Neoceruraph is viburnicola 
(Gill). 251 

161. Viburnum opulus 

Aphis spiraecola Patch. 250 



312 



Indiana Academy of Science 



162. Vinca minor 

Neomyzus circumflexus 
(Buckton). 251 

163. Watermelon 

Aphis gossypii Glover. 248 

164. Willow, Salix sp. 

Lachus salignus (Gmelin). 244 
Longistigma caryae Harris. 244 
Trioza maura Patch. 261 
Tuberolachnus saligna 
(Gmelin.) . New 

165. Willow, weeping, Salix, sp. 

Chaitophorus populifoliae 

(Fitch). 247 
Chaitophorus viminalis 

(Monell). 247 

166. Wheat 

Aphis avenae Fab. 248 
Forda occidentalis Hart. 260 
Rhopalosiphum fitchii 
(Sanderson). 252 

167. Wild Lettuce 

Dactynotus rudbeckiae (Fitch). 251 
Macrosiphum ambrosiae 

(Thomas). 254 
Macrosiphum euphorbiae 

(Thomas). 254 



Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 
Trifidaphis phaseoli 
(Passerini). 250 

168. Wild Mustard 

Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae 
(Davis). 253 

169. Wild Raspberry 

Amphorophora senoriata 
Mason. 253 

170. Zinnia sp. 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Prociphilus erigeronensis 
(Thomas). 259 

171. Yucca sp. 

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch). 252 

172. Misc- 

Ant's Nest 

Aphis maidiradicis Forbes. 249 
Colopha ulmicola (Fitch). 258 
Erisoma lanigerum 

(Hausmann). 258 
Forda formicaria Heyden. 260 
Prociphilus erigeronensis 

(Thomas). 259 
Trifidaphis phaseoli 

(Passerini). 260 

173. Fruits Misc- 

Capitophorus minor (Forbes). 254 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana 
During 1974 1 

Robert W. Meyer 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

The abundance and economic impact of selected arthropods responsible for crop 
losses, annoyance to man and animals, destruction of food and fibre products as well 
as the abundance and activity of selected entomological parasites and predators of 
importance in their control in Indiana during 1974 are discussed. 

Major meteorological factors are briefly discussed insofar as they 
influence insect populations directly as well as indirectly by influencing 
their host plants. An unusually heavy snow in December, 1973, was 
followed by generally above-average rainfall, especially in May — corn 
planting time — when an average of 2 inches of rain fell above the 
normal. With generally poor drying conditions — temperatures were 
lower than normal — planting of both corn and soybeans was delayed, 
and subsequent rainfall made the replanting of some corn and some 
soybean acreage necessary. The root systems that developed especially 
in corn were poorly adapted to the droughty conditions that followed. 
Rainfall was below average as early as the first week in June in the 
Fort Wayne area, and a top-soil moisture shortage developed there 
by mid-June. For most of the rest of the state, rainfall was below 
normal at the end of June, and top-soil moisture deficiencies which 
developed in mid-July lasted through mid-August in most of the state, 
and through September in the northern districts. The southern districts 
suffered least. 

With the drought in July came high temperatures, but poor grow- 
ing weather was more the rule through the year, and scattered frosts 
as early as September 23, and killing frosts on October 2 and 3 came 
too early for some of the more retarded corn and beans. Poor harvest- 
ing conditions continued until late in the fall. Frost, however, took its 
toll in the spring as well; a spell of warm weather in March encour- 
aged the development of fruit trees, and at least the peaches suffered 
greatly with sub-freezing temperatures on March 24. 



1 Journal Paper No. 5753, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
The following includes those who have made identifiable contributions to this sum- 
mary: Leland Chandler (Hymenoptera, insects of sheep, horse bots, biological obser- 
vations), James Clark (nurseries, parasite release data), Richard C. Dobson (cattle in- 
sects), C. Richard Edwards (soybeans, alfalfa), John Favinger (nurseries, forest and 
shade trees), Thomas R. Hintz (Bathyplectes, Hypera postica), David L. Matthew (ex- 
tension data), Darryl Sanders (Tabanidae, Culicidae, extension data), Donald L. 
Schuder (ornamentals, forest, and shade trees), John Sillings (vegetables), Omelio 
Sosa (wheat), Walter L. Stirm (weather and crop data), F. Tom Turpin (corn soil 
insects), M. Curtis Wilson (cereal and alfalfa insects), and Alan C. York (vegetable 
insects). Thanks are due these and the many others who contributed less easily iden- 
tifiable but nevertheless important information. 

313 



314 Indiana Academy of Science 

Corn and Small Grains 

Corn earworm (Heliothis zea (Boddie)) and fall armyworm 
(Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)). These insects are considered 
here only as feeders on the ears of corn grown for grain. Of 4725 ears 
of corn examined during the fall corn survey from all over the state, 
3.56% were attacked by larvae of these species, with a loss of 0.037% 
of the crop. (In September, 53 H. zea were collected from ears as com- 
pared with 33 S. frugiperda.) The first adult H. zea was taken in 
a blacklight (BL) trap on July 25 in Lawrence County. 

European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). The 1973 fall 
borer population was the largest in the history of the survey. Exami- 
nation of 300 fall-collected larvae revealed 4% parasitized by Eriborus 
terebrans (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) (mostly in the northern half 
of the state), and 16% affected by a microsporidian (mostly in the 
southern fourth of the state). Pupation was complete or nearly so by 
May 22 in the WC 2 district, and first adults were taken there on the 
night of May 27. First flight peak occurred during the first week in 
June. Second generation flight began and peaked during the week 
ending July 25 in the SW district, at the height of the drought, which 
may have been a factor in the reduction of the population to its low 
fall levels. Summer generation larvae averaged 3/100 stalks, about one- 
third of the 1973 summer population. Twenty-three percent of the 
corn in the state was infested in the fall, and there were 27 larvae/ 100 
stalks, less than one-fourth of the 1973 fall population and below the 
ten-year average. The highest district population was in the SSW, 
with 87 larvae/ 100 stalks. All other districts had about one- third that 
figure or lower, with the areas south and east of Indianapolis having 
the lowest. 

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera (LeConte)). Over- 
wintering eggs hatched about June 10, and a month later between 
10 and 15% of the larvae had pupated and about 7% had emerged 
but were still in the soil, with occasional adults observed above the 
ground, in the NW corner of the state on July 10. By three different 
measures, the 1973-1974 season was a good one for this insect. In 90% 
of the NNW, 83% of the NNC and 71% of the NNE district fields 
adults were observed during the July survey, as compared with 36, 
17 and 0% in 1973. In numbers, adults averaged from 48-117/100 
plants in the northern districts, as compared with 0-16 in 1973. 
Finally there was an increase in the territory occupied by the species: 
there were 14 new county records — Steuben, Adams, Wells, Warren, 
Vermillion, Montgomery, Parke, Howard, Grant, Tipton, Madison, Boone, 
Blackford and Jay. Thus, roughly one-half the state is now infested, 
and the infestation is expected to be more serious in the center of the 
state than it has been in the north. Losses due to this insect in 1974 
were certainly no more than 1,000,000 bushels, according to Purdue 
specialists. 



2 See maps on page 288 of Meyer, R. W. and J. V. Osmund. 1971. Insects and 
other arthropods of economic importance during 1970. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:286- 
298, for location of districts. 



Entomology 315 

Northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica longicornis (Say)). Fifteen 
percent pupation was observed in a field of corn grown for grain in 
Clinton County by July 12. Like its congener, adults were much more 
common in 1974 than in the previous year. It was observed in 30 to 
57% of the fields visited in the districts north of Indianapolis; in 1973 
it was observed in only one district. South of Indianapolis it was observed 
in from 8-33% of the fields visited in the various districts (0-40% in 
1973). Damage to corn grown for grain by this species was negligible. 

Southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica iindecimpunctata howardi 
Barber). Adults of this species were also much more common in corn 
fields in July: an average of about 30% of the fields in the state were 
infested, as compared with 0.6% in 1973. It is of no consequence in 
Indiana corn. 

Birds (several species). Birds were responsible for the loss of 
0.299% of the 1974 corn crop through kernel feeding at the milk or 
dough stage. This is slightly above the 1973 figure, but below the 
ten-year average. 

Grass thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus (Miiller)). Conspicuous dam- 
age to the lower 4-5 leaves of small corn in three fields, one each in 
Parke, Jackson and Franklin Counties, by this species occurred during 
the last two weeks of June. 

Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch)). About 11% 
of the corn grown for grain was infested by the first of August, as 
compared with 9% in 1973. Most of the infestations were light (9.9%). 
By the time of the fall corn insect damage survey, 26% of the corn 
was infested, down from the 33% of 1973. Of this total, about 4% was 
heavily infested, 5.5% moderately and 16% lightly. (A heavy infesta- 
tion includes those stalks whose tassels were nearly completely covered, 
a moderate, with patches of aphid residues, and a light, with occasional 
exuviae or live aphids.) The NNW and NW districts were the most 
heavily infested; the SSW the least. 

Armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth)). Larvae, of non- 
economic numbers, were observed in SW district grains; the only report 
of economic damage was to corn double-cropped on wheat stubble in 
Owen County. 

Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)). The state average per- 
cent infestation of wheat by this species was the lowest, 0.08%, in 10 
years of surveying. Puparia/100 stems averaged 0.1, another record 
low. Percent infestation was low in both resistant (95% of the fields 
sampled had Ribeiro (H 3 ) resistance) and less resistant cultivars. 

Cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus)). There were 
no economic infestations in Indiana in 1974. 

Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)). Some damage by 
larvae of this species occurred, especially in the NW portion of the 
state where some of the corn was still small enough to be seriously 
damaged. However, only 16 fields were reported from the state fol- 
lowing appeals to county agents, pesticide dealers and the like. Only 
a few of these had economic damage. Of 300 fields over the state 
that were carefully observed, only one had black cutworm larvae, and 
that was non-economic. 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

Chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say)). Populations 
in both fall 1973 and spring 1974 were non-economic as indicated by 
surveys. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

Alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) ). During the last few 
years serious economic infestations were confined, in Indiana, to the 
area south of US 50, with occasional heavy damage north of there 
to Shelby and Morgan Counties, and to the area north of US 30. 
This year economic infestations were the rule south of Indianapolis, 
and north to Vermillion and Randolph Counties there were fields 
that could profitably have been treated. In Warren and Howard 
Counties where populations recently have been negligible, 50% of the 
alfalfa stems showed feeding, and a population of two larvae /stem 
was observed. North of US 30 judicious cutting would have been suf- 
ficient to keep losses to a minimum except in the NE corner, where 
chemical controls were sometimes necessary. 

Weevil larval populations in 1974 were ahead of the 1973 popula- 
tions both in time and relative to the host crop, alfalfa. In Daviess Co., 
alfalfa averaged 4.7" on March 15, and was infested at a rate of 55% 
with an average of 2.4 larvae /infested stem. In 1973, alfalfa was from 
2-3 inches taller when that population level was reached, nearly 2 
weeks later. By April 19, 8.2" alfalfa was 98% infested with an 
average of 5.3 larvae/ infested stem. (Counts after that date were modi- 
fied by control measures.) 

Potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris)). Like last year, 
this insect appeared in economic numbers over much of the state in 
alfalfa. At least once between June 20 and August 20, populations 
increased to economic numbers between cuttings in the 29 fields in 
southern Indiana that were closely watched. Nymphal numbers peaked 
between the 11th and 25th of July. In the northern districts, adult 
numbers peaked about the 24th of July, nymphal numbers between then 
and the 15th of August. NW and NC averages ran to 3 adults /sweep, 
NE to 2. 

Meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus)). The first 
nymph of the season was taken on March 15 in Harrison County. 
SC fields were 12% infested by April 5, and Washington County 
fields averaged 27% infested by the end of April, in alfalfa. On 
September 3, adults in alfalfa averaged 1.7/sweep in the Dubois County 
area, 2.3 in Harrison, 3.5 in Washington and 0.6 in Jackson. 

Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis (Mulsant)). Adults 
were unusually numerous in alfalfa — up to 20/50 sweeps — at the end 
of May, before soybeans were generally available, and in a few 
instances remained at fairly high numbers even when soybeans were 
available; trace numbers of larvae were present also. One Washington 
County field averaged 5/10 sweeps in mid- August. An estimated 
100,000 acres of soybeans were infested by this insect. They infested 
scattered fields south of Indianapolis, their usual range, except that 
they were more often reported from the eastern half of that range 
than has been customary in the last few years. Damage has been esti- 



Entomology 317 

mated at an average of a bushel/acre or less in infested fields, by 
Purdue specialists. 

Vegetable Crops 

Imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae (Linnaeus)). Cabbages were 
relatively free of injurious insects in the northern districts until mid- 
July when this insect appeared. It had reached second instar at that 
time. By July 26, on an experimental farm in the WC district, all 
stages were present and numerous on cabbages, together with the 
cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner)) and the diamondback moth 
(Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus)). The latter ranged to 15/plant. 

Two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). This mite 
was reported from various locations in both the northern and southern 
ends of the state, on garden beans. 

Variegated cutworm (Peridroma saucia (Hiibner)). Larvae of this 
species, plus small numbers of the yellowstriped armyworm (Spodoptera 
ornithogalli (Guenee)), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)), 
and spotted cutworm (Amathes c-nigrum (Linnaeus)) defoliated or 
severely damaged 200 (of 500) acres of potatoes in St. Joseph County, 
which had been treated on a weekly basis. Even shallow tubers were 
damaged by the larvae which ran to 25 /sq. ft. 

Spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi 
Barber). Possibly one-third of the jack-o-lantern pumpkins in a 20-acre 
field in Floyd County were damaged on the underside by larvae of 
this species. 

Ornamentals, Forest and Shade Trees 

The top ten insect pests as observed by nursery inspectors in 
Indiana, together with the number of reports on which they appear, 
are listed below: 

1. Bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth)) 136 

2. Fletcher scale (Lecanium fletcheri Cockerell) 58 

3. Maple bladdergall mite (Vasates quadripes Shimer) 57 

4. Oystershell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus)) 52 

5. Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) 42 

6. Euonymus scale (Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)) 33 

7. Cooley spruce gall aphid (Adelges cooleyi (Gillette)) 30 

8. Apple aphid (Aphis pomi DeGeer) 29 

9. Mimosa webworm (Homadaula anisocentra Meyrick) 28 

10. Fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea (Drury)) 21 

11. An aphid (Periphyllus americanus (Baker)) 21 

A pineshoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott). This was col- 
lected in Elkhart County for a new state and a new county record. 

A pseudococcid (Eurycoccus Jessica (Hollinger) ). This homopteran 
was reported for the first time from Indiana. 

Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)). Col- 
lected in Tippecanoe and LaGrange Counties for new county records. 

Jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus Freeman). Collected in 
Tippecanoe and LaGrange Counties for a new state and new county 



318 Indiana Academy of Science 

records. This and the previous insect appeared in large numbers at 
lights on the night of July 15. Winds apparently gathered them from 
Wisconsin or Minnesota and dumped them in Michigan, northern Ohio 
and New York, all at nearly the same time. 

Obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris)). 
Adults were collected during the week ending June 14. The insect was 
much more common than usual, on a variety of plants including 
persimmons, roses, fruits and ornamentals. 

Elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola (Muller)). First generation in 
low numbers, second normal. 

Pecan nut casebearer (Acrobasis caryae Grote). This insect was 
reported this year for the first time in many years, from Cass and 
Dubois Counties. 

Locust leaf miner (Xenochalepus dorsalis (Thunberg)). Larvae 
caused heavy damage to black locust in the SC and SW districts of the 
state, about mid-July. 

Periodical cicada (Magicicada sp.) Brood XIV emergence was 
generally light to very light. 

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman). Range extensions as 
indicated by traps were observed in Clay, Parke, and Putnam Counties 
in the WC district, Dubois and Greene in the SW, Orange in the SC, 
and Dearborn, Jefferson, Jennings, Ohio and Switzerland Counties in 
the SE district. In addition, they were collected for the first time from 
Boone, Warren and Warrick Counties. 

A scale (Chionaspis heterophyllae (Cooley)). This scale is becom- 
ing increasingly abundant in scotch pine and in Christmas tree plantings. 

Sod webworms (several species). The very wet spring and the very 
dry summer greatly reduced the populations by the end of the year. 

Man and Animals 

Pigeon fly (Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart)). Reported for 
the first time from the state, this insect attacked people in a school 
in South Bend. 

American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis (Say)). This arthropod 
was much more common than it has been for some time. 

Mosquitoes (several species). Biting was severe in NW and NC 
district fish and game areas during June. Collections of biting mos- 
quitoes during the year added 85 new county records. 

A deer fly (Chrysops geminatus impunctus Krober). Collected in 
Parke County, for a new county record. 

Sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis Linnaeus). Puparia were observed on 
May 15 in Warren County, and second generation adults on July 13. 
Populations dropped to nearly nil in 1974, following high to fairly high 
populations in the three previous years. 

Horse bot fly (Gasterophilus intestinalis (DeGeer)). Adult emer- 
gence with light oviposition occurred on July 14, with little or no 
oviposition thereafter. 



Entomology 319 

Face fly (Musca autumnalis DeGeer). Peak adult numbers were 
observed near the end of June (0-35/face, mostly near 35); numbers 
remained at about 10/face till the end of July, on an experimental 
farm in Grant County. 

Horn fly (Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus)). Adult numbers reached 
a peak of 20-25/side on August 23, dropped to negligible numbers later 
on black cattle on an experimental farm in Grant County. 

Sawtoothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus)). 
The most frequently reported of the cereal feeding beetles, but not 
unusually common. 

Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner)). The most 
commonly reported of the cereal feeding moths, this insect was not 
anymore common than usual, but was reported from unusual hosts. 
It was collected from marijuana (Cannabis sativa) in Sullivan County, 
and was found in more than half of the St. John's bread (Ceratonia 
siliqita) for sale in groceries in Lake County. 

Carpenter bee (Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus)). A large Warren 
County population was nearly decimated by unseasonal cold. 

Polistine wasps (Polistes fuscatus (Fabricius) and P. metricus 
Say). Abnormally high numbers in Tippecanoe and Warren Counties. 
Weathered board fences and building visibly damaged by queens col- 
lecting pulp for nest-building. 

Termites (Reticulitermes sp.). These insects were reported less 
frequently than in the past. The first report of winged adults was 
received on April 10 from LaPorte County. 

Beneficial Insects 

An ichneumonid parasitoid (Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson)). 
Eighty percent of the cocoons exposed to the environment in the SW 
district had pupated by the end of the first week in March, and 50% had 
emerged as adults by April 12. The first parasitized alfalfa weevil 
(Hypera postica) larva was collected March 12 in Harrison County. 
The average rate of parasitization of alfalfa weevil larvae in the 
SW and SC districts was about 19% among larvae collected on April 
19 and 29, slightly less than in 1973. New county records included 
Warrick, Gibson, Dubois, Spencer, Jennings, Ripley, Rush, Shelby, Union 
and Randolph Counties. 

An ichneumonid parasitoid (Bathyplectes anurus (Thompson)). 
The first alfalfa weevil larva parasitized by this species was collected 
April 9 in Harrison County. 

An ichneumonid parasitoid (Eriborus terebrans (Gravenhorst) ). 
Adults of this parasitoid of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) 
were reared from cocoons collected from Putnam and Kosciusko Coun- 
ties, both new county records. Over the state, cocoons were collected 
in only five borer burrows of 122 borer-infested stalks dissected during 
the July corn survey. 

A eulophid parasitoid (Sympiesis virkhda (Thomson)). Pupae from 
which adults of this parasitoid of the European corn borer were 



320 Indiana Academy of Science 

reared were collected in Vigo County, a new county record. It should 
be noted that this parasitoid was collected only once among the 
568 corn stalks dissected during the fall corn survey, and not at all 
during the summer survey. 

Lady beetles (several species). Of 44 adults swept from 29 SW and 
SC district alfalfa fields (25 sweeps/field) during the first week in 
April, 59% were Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), 23% were 
Hippodamia parenthesis Say, 9% Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus), 7% 
Hippodamia convergens Guerin, 2% Coccinella 9-notata Herbst. About 
mid-August the percent of C. maculata was 58, H. parenthesis 33, the 
remainder 3 different species. All coccinellids together averaged 1.3/10 
sweeps. 

At the end of the month in the same alfalfa fields, they ranged 
from averages of 1.3/10 sweeps to 1.7, with nearly the same percentages 
of species. In cornfields in July, 99% of the adult coccinellids observed 
where C. maculata, of which 15% were parasitized by Perilitus 
coccinellae. In cornfields surveyed between September 15 and October 
15, 85% were C. maculata, 12% were H. convergens. The twicestabbed 
lady beetle (Chilocorus stigma (Say)) was common in evergreens and 
other ornamentals. 

A cereal leaf beetle parasitoid (Tetrastichus julis (Walker)). This 
parasitoid was recovered for the second successive year in LaPorte 
County from cereal leaf beetles. More were released in the same county. 
This was the only site checked for recoveries. 

A cereal leaf beetle parasitoid (Anaphes flavipes (Forster)). No 
new releases were made, and none was recovered in 1974. 

A cereal leaf beetle parasitoid (Diaparsis sp.). This parasitoid 
was recovered for the 3rd successive year in LaPorte County. New 
releases were made in the following counties in varying quantities 
and at from one to three different sites within the county. NW district 
— Benton, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Pulaski, Starke, 
and White. NC — Carroll, Elkhart, Kosciusko, Marshall. NE — Adams, 
Allen, DeKalb, Huntington, LaGrange, Noble, Steuben, Wells, Whitley. 
WC — Fountain, Montgomery, Parke, Putnam, Tippecanoe, Vermillion, 
Warren. C — Boone, Hendricks, Johnson, Rush, Shelby. EC — Fayette, 
Henry, Union, Wayne. SC — Brown, Monroe. SE — Dearborn, Jefferson, 
Ohio, Ripley, Switzerland. 

A cereal leaf beetle parasitoid (Lemophagus curtus Townes). 
After several releases, this parasitoid was recovered in LaPorte 
County (Johnson Twp. — Kingsbury insectary) in 1974, a new state 
record. It was released again in 1974 in the same county, as well as 
in the following counties, in varying numbers and in one to several 
townships. NW— Benton, Pulaski, Starke, White. NC— Carroll, Elkhart, 
Marshall. NE— nil. WC— Tippecanoe. C— Johnson, Rush, Shelby. EC— 
Fayette, Henry, Union, Wayne. SW— nil. SC— Brown, Monroe. SE — 
Dearborn, Jefferson, Ohio, Ripley, Switzerland. 

All cereal leaf beetle parasitoids were supplied by USDA APHIS, 
Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, Cereal Leaf Beetle Parasite 
Rearing Laboratory, 2534 South 11th Street, Niles, Michigan, and the 



Entomology 321 

State Entomologist's Office and release was accomplished through the 
cooperation of the State Entomologist's Office and the Cooperative 
Extension Service. Surveys for the recovery of the parasites were made 
only in LaPorte County, by USDA personnel. 



GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 

Chairman: Robert D. Miles, Department of Civil Engineering, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

William D. Brooks, Department of Geography and Geology, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Lithofacies-Ratio Slice Maps as an Exploration Method to Delineate 
Aquifers in Glacieated Areas. Abdelrahman M. Maarouf and Wilton 
N. Melhorn, Department of Geosciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, 

Indiana, 47907. Unconsolidated glacial deposits contain significant 

water-bearing zones which, if adequately defined, may be important 
aquifers. Within glaciated regions, there are commonly segments of 
bedrock drainage systems filled with Quaternary deposits, which attain 
a maximum thickness of 450 feet in the buried Teays Valley in Indiana. 

This paper attempts to delineate the subsurface extension of un- 
evenly distributed sand and gravel bodies in Tippecanoe County, Indi- 
ana by using three dimensional analysis. This county is an appropriate 
test area, as it includes an urban population of about 110,000 totally 
dependent on ground water supplies. A series of nine lithofacies-ratio 
maps were constructed, one for each 50-foot slice of glacial ma- 
terials. The method is successful for mapping different lithologic units, 
but is constrained by the quality and quantity of available subsurface 
data. 

Future development of ground water in Tippecanoe County is most 
favorable in unexploited areas of thick sand and gravel aquifers, which 
all lie along the Teays, Anderson, and other preglacial bedrock 
valleys. 

Evolution of Quarternary Drainage in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. 

Abdelrahman M. Maarouf and Wilton N. Melhorn, Department of 

Geosciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The pre- 

Pleistocene drainage pattern in Tippecanoe County does not coinside 
with the present drainage pattern. The Kansan glacier did not alter 
the drainage significantly, whereas the Illinoian ice dammed and 
buried the major Yarmouthian valleys. Glacial Lake Lafayette was 
formed on the Teays upstream from an Illinoian ice dam, and lacustrine 
deposition occurred over an area of about 4 square miles. The outlet 
channel developed to drain Glacial Lake Lafayette was perpetuated as 
the present Wabash River drainage southwest of Lafayette. Other ice- 
marginal streams formed new drainage channels that replaced some 
of the older channels and buried under Illinoian drift. The Wisconsinan 
glaciation brought other changes and established the present position of 
the streams. 

Intramolecular Carbon Isotopic Distribution in Acetic Acid from Un- 
pasturized Apple Cider Vinegar. Gianfranco Rinaldi, W. G. Mein- 

323 



324 Indiana Academy of Science 

schein, and J. M. Hayes*, Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington (*also Dept. of Chemistry) Indiana 47809. a 13 C measurements 

have been made on the methyl carbon and the total combustion products 
of acetic acid isolated from unpasturized apple cider vinegar. From 
these measurements, the difference in the 13 C contents of the methyl 
and carboxyl carbon atoms of this biosynthetic acid was calculated. It 
was found that the A<r 13 C for the carboxyl group minus the methyl 
group was 12 o/oo. Previous Ao - 13 C analyses of an acetic acid sample 
isolated from pasturized apple cider vinegar have shown that the 
carboxyl carbon was enriched by 18 o/oo or 1.8 o/o. The general agree- 
ment between the findings on the acetic acids from these two cider 
samples indicate that biological acetates, such as acetyl-CoA, which is 
enzamatically formed from acetic acid will also contain a carboxyl 
carbon that is enriched in 13 C relative to its methyl carbon. Because 
acetyl-CoA is a fundamental intermediate in the biosynthesis of fatty 
acids, isoprenoids, steroids, and other biological lipids, it is reasonable 
to expect that any "isotopic order" in acetyl-CoA will be partially 
retained in lipids which are geologically as well as biologically im- 
portant compounds. The geological potential of these findings relate to 
paleoenvironmental and origin of life investigations. 

Comparative Studies of Methods for Continuation and Derivatives of 
Potential Fields. B. D. Kwon and Albert J. Rudman, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Studies of model potential fields 

continued upward and downward show differences depending on the 
method of continuation. Beginning with a magnetic field computed over 
a buried vertical cylinder, the field was continued to various levels by 
a method introduced by Henderson (Lagrangian interpolation) and by a 
spectral method (frequency domain analysis). Resultant fields show 
(1) no significant differences in upward continued values, (2) in down- 
ward continuation, accurate values are obtained with the spectral method 
over the central part of the anomaly, and (3) accurate values are 
obtained with Henderson's method on the flanks of the anomaly, while 
oscillations usually characterize the spectral method in this region. Es- 
sentially the same observations are made for derivative calculations. 

Field oscillations are empirically predicted at levels continued to 
approximately two-thirds of the depth of the source. Our spectral 
computer program output yields marked oscillations at one-half of tne 
depth of the source. Henderson's method shows no oscillations at this 
depth and only minor oscillations at the top of the body (some nega- 
tive values appear on the flanks of the anomaly). The Henderson output 
is a smooth field even if continued below the top of the body. These 
results suggest that the presence of oscillations cannot be used to 
identify the top of a buried source without careful consideration of 
the method used to continue the field. Use of the derivative to outline 
and isolate anomalies must similarly include consideration of the method 
of calculation. 

Continuation of Potential Fields: Model Studies. Vincent Mikulski 
and Albert J. Rudman, Department of Geology, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Downward continuation of potential 



Geography and Geology 325 

fields of models are used to isolate and study gravity and magnetic 
anomalies. Two computer programs are utilized in the analyses of 
simple geometric forms. The first generates two-dimensional gravity 
and magnetic fields in the form of a map output. This map data 
serves as input to the second program to continue the field downward. 

Model fields simulating various geologic bodies are studied to 
see if the continuation process permits interpretation of the depth, 
shape and resolution of the sources. Presence of oscillations (deviations 
from symmetrical, regular contours and accentuation of negative 
values) indicate that the level of continuation is near the top of the 
body. The zero contour of the second derivative approximates the shape 
as the field is continued below the top of the body. Resolution of several 
bodies is enhanced as the field due to each source is isolated. 

Recent Trends in Malt Beverage Production and Consumption: The 
Case of the Indiana Brewers. Thomas J. Stevens, Department of 

Geography, SUNY, Brockport, New York, 14420. In 1940, Indiana's 

16 breweries produced 1.8 million barrels of malt beverage. In the 
same year, Hoosiers consumed 1.1 million barrels of brew. By 1970 only 
four breweries were in operation but were producing 2.8 million 
barrels a year. At the same time, Hoosiers had increased their con- 
sumption of beverages to 2.7 million barrels of 31 gallons each. These 
changes were occurring at a time when Indiana's population increased to 
5.2 million from 3.4 million, and per capita consumption went from 
10.1 gallons to 16.2 gallons per year. In order to provide some per- 
spective for this analysis, it should be noted that in 1940, 603 breweries 
in the United States were authorized to produce and sell malt beverages. 
In that year they brewed and sold 55.2 million barrels resulting in a 
national per capita consumption rate of 12.1 gallons. The 1970 pro- 
duction of 134.6 million barrels by 155 breweries yielded a per capita 
consumption rate of 18.6 gallons. In any case, Hoosiers consumed less 
than the national average, both in gallons and in percent of increase 
but were consuming a larger percent, on an equivalent basis, of the 
local, product. A situation that could be good or bad depending on 
one's point of view. 



Selected Socio-economic Characteristics 
of Recent Residents in Vigo County, Indiana 

Chris Larson and Lee Guernsey 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

Of the 106,159 persons who are five years of age and older living 
in Vigo County in 1970, 46.6 percent lived in a different house than they 
occupied in 1965. Of the 49,493 persons in Vigo County who moved 
between 1965 and 1970, 56 percent changed residences within the Terre 
Haute SMSA. The 46.6 percent figure compares favorably with 47 
percent of the American people who moved and with 46.2 percent of 
Hoosiers who lived in a different house in 1970 than in 1965. 

One purpose of this study was to examine why the people moved to 
new residences. Another purpose was to identify their comparative 
evaluation of former and present residences. The study involved 
sampling 149 recent residents living in sixty-seven different subdivisions 
of Vigo County. During the summer of 1973 the 149 households were 
surveyed by a questionnaire that was taken to the household. The 
survey was directed to the head of household but the results normally 
included a joint response of both husband and wife. 

The questionnaire included some fundamental questions of age, 
occupation, and formal schooling of the head of household. Other basic 
questions included were number of years at the address, the type and 
nature of the previous location, the number of cars available to the 
household, an estimate of total family income before taxes, the number 
of children living at home, and the distance the head of household drove 
to work. Further questions sought comparisons of the respondents 
perception of their former and present locations. The last question asked 
them to state the one main reason for moving to their current address. 

Selected Socio-economic Characteristics 

Few changes occurred in the categories of where the head of 
household was employed before and after he moved to the present 
address. However, it should be noted that 40 out of 149 cited a job 
transfer or change of employer as a major reason for the relocation 
of residences. Yet, about two-thirds of the 149 persons interviewed had 
the same employer as they had before they moved to their new house- 
holds although a few were transferred to Vigo County from another 
branch of the company located outside of the Terre Haute SMSA. One- 
sixth of the persons interviewed had changed their employer from one 
outside of Vigo County to either retirement or employment within Vigo 
County but it is doubtful if that factor caused them to move. 

Forty percent of those interviewed were employed in service or 
business concerns. Of these about one-half were employed by small 
business or service agencies. Another 19 percent were employed by 
government or professional agencies with teachers and professors 

326 



Geography and Geology 327 

having- the largest number represented. About 29 percent were em- 
ployed by various industries such as Pillsbury, Columbia Records, Com- 
mercial Solvents, Pfizer and Eli Lilly. About six percent were retired, and 
none indicated that he was unemployed. 

The distance that the head of household drove to work was most 
often cited as a disadvantage of suburban living. It decreased in the 
close-in categories but increased in the 6 to 10 mile category. Every 
household interviewed had a car available. Thirty percent had one 
car and 70 percent of the households had two or more cars available 
to them. 

The relative number of home owners increased significantly from 60 
percent prior to moving to 90 percent after the move. In contrast, 40 
percent rented their house before moving to their new location. Many 
suburban moves were made on the basis of a chance to own their home. 

Forty-seven percent of the head of households had completed a 
formal college educaton in an undergraduate, graduate, or professional 
school. In addition, eight percent had completed trade or technical 
training and only three percent of the heads of households stated that 
they lacked a high school education. 

The age structure of the heads of households showed that 81 
percent of the sample in the survey clustered between ages twenty 
and forty-nine. Twelve percent were between ages fifty and fifty-nine 
with the remaining seven percent more than sixty years of age. 

About two-thirds of the families had one, two or three children 
living at home. Twelve percent had four children or more. The re- 
maining 23 percent of the families reported no children were presently 
living at home. Of the 114 households that had children living at home, 
the average was 2.3 children per household. 

Nine different characteristics provided measures with which to 
compare the present residence with that of the previous location of the 
recent residents interviewed. Of those factors that were rated the same 
or better, schools (91%), quality of neighborhood (88%), and crime 
rate (84%) stood out as significant improvements. On the negative 
side those that rated the same or worse were transportation (87%), 
sewage treatment (86%), cost of living (85%), and water supply 
(80%). Mixed results were tabulated about tax rates and shopping 
centers. Problems arose for some respondents when they attempted 
comparisons with such previous out of state locations as Long Island, 
San Francisco, and Puerto Rico. Also some respondents had trouble 
distinguishing one environmental factor from another with much 
clarity. 

Of the 149 respondents, 113 were willing to answer the question 
regarding total family income before taxes. 61 percent reported annual 
incomes of more than $12,000. Nine percent reported their yearly in- 
comes to be less than $5,999 and 11 percent had annual incomes of 
$25,000 or more. Contrastingly, for Vigo County the census reports 
20.8% of families with incomes to be below $4,999 and 3.1% with an in- 
come of $25,000 or more. 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

In the last question of the interview the respondent was asked to 
focus on the one major reason for moving to his present address. Job 
related reasons accounted for slightly more than one-third of the re- 
sponses and house related reasons were given in 39 of the 149 samples. 
Forty-six respondents reported community and neighborhood reasons 
as their main reason for moving. Family reasons and closer to family 
were given on seven occasions. 

A Comparison of Two Subdivisions 

The results of Vigo County suburban questionnaires showed a 
marked diversity in response depending upon the suburb in which the 
individual respondents lived. As a result, a survey was made in greater 
detail of two subdivisions, Colonial Park and Youngstown Meadows, 
which are both located in Honey Creek Township south of Terre 
Haute. They are both approximately five and three-quarter miles south 
of the city limits of Terre Haute and are located on opposite sides of 
U. S. Highway 41. 

The questionnaire was modified to elicit more detailed subjective 
attitudes toward their previous and present residences. Aside from the 
demographic aspects, the questionnaire was further divided into: (1) 
a comparison of present house and former house; (2) a comparison of 
present neighborhood and former neighborhood; (3) a comparison of 
the main reasons for choosing the present site over that of other pos- 
sible sites in the city region; and (4) whether the respondent would have 
bought his present house if the same financing and cost had been 
available in Terre Haute. 

Colonial Park had a total of 40 homes occupied of which 25 were 
sampled (63%). Youngstown Meadows consisted of 108 occupied homes 
of which 43 were sampled (40%). Eighty percent of the residents of 
Colonial Park who were interviewed moved from outside Indiana. Co- 
lonial Park was composed largely of junior to middle management or 
professional people who frequently changed jobs or were often trans- 
ferred in the company (88%). They were highly mobile. The housing 
units in Colonial Park were found to be 100 percent owner occupied. 
Eighty-four percent of the heads of households interviewed were be- 
tween thirty and forty-nine years of age and 80 percent of those 
interviewed had two, three or four children living at home. By com- 
paring their present residence with their former household, Colonial 
Park residents perceived that the size of their lot and the interior 
decor were the most significant factors affecting their choice of lo- 
cation. Other important items included the size of house, convenience of 
layout, land value, room size, and tax rates. The most notable negative 
comparisons of Colonial Park with their previous residence included the 
financing of their house, landscaping and resale value. In the neigh- 
borhood comparison, the items that rated best were a decreased crime 
rate, less congestion, and better traffic flow. The conditions that were 
rated worst included air pollution odors, inadequate public transporta- 
tion, improper sewage treatment, distance to shopping areas, distance 
to recreation, and distance to friends and relatives. The main reasons 
for selecting their present site at Colonial Park outside the city limits 



Geography and Geology 329 

of Terre Haute included such factors as they liked the house, they liked 
the look of a new subdivision, it was the only place available, and their 
new house was the best buy at the time. In 1973, the Colonial Park 
subdivision had 92 percent of the homes priced above $40,000 and all the 
residents reported having- two or more cars per household. Twenty- 
eight percent of the residents of Colonial Park responded that they 
would have bought the same house within the Terre Haute city limits 
if it had been available. 

In contrast to Colonial Park, in Youngstown Meadows 58 percent of 
the residents came from Vigo County and 86 percent came from the 
State of Indiana. Virtually all moved to Youngstown Meadows from 
urban locations. The number of owner-occupied households more than 
doubled from their previous residence (40% to 91%). The age struc- 
ture of the heads of households was younger with thirty percent less 
than twenty-nine years of age, and fifty-nine percent of the heads of 
households were between thirty and forty-nine years of age. In Youngs- 
town Meadows all items appeared better or at least as good as their 
former home. Clearly, most of the residents had moved up in their 
choice of homes. The neighborhood comparisons items that had sub- 
stantially improved were general cleanliness, quality of school, prestige, 
landscaping, noise, and congestion. The conditions that declined were 
the increased distance to work, poorer public transportation, an in- 
creasing cost of living, greater distance to recreation, and a further 
distance to friends and relatives. The main reasons for selecting 
Youngstown Meadow's subdivision as compared to other sites in Vigo 
County were that they liked the house, it was the best buy at the time, 
and they liked the "looks of the subdivision." 

In Youngstown Meadows, 95 percent of the housing units were priced 
below $30,000 in 1973. Of the respondents interviewed, forty-two per- 
cent reported having only one car available for use in their household. 
The main reasons given for moving were to buy their own home, and a 
changed job location or a job transfer. Slightly less than one-fourth of 
the respondents thought they would have bought the same house in Terre 
Haute if it had been available to them at the same price. 

Conclusions 

In conclusion it appeared that most of the respondents sampled 
were not attempting to escape from the urban way of life. But, rather 
they were attempting to avoid the incidental disadvantages of urbanism. 
For a minority of the respondents, the move involved a search for more 
satisfying housing than was found available in the city. 

Another conclusion formed was that suburbs differ vastly one 
from another. The income characteristics of the residents, their 
occupational makeup, the price range of homes, the education levels, the 
size of the suburb, the social-geographical origin of the residents, and 
the countless other indices all strongly affected their values, their life 
styles and their perception of what comprises a quality residential 
area. 



Geologic Guidelines for Statewide and Regional Land-Use Planning 

in Indiana 1 

Henry H. Gray 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Effective land-use planning attempts to evaluate the impact of change before 
changes take place. Geologic data are essential to this process. The Indiana Geological 
Survey's recently completed 1 :250,000 scale mapping of the state makes geologic in- 
formation on a statewide basis available, but most planners are not qualified to inter- 
pret geologic data directly. Although they recognize the importance of these data 
to their work, the land-use implications of conventionally mapped geologic units usually 
must be explained to them. 

In this report, each of the 38 geologic units shown on the statewide mapping is 
evaluated for 11 kinds of land use that range from undisturbed woodland to heavy 
industry. Taken into account in each rating are many factors ; among them are fre- 
quency of flooding, position of the water table, slope stability, bearing strength, 
erodibility, septic tank performance, and many others. These factors should next be 
quantified so that the present ratings may be made more objective. Additional data 
will be needed on several of the mapped units. 

Geology in Land-Use Planning 

The eight Regional Geologic Maps prepared by the Indiana Ge- 
ological Survey (see list below) provide information that is aimed at 
filling the needs of land-use planners and others who require a state- 
List of Regional Geologic Maps 

(unnumbered) Geologic map of Indianapolis 1° x 2° Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, 
showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale, 1:250,000. By C. E. Wier and 
H. H. Gray, 1961. 

No. 2. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Danville Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale, 1 :250,000. By W. J. Wayne, G. H. John- 
son, and S. J. Keller, 1966. 

No. 3. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Vincennes Quadrangle and parts of adjoining quad- 
rangles, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale, 
1 :250,000. By H. H. Gray, W. J. Wayne, and C. E. Wier, 1970. 

No. 4. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Chicago Quadrangle, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, 
showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale, 1 :250,000. By A. F. Schneider 
and S. J. Keller, 1970. 

No. 5. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Muncie Quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale 1:250,000. By A. M. Burger, J. L. For- 
syth, R. S. Nicoll, and W. J. Wayne, 1971. 

No. 6. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Louisville Quadrangle, Indiana, showing bedrock and 
unconsolidated deposits. Scale 1:250,000. By H. H. Gray, 1972. 

No. 7. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Cincinnati Quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale 1 :250,000. By H. H. Gray, J. L. Forsyth, 
A. F. Schneider, and A. M. Gooding, 1972. 

No. 8. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Fort Wayne Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and 
Ohio, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Scale 1 :250,000. By G. H. 
Johnson and S. J. Keller, 1972. 

Supp. Chart 1. Properties and uses of geologic materials in Indiana. By H. H. Gray, 
1973. 



Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Indiana Geological Survey. 

330 



Geography and Geology 331 

wide overview of the properties and extent of near-surface bodies of 
earth materials. Both bedrock and unconsolidated deposits are shown 
by a two-layer mapping system, and the descriptions and diagrams 
that accompany the maps are intended to convey an understanding of 
the areal and vertical distribution, thickness, material content, and 
interrelationships of each of the 38 mapped geologic units. A supple- 
mentary chart provides additional related information. In preparing 
these publications, particular effort was made to insure that they 
would be understood by the non-geologist. 

The principal use of these maps in the planning field is in preparing 
land-use suitability interpretations. Some of these interpretations may 
be made directly from the maps through the use of common knowledge 
or through association. For example, areas mapped as alluvial deposits 
(unit Qsa) are subject to flooding; sand and gravel must be searched for 
in kame and outwash deposits (units Qgk, Qgv, and Qgp); and dune 
sands (unit Qsd) are especially well suited to the growing of melons. 

Most land-use suitability interpretations, however, require the 
evaluation of a large number of geologically related factors. Among 
these are frequency of flooding, soil and rock permeability, position of 
the water table, erosion hazard, slope stability, erodibility, topographic 
relief, ease of excavation, engineering properties such as unconfined 
compressive strength and liquid and plastic limits of the soil, and many 
others. Few of these factors are primary properties of the geologic 
material itself. Most are derivative of these properties or derivatives 
of the derivatives. Many of the factors are interrelated, some are diffi- 
cult to evaluate, and all are important for some geologic materials and 
some uses but unimportant to others. Thus the evaluation process is 
complex. 

Few land-use planners are well qualified to make these evaluations 
without assistance. The planning process is essentially a political one 
and the geologic, biologic, sociologic, and economic input to the process 
must usually be prvided by specialists. Geologic data may (at least 
in part) be provided by soil scientists, engineers, or hydrologists as 
well as geologists, but the geologist brings an ecumenical outlook and 
an appreciation of the inevitability of change through time that are 
of value to the planning process. 

Geologic Land-Use Suitability Interpretations 

The accompanying tables (Tables 1 and 2) present suitability 
interpretations of mapped geologic units for selected kinds of land use. 
They are to be used in conjunction with the Regional Geologic Maps and 
Supplementary Chart 1, and they are to be regarded as preliminary 
for two reasons. First, they represent qualitative and somewhat sub- 
jective assessments that can be improved by quantification, and second, 
they relate to mapping that ultimately may be replaced by more 
detailed work. For example, far more elaborate land-use suitability 
interpretations are available for the 20 or so counties in Indiana that 
are covered by modern soil mapping of the Soil Conservation Service. 
When this series is completed for the entire state, as is projected some 



332 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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334 Indiana Academy of Science 

10 years hence, many of the interpretations presented here will become 
obsolete. 

In the meantime, however, the planners must proceed with their 
work, and for their use I have evaluated each of the 38 geologic units 
that are shown on the Regional Geologic Maps through the use of letter 
ratings for each of 11 general kinds of land use. The rating A indicates 
that few problems arise in connection with that kind of use; D at the 
opposite end of the rating spectrum indicates that in most places the 
mapped unit is poorly suited for that particular use. 

Space does not permit analysis in detail of the reasons underlying 
each evaluation, but some understanding of the process may be gained 
from two examples. The lake clays (unit Qcl, Table 1) are among the 
more troublesome geologic units in many kinds of land use. The soils 
are wet, poorly drained, and difficult to drain because they are topo- 
graphically low, and soft and incompetent. These properties pose some re- 
strictions in agricultural use, but for more demanding uses, the options 
are very severely circumscribed. Isolated dwellings may perch on 
slightly elevated and thus better drained sites, but most urban areas 
located on the lake clays are so soggy that they can almost be flooded 
by a heavy dew. Sanitary sewers are absolutely essential in such areas; 
septic tanks will not work because of the wetness and impermeability 
of the soil. Runoff is high and stormwater is difficult to manage. Base- 
ments are impracticable. Industrial use is limited by the low strength 
of the material. In some places the clay will not properly support buried 
utility lines. Thus for most urban and suburban uses, unit Qcl gets low 
ratings. 

Unit Qti (Table 1) is Illinoian till. It is intended that this unit (and 
most others) be mapped only where the deposit is thicker than about 
5 feet, but in hilly areas the till is patchy and here and there bedrock 
may be exposed or at such shallow depth as to impede trenching for 
utility lines. On the plus side, the till itself is readily excavated, and 
in many places where wetness is a problem, adequate drainage may be 
arranged. Its strength is sufficient for most uses, and it does not readily 
cave into excavations. It is, however, of low permeability and a fragipan 
is widely present in the soil zone, so that septic tank tile field 
performance is poor. In some areas slopes are steep and very suscepti- 
ble to erosion. Thus unit Qti receives good ratings for isolated dwellings 
but must be downgraded somewhat for most types of agricultural and 
urban use. 

All geologic units get good ratings for undisturbed woodland and 
undisturbed grassland. This is, for one thing, an indication of the minimal 
demands that these uses place on the land. This should be readily under- 
stood; these were the uses of the land chosen by natural selection, so 
to speak, and they are uses to which the land was well adjusted. The 
effects of these uses — for example, the low erosion rate and the high 
water-storage factor — can be a reference or base line against which to 
measure the added stresses that are put on the land by other, more de- 
manding uses. For some uses and some geologic units, these added 
stresses are slight; for others, they are severe. The ratings reflect these 
stresses as well as the inherent adaptability of the land to each use. 



Geography and Geology 335 

More Study Needed for Some Geologic Units 

These evaluations can be made more useful and more objective 
through quantification of the factors that have gone into the ratings 
and codification of the rating process. Before this objective can be 
attained, however, more study will be required for many of the 
geologic units — particularly the unconsolidated deposits, to which 
geologists traditionally pay scant attention. More extensive than any 
of the bedrock units in terms of surface expression, and therefore in 
terms of importance in land use, are eight units among the unconsoli- 
dated deposits (Tables 1, 2). In order of areal extent, these are Wis- 
consinan till (unit Qt), Wisconsinan moraine till (Qte), Illinoian till 
(Qti), alluvial silt and sand (Qsa), valley-train outwash (Qgv), outwash- 
plain deposits (Qgp), windblown silt (Ql), and lake clay (Qcl). In all, 85 
percent of Indiana is covered by unconsolidated deposits. 

Particular additional attention must be directed at the Wisconsinan 
till (Table 1). This unit covers 12,000 square miles, or about one-third of 
the state. Together with the Wisconsinan moraine till, which is not a 
distinct unit in a material sense and which is only loosely differentiated 
in a topographic sense, the figure rises to 44 percent of the state. In 
many geologic reports this unit is dismissed at just plain till, yet it 
ranges in texture from sticky clay to silt loam to sandy silt loam 
and has widely varying characteristics. Some is cohesive and stiff; some 
is loose; some has moderate permeability; some has near zero permea- 
bility. Furthermore, the till is stratified; thus the surface till layer may 
be only a few feet thick, and its characteristics may not be a good 
guide to what lies below. The evaluation of important land-use factors 
such as foundation conditions, suitability to sanitary landfill, and ground- 
water availability depend on a far better understanding of this unit 
than presently we have. 

Summary 

Geologic information is of importance in land-use planning, but 
geologic data usually must be summarized and simplified for the plan- 
ner's use. This is best done by a geologist. The charts herein presented 
help to provide for the planner's needs on a regional or statewide 
basis. The ratings are preliminary and are subject to revision as addi- 
tional data become available and as the rating process becomes more 
quantified. 



Application of Geology in Developing a Master Plan in Boone 
County, Indiana 

J. M. Wilkerson, Boone County Area Plan Commission, 
Lebanon, Indiana 
T. R. West, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

The Boone County Area Plan Commission is currently developing a land-use Master 
Plan for which geological information provides the basic framework. Four types of 
land-use are considered ; agriculture, urban development, natural resources, and solid 
waste disposal. These are developed on the basis of geologic surface materials, agricul- 
tural soils, topography, and depth to bedrock. 

Single land-use categories are depicted on separate transparent overlays showing 
three classes of land suitability: highly suitable and requiring little or no modification; 
moderately suitable; and unsuitable, requiring extensive modification. By superimposing 
the overlays the composite map was compiled outlining regions "ideally" suited to a 
particular land-use. This map, plus other planning elements such as existing land-use, 
population projects, and transportation and economic studies, will determine the land- 
use goals for the Master Plan. 

Introduction 

Boone County is located in central Indiana northwest of Marion 
County (see Fig. 1) in the Tipton Till Plain physiographic province. 
The present population is about 32,000 and is expected to increase by 
more than 200 percent during the next 20 years (personal communica- 
tion, Boone County Area Plan Commission). A recent trend of popula- 
tion increase has been promoted by the extensive interstate highway 
system in the county and an "overflow" of population from Marion 
County. As a response to the projected growth needs, the Boone County 
Area Plan Commission (BCAPC) was formed early in 1974. The BCAPC 
is currently constructing a Master Plan in which geological information 
provides a basic framework. Geology yields important input for planning 
in this predominately rural county as the current population is small and 
localized, and geologic information is particularly useful in determining 
favorable regions for future urban development, preservation of valuable 
natural resources, protection of agricultural farmland, and location of 
solid waste disposal sites. 

Geology of Boone County 

A detailed geological study of Boone County was conducted by the 
authors over the past 18 months resulting in the following maps: 
geologic surface materials (1:24,000), glacial thickness (1:62,500), land- 
forms (1:125,000), sand-gravel resources (1:24,000), and ground water 
availability (1:125,000), (1,2). 

Geologic Surface Materials 

The surface deposits in Boone County are composed almost entirely 
of glacial drift. The mapping units and percentage of surface area are 

336 



Geography and Geology 



337 



as follows: glacial till (boulder clay), 64%; outwash deposits (valley- 
trains and kames), 3%; alluvial deposits, 4%; lacustrine deposits, 6%; 
loess (greater than 5 feet thick) 11%; sloping drift (Miami Soil Series), 
11%; bedrock (Borden Group), trace. 




Figure 1. Locations map of Boone County, Indiana. 



Glacial Thicknesses 

Most of the northeastern half of the county is underlain by more 
than 200 feet of glacial drift. The drift in the western part of the 
county is generally thin and typically less than 100 feet thick. There 
are an estimated 500-1000 acres in the northwestern part of the county 
where the bedrock is less than 25 feet below the surface. 



Natural Resources 

There are three major natural resources in the county. Agricultural 
soils are the most valuable with about 80 percent of the surface pro- 
ducing high yield crops. 

Sand and gravel provide a second resource. The deposits are not 
widespread and have excessive sand to gravel ratios. The most produc- 
tive region in the county is along Sugar Creek in valley train deposits. 
Midstate Aggregate Company, the only crushing and washing operation 
in the county, is currently mining gravel from this region. There is an 
estimated 10 to 15 year supply of good quality gravel reserve in another 
region along Sugar Creek near Thorntown. 

Ground water production is the third resource. Wells ranging from 
10 gpm to a few hundred gpm are the most common. There is generally 
enough water to supply the homes in the countryside, however, the 
larger municipal supplies are investigating new regions to meet current 
demands. The deposits associated with Sugar Creek are generally the 
most promising. 



338 Indiana Academy of Science 

Development of the Master Plan 

The authors were involved in a consulting and advisory capacity 
with the BCAPC to incorporate existing geological information into the 
future land-use goals for the county as specified in the Master Plan. 
To help bridge the gap in terminology between geology and planning, 
the planning director worked in close association for the duration of the 
project. 

Method 

A transparent overlay technique was used to develop and illustrate 
the geologic input. Four types of land-use were considered; agriculture, 
urban development, sand-gravel resources, and solid waste disposal. 
Optimum land-use was determined using four physical (or geologic) 
criteria: geologic surface materials, agricultural soils, topography, and 
depth to bedrock. Each land-use category was depicted on a separate 
transparent overlay and rated according to the three classes of land 
suitability as follows: /A/ highly suitable land-use requiring little or 
no modification, /B/ moderately suitable land-use, and /C/ unsuitable 
land-use requiring extensive modification. The approach is non-restric- 
tive as it does not rule out a particular land-use for an area but instead 
indicates the degree of modification required to implement such use. 

A numerical rating scheme with values ranging from one to nine 
was developed to predict the significance of environmental interactions 
as a consequence of geologic conditions and proposed land-use (see 
Tables 1-4). Each of the mapping units (glacial till, outwash deposits, 
alluvial deposits, lacustrine deposits, loess, sloping drift and bedrock) 
were analyzed in turn considering the four geologic criteria (surface 
materials, agricultural soils, topography and depth to bedrock) and the 
four possible land-use categories. Each significant aspect or property of 
a geologic condition was considered singly to isolate the environmental 
interactions. For example in Table 1, permeability of the surface mate- 
rial (soil) is a significant consideration relative to agricultural use. 

Each property-mapping unit combination was assigned a value from 
one to nine; an average of these values for a single mapping unit yielded 
the overall measure for that unit. To illustrate, in Table 1, values for 
the nine listed properties (permeability through crop maintenance) were 
determined by considering their effect on loess and subsequently aver- 
aged to provide the overall rating for loess in agricultural use. In turn 
the other mapping units (lacustrine, till, etc.) were similarly analyzed. 
These averaged values were compared for all mapping units and on this 
basis subdivided into the three suitability classes (A, B and C). 

The suitability classes v/ere subsequently color-coded (A (green), 
B( yellow) and C(red)) for each of the four land-form-map trans- 
parencies. Three of the four land-use maps were superimposed and a 
final composite map constructed (the solid waste disposal map was not 
included in the overlays but used strictly for information on solid waste 
disposal). 

The composite map (Fig. 2) depicts regions "ideally" suited for one 
particular land-use based on geology data. This was accomplished by 



Geography and Geology 



339 



delineating regions where only one of the three land-use types showed 
a highly suitable rating. There is only one small region where there was 
an overlap of two land-use classes which were both "ideally" suitable. 
This is in a region along Sugar Creek where the area is suitable to both 
sand-gravel resources and urban development. 

Table 1. Land-use properties and rating factors for agriculture. 



Properties 

geologic units 

permeability 

composition 

flood hazard 

erosion hazard 

drainage maintenance 
topography 

erosion 

absorption rate 

growth density 

crop maintenance 

Rating (see text for explanation) 
(A) 
loess 

lacustrine 

deposits 

glacial till 



[ft 



(B) 

sloping di 
alluvium 
outwash 

deposits 
5%-10% slope 



(C) 
none 



Table 2. Land-use properties and rating factors for urban development. 



Properties 

geologic units 

foundation support 

erosion 

grading capability 

drainage maintenance 

water potential 

flooding hazard 

sewerage conditions 
topography 

slumping hazard 

downcutting stream erosion 

sheet erosion 

waste disposal 

foundation support 
depth to bedrock 

ground water potential 

foundation excavation 

public utility installation 

sewage disposal 

Rating (see text for explanation) 
(A) 

outwash deposits 
sloping drift 



(B) 

glacial till 

lacustrine 

deposits 



(C) 
loess 
alluvium 
bedrock 

10% slope 

30 feet to bedrock 



340 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 3. Land-use properties and rating factors for sand-gravel resources 



Properties and Rating (see text for explanation) 
(A) 

sand-gravel ratio : 60/40 
composition : 5% deleterious substances 
extensiveness of deposit: >20,000 cu. yds. 
depth of overburden : <15 feet 
lack of excessive ground water infiltration 



(B) 

less than (A) rating specifications 



Table 4. Land-use properties and rating factors for solid waste disposal. 



Properties 

geologic units 

permeability 

workability 

ponding 
topography 

subject to ponding 
depth to bedrock 

depth to shallowest ground water aquifer 
proximity to surface water 
Rating (see text for explanation) 



(A) 

lacustrine deposits 

glacial till 

loess 

>50 feet to bedrock 

>30 feet below base 

of landfill to shallowest 
ground water aquifer 

not subject to ponding 

not within Miami Soil Series 
region of stream valley 



(B) 
none 



(C) 

sloping drift 
outwash deposits 
alluvium 

<50 feet to bedrock 
<30 feet below base of 
landfill to shallowest 

ground water aquifer 
subject to ponding 
within Miami Soil Series 

region of stream valley 



Results 

Summarized below are the results of this study organized according 
to the four land-use classes considered. Mapping units for the county- 
are related to the three suitability classes. 

Agriculture 

(A) includes most of the surface area of the county 

(B) deposits and slope conditions associated with stream valleys 
and kame moraines 

(C) none 

Urban Development 

(A) outwash deposits and sloping drift (Miami Soil Series) 

(B) includes most of till plain 

(C) floodplains, loess deposits, and shallow bedrock regions in 
western part of county 

Sand-Gravel Resources 

(A) small region along Sugar Creek near Thorntown 

(B) remaining outwash deposits associated with streams and 
kames 

(C) none 



Geography and Geology 



341 



Solid Waste Disposal 

(A) includes most of the surface area of the county 

(B) none 

(C) all stream valleys inclusive of the Miami soils region, and 
shallow bedrock region in western part of county 

Composite Map (Fig. 2) 
Most of the county is "ideally" suited for agriculture. Regions 
"ideally" suited for urban development are in the broad outwash 
plains of Sugar and Eagle Creeks near the town of Thorntown and 




Explanation 



tSS Urban Development 
Elffl Sand-GiTvel Resource 
1 I Agriculture 



555 Open Land 

Figure 2. Composite map of Boone County for land-use suitability based on geologic 

information. 



342 Indiana Academy of Science 

Zionsville. Sand-gravel resources are restricted to a small region along 
Sugar Creek. A fourth category is termed open land which is not 
suited to any of the land-use types. This unit includes most of the 
floodplains, slopes in excess of ten percent, and regions of shallow 
bedrock. 

Conclusions 

The composite map is being used as a basic framework for devel- 
oping the Master Plan. However, additional elements of planning 
including an existing land-use map, population projections, and trans- 
portation and economic studies, are being incorporated to produce the 
final Master Plan. After the land-use goals are set, zoning restrictions 
will follow and determine land-use regulations for the county. A 
desired end result is to create an environment for a better quality 
of life. 



Literature Cited 

1. Wilkerson, J. M., R. J. Sette, and T. R. West. 1974. Environmental geology and 
land-use planning in Boone and Tippecanoe Counties, Indiana. Proc of the Ind. 
Acad, of Sci. for 1973, vol. 82. 

2. Wilkerson, J. M. 1974. Applications of geology to land-use planning in Boone 
County, Indiana. Unpublished Master's research paper, Purdue University. 



Joints in Carbonate Rocks in South-Central Indiana 

Richard L. Powell 

Indiana Geological Survey 

Blooming-ton, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Detailed maps of joints for about 40 sites in carbonate rocks of Mississippian age 
in south-central Indiana indicate that joint oiientation data, as displayed by conventional 
rose histograms, are by themselves inadequate for engineering and geologic applications. 
The maps show joint spacing and other details of pattern as well as orientation. 

Sets of parallel joints are classified initially as either vertical or inclined with 
respect to bedding. Vertical joints are classified either as master or cross joint sets in 
plan. Master joints are longer than cross joints. Several stratigraphically superjacent 
beds, each of which has a unique set of cross joints, are commonly disrupted by one 
set of master joints. A master joint consists of a series of segments en echelon with a 
preferred orientation (predominantly east-west in the study area). Most master joint 
segments are essentially straight, but some are sinuous. The segments may terminate, 
curve into abutting joints, diverge, or cross other master joints. 

Cross joints terminate laterally at master joints and transect only one bed vertically. 
They are generally very straight and planar and are nearly normal to master joints. 

Blasting operations for highways and quarries, prevention of rockfalls in road 
cuts, and grouting of foundations may be facilitated by detailed knowledge of jointing. 

Introduction 

This paper is a part of a study to describe the character of joints 
in the carbonate rocks of Mississippian age in south-central Indiana 
and to determine the relative importance of joints as 1) a control of 
ground water movement and the development of solution channels and 
caverns, and 2) to provide some data pertaining to jointing related 
to site selection, bedrock foundation construction, and bedrock excavation 
problems. This paper primarily presents a general description of the 
types of joints found, but some specific examples related to pattern, 
orientation, and spacing of joints are included. 

Joints in bedrock have been mentioned by most authors of standard 
introductory and structural geology textbooks, but very few definitive 
papers that relate the pattern or intensity of joints to specific sedi- 
mentary lithologies have been written (5). Most articles related to 
joints or papers that briefly describe jointing in an areas discuss only 
the orientation of joints as if they are similar within all types of 
bedrock in an area. The data for this study, consisting primarily of 
more than 1,500 joint orientation measurements gathered from more 
than 40 mapped sites in carbonate rocks at various stratigraphic 
horizons, indicate that joints are not simple rectilinear fractures that 
divide the bedrock into joint blocks of uniform size and shape. 

Joints have been mentioned by numerous authors of papers on 
karst topography and cavern development as the most important form 
of porosity and permeability in limestone; along them water or ground 
water flows and develops solution-enlarged joints, called grikes, or 
solution channels and caverns (6). Cavern passages have commonly 
been recognized as having either a linear or a random pattern, par- 

343 



344 Indiana Academy of Science 

ticularly on maps, and have been considered as joint controlled and 
bedding plane controlled, respectively (8). 

Acknowledgments 

Most of the fieldwork for this study during the period from Febru- 
ary to October 1973 was supported by a grant from the David Ross 
Fund available from Purdue University as an aid to research for a 
Ph. D. degree. The large-scale field mapping was further facilitated 
by assistance from students at Indiana University, members of the 
Bloomington Indiana Grotto of the National Speleological Society, 
and friends, particularly Stephen D. Maegerlein, chemist, N.A.D. Crane. 

Significance of Joints in Carbonate Rocks 

Most carbonate lithologies in the Mississipian rocks of south-central 
Indiana have a low primary porosity and permeability, but they have a 
high secondary permeability (6) owing to joints, and in places possess 
extremely high transmissivity owing to solutionally enlarged conduits. 
Because jointing is regarded as a form of secondary porosity, solu- 
tionally enlarged conduits and cavern passages that follow joints must 
be a tertiary form of porosity postdating the joint development. Numer- 
ous caverns with straight passage segments have commonly been con- 
sidered to be joint controlled in that they exhibit obvious solutional 
enlargement by ground water flowing along a joint. Cavern passages 
that exhibit obvious linear trends or alignment with joints must have 
been formed by corrosion by ground water flowing along the joints. 
The joints thus allowed the ground water to flow freely, in contrast 
to the relatively impermeable rocks. 

Some cavern passages are considered to have a random pattern 
because they do not exhibit joint orientation or because those joints 
which are observed, commonly within the ceiling of the passage, do 
not have orientations or a pattern that correlates with the trend or 
shape of the cave passage. The joints exposed in the ceiling or floor 
of a cave, however, may have no direct relationship to the orientation 
of the cave passage. In fact, they may not be a direct continuation 
of joints within the unit in which the passage developed. A cavern 
passage has obviously developed within the beds or strata that have 
been removed by solution; therefore, a basic assumption is that strata 
above or below those removed by solution are physically different. 
They may be less soluble, or they may lack some other characteristic of 
the more soluble unit, such as similar jointing. 

Cavern passages that have been designated as having a random 
or no joint-controlled pattern usually have been considered to have 
developed along bedding planes. As jointing has not apparently con- 
trolled the flow path of the ground water, the assumption has been 
made that it was free to seek a random route along bedding planes 
(8), and that bedding planes are a counterpart to joints so far as 
ground water transmissivity is concerned (3). Bedding planes in 
general have not been proved to have a significant degree of porosity 
or permeability within bedrock in situ, although some bedding plane 



Geography and Geology 345 

separations modified by weathering appear to have become more 
permeable. 

The definition of joints, as intended here, excludes all fractures or 
separations along- bedding planes and fractures parallel to bedding 
planes, such as low-angle fractures called sheet joints that are con- 
sidered to be caused by unloading. 

Joint Definitions 

A joint is defined, in part, as "a surface of actual . . . parting 
in a rock, without displacement; the surface is usually plane and often 
occurs with parallel joints to form part of a joint set" (4). This defi- 
nition must be modified to the extent that separation or parting normal 
to the fracture surface is recognized, although there has been neither 
lateral slip nor horizontal heave of the rock adjacent to the fracture 
surface sufficient to define a fault. Joints may, so far as degree of 
separation is concerned, be described as potential joints (9) along 
which stress has caused some form of strain that may eventually 
fracture, latent joints that have extremely thin separation or hair-line 
width and generally are not visible but appear as the rock is broken up, 
closed joints that are visible but have no noticeable separation, open 
joints that have obvious separation (2), and, in the carbonate rocks, 
joints that have been enlarged by solution or weathering. 

The concept of joints as planar features may be somewhat mislead- 
ing, unless the planar surface may in some places be accepted as 
rough, uneven, or irregular. A repetitive series of somewhat planar 
(straight) fractures that have a rough surface may be designated as 
joints in one lithologic unit, whereas in another rock type, extremely 
smooth but sinuous or wiggly fracture planes are a part of a joint 
pattern. The concept that some joints may be adequately identified 
or differentiated only by mapping their extent and shape is important, 
but modifying the definition of joints to specify that they are mappable 
fractures with a somewhat repetitive pattern is not practical. 

Joint Types in South-Central Indiana 

Joints in the carbonate strata of south-central Indiana are initially 
classified here as to their relationship with the bedding planes that 
bound the rock units within which they occur. Three major types were 
identified: vertical joints, inclined or slanting joints, and joints normal 
to bedding planes of cross-stratified beds (figure 1). 

Vertical Joints 

Vertical joints are the most common type observed in the field 
within the study area, and they were easier to map so far as their 
orientation and spacing were concerned. Vertical joints do not require 
a dip measurement, and thus they do not require projection to a 
mapping plane to establish their true orthogonal position. The only 
criterion for distinguishing vertical from inclined joints is the angle 
at which they intersect the bedding planes. Those joints that appear 
to be vertical commonly are within a few degrees of vertical, whereas 



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Indiana Academy of Science 



Vertica 




Normal to 

Cross stratified beds 



Figure 1. Block diagram showing three basic types of jointing. 



most joints that appear to be inclined to bedding are more than three 
degrees from vertical. 

Vertical joints were commonly found to consist of two joint sets, 
here called master joints and cross joints, somewhat as described by 
R. A. Hodgson (5), and perhaps the same as the systematic and 
nonsystematic joint types of N. J. Price (9) and others. Variations 
from their described types may be related to different local lithology 
and structural geology. 

Master joints are those joints that 1) commonly are longer than 
joints in other joint sets and 2) commonly disrupt more than one dis- 
tinct stratigraphic or lithologic unit (figure 2). Cross joints, in addi- 
tion to generally trending at right angles to master joints, 1) com- 
monly are shorter than master joints, 2) generally are restricted to 
one bed or stratum, and 3) commonly terminate laterally at the master 
joints to which they are approximately normal. 

Contrary to the work of Hodgson, Price, and several previous 
authors, master joints were not found everywhere to be essentially 
planar or straight in plan, but sinuous joints do occur within sets that 
contain mostly straight segments (figure 3). Cross joints were found 
to be more planar or straight in plan. The amount of surface roughness 
of joint faces, considered as a distinct separate feature from overall 
planar characteristics, was not readily measured owing to the few 
unweathered extensive joint faces seen during the fieldwork, but 
general observation suggests that master joints are smoother than 
cross joints. 



Geography and Geology 



347 



master joints 




Figure 2. 



Block diagram showing idealized sets of master and cross joints in three 
beds of rock. 



Various types of master joints have been mapped to date, but 
there is little doubt that additional types will be found. Segments of 
master joints are either straight or curved, arced, and sinuous (figure 
3-B). The ends of master joint segments are known to: 1) end abruptly, 
commonly as one of a series of segments en echelon; 2) curve or arc 
towards a segment en echelon with which it terminates at an acute or 
obtuse angle (figure 3- A and C) ; 3) be connected to segments en 
echelon by short fractures between the master joint distal ends or by 
cross joints which extend through one of the master joints; 4) contain 
a series of parallel, short fractures or joints, some or all of which may 
be transected by cross features within the narrow space between the 
ends of master joint segments; 5) bifurcate, most commonly with 
other master joint segments, rarely with cross joints. Additional closely 
spaced joints parallel to master joints, but restricted to one bed 
of rock, are present in section view at some localities. 

Cross joints apparently have less variation. Cross joints that 
extend essentially straight through one or more master joints have 
been mapped, but they are not common. Cross joints are not known to 
cross, but they are known to join other cross joints (figure 3-D). 
The master joints measured at any particular locality in the study 
area were found to be subparallel and to have either a single or acutely 
bimodal distribution of orientation trends as compared with cross joints, 
which commonly appear to have an obvious bimodal distribution that 
is more obtuse than that of the master joints. 

An impressive site for determining various relationships of vertical 
joint types is Herron Cave, east of Alton in Crawford County. The 
cave, which consists mostly of a maze or network of passages, is within 



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Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 3. Maps showing the relationship of joints (heavy lines) to portions of cavern 

passages in various stratigraphic units. 

A. Lehigh Quarry Spring Cave, Lawrence County, in the Salem Limestone. 

B. Taylor Cave, Orange County, in the Beech Creek Limestone. 

C. Waggoner Spring Cave, Lawrence County, in the Ste. Genevieve Limestone. 



fine to coarsely crystalline biosparitic Glen Dean Limestone. More than 
2,000 feet of joint-oriented passages were surveyed, and 136 measure- 
ments of joint trends were made (figure 4). Although the extensive 
cavern network at Herron Cave is not typical of caverns in this region, 
the joint pattern is somewhat similar to that seen in numerous other 
caverns in the Glen Dean, Haney (Golconda), and Beech Creek Lime- 
stones of the Chesterian Series. 

The hydrologic origin of the network type of cavern development 
at Herron Cave is unknown at present, except that the passages show 
typical evidence of solutional enlargement of joint planes. 



Inclined or Slanting Joints 

Joints that are inclined or slanting with respect to bounding bedding 
planes were found at numerous localities. Inclined joints are most com- 
mon within the upper part of the St. Louis Limestone and the lower 
part of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, where they occur in part in con- 
junction with vertical joint sets. Inclined joints were also found within 



Geography and Geology 



349 



particular beds (primarily dolostones, dolomitic limestones, and argil- 
laceous and silty limestones) within the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, 
bounded by other carbonate lithologies containing vertical joints. 





D. Zinc Cave, Washington County, in the Salem Limestone. 

E. Vowell Cave, Dubois County, in the Glen Dean Limestone. 

F. May Cave, Monroe County, in the Salem Limestone. 



A good exposure of inclined joints is along new State Highway 37, 
just south of Gullets Creek in Lawrence County, within the lower part 
of the St. Louis Limestone. Solutional enlargement and cavern develop- 
ment along inclined joints are most obvious in the lower level of 
Wyandotte Cave in the general vicinity of the Isles of Confusion, where 
the passage has formed in the lower part of the Ste. Genevieve Lime- 
stone and the upper part of the St. Louis Limestone. 

Joints in Cross-Stratified Strata 

Joints in cross-stratified carbonate rocks, specifically the Spar 
Mountain Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone, present a type dis- 
tinct from vertical or inclined joints. The joints in an individual cross- 
stratified unit appear to have an inclined attitude, but are essentially 
normal to the inclined bedding planes, and the number of joints com- 
monly increases towards the direction of wedging out (figure 5). 



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Indiana Academy of Science 




A0D?£ 





Figure 4. Map of a portion of Herron Cave, Crawford County, in the Glen Dean 
Limestone, showing the pattern of master and cross joints in relation to cavern 
passages. The rose histogram was compiled from 136 joint measurements and represents 

the entire cavern. 



Whether or not the joints follow an isoheyt related to bed thickness 
or are linear regardless of crossbed orientation is not known. This type 
of jointing is inadequately described because fieldwork was insufficient 
to map and describe the type accurately. Field sites conducive to 
detailed mapping were not found. The entire unit of crossbedded layers 
may be dissected by an overall set of vertical master joints and cross 
joints. 



Geography and Geology 



351 




Figure 5. Solution-widened joints normal to cross stratified beds in the Spar Mountain 

Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone along State Highway 135 about 3.5 miles south 

of U.S. Highway Jf60, Harrison County. Rod is marked in foot intervals. 



Spacing of Joints 

The strata of Mississippian age in south-central Indiana consist of a 
heterogeneous sequence of carbonate and noncarbonate lithologic types, 
ranging from noncalcareous shales and sandstones to an extensive suite 
of limestones, dolostones, calcareous sandstones, and shales. There is 
also a great range in thickness of these different strata. The spacing 
of jointing is obviously different from one major stratigraphic or litho- 
logic unit to another, and it may be apparent even where the difference 
between beds or units of a general lithologic type is only minor. The 
contrast in brittleness, cohesiveness, or plasticity between major sedi- 
mentary lithologies, such as limestone, dolostone, shale, and sandstone, 
is sufficient basis for a generalized explanation of differences in joint 
spacing which are attributed to differences in bed thickness. The varia- 
tion in specific lithology and bed thickness in a single bedrock exposure 
is usually sufficient to account for differences of competency between 
units which exhibit differences in joint spacing, and perhaps even 
differences in joint type and pattern. 

An example which demonstrates differences in joint spacing related 
to bed thickness and the effect on cavern development is the road cut 
on new State Highway 37 immediately south of Gullet's Creek in 
Lawrence County. The strata exposed in the road cut include shale, 
limestone, and dolomitic limestone of varying thickness (figure 6). A 
bed of limestone about .5 meter thick (A, figure 6), broken by joints 
averaging .25 meter apart, is a zone of intense solutional enlargement, 
ranging from minor solution along joint faces to complete removal of 
the bed for an approximate width of 15 meters. An overlying bed of 
similar rock is about 1 meter thick (B, figure 6) and is broken by 
joints with an average separation of 2.3 meters, but it contains solution 
channels only in the basal portion of a few joints above the intensely 



352 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 6. Rock cut on west side of new State Highway 37, just south of Gulletts 
Creek, Lawrence County, showing differences in joint spacing and development of 
solution channels. Bed A, 1.5 m thick, has joints averaging .25 m apart, whereas joints 
in bed B, which is about 1.5 m thick, average 2.3 m apart. A filled solution channel at 
C has developed in the closely jointed bed. Rod is marked in feet. 

dissolved underlying bed. The underlying strata are shale and shaly 
limestone. The intensive solution in the closely jointed dolomitic unit 
is attributed to three major factors: 1) the underlying shale served 
as an aquatard, confining water to the overlying rocks and forming a 
perched water body, 2) ground water body was greatest in the intensely 
fractured bed, and 3) the increased surface area rendered to that bed 
by jointing provided a greater surface area exposed for solution. 

Breaching of the thick roof stratum of the cavernous zone by road 
construction disrupted the lateral lithostatic pressure which held it in 
place and allowed the roof rock to unload in the direction of the road 
cut and to collapse into the cavern. Although the removal of the closely 
jointed bed by solution was followed by infilling of clastic sediments, 
the sediments are insufficiently consolidated and are being removed 
by erosion, so that the overlying strata collapse into the cavity and 
slump into the road cut. 



Engineering Application of Joint Mapping 

Essentially every large rock cut in carbonate strata in the study 
area has been examined in the field during the course of this study. 
Rock falling from the cuts following final construction appears to be 
attributable to one cause or a combination of causes, as follows: 1) 



Geography and Geology 353 

failure to remove or secure either unstable joint blocks or portions 
of joint blocks fractured by blasting, which eventually results in the 
falling 1 of a large rock or rocks, 2) failure to stabilize adequately the 
rock adjacent to either open, sediment filled, or partially collapsed 
cavernous openings or solutionally enlarged joints, which results in 
massive failure of rock either from above or next to the cavity into 
the cut, and 3) failure to control water flowing over or seeping through 
the rock, which results in an accelerated freeze-thaw process that 
usually produces small rock spalls. Many of the rock falls involving 
single blocks or massive failures occur several seasons or years follow- 
ing excavation owing to the effects of freeze-thaw or removal of sup- 
porting unconsolidated sediment by erosion and sapping. 

The practice of pressure testing carbonate units during the prelim- 
inary test boring program could lead to discovery of troublesome and 
potentially hazardous cavernous zones. The pressure emplacement of 
grout to refusal in benches prior to presplitting might be an economical 
treatment of known cavernous zones, or known cavernous strata could 
be left on rock bench treads and not in rock faces. 

If rock cut benches are aligned with joint sets in such a way that 
narrow pieces of joint blocks with greater height than depth normal 
to cut faces are left adjacent to master joints, the blocks may eventually 
topple into the cut, and therefore the situation should be avoided. 
Realignment of a rock cut parallel to master joints could use the joint 
faces as a terminal excavation line, provided the joint spacing was 
advantageous and the contractor and the highway engineer could reach 
and economical settlement. Proper blasting could essentially eliminate 
fracturing of rock across the joint plane (1 and 7). Rock cuts parallel 
or at an angle to cross joints can be benched bed by bed or cut to a 
gentle slope with benches to alleviate the necessity of maintenance 
caused by dislodgement of various joint blocks. 

The location of vertical bore holes for pressure grouting to estab- 
lish a grout curtain in a dam abutment commonly is a random process 
relative to joint locations. The assumption that one of a series of ade- 
quately spaced holes will encounter a vertical joint, a permeable bedding 
plane, or a solutionally enlarged conduit, cave, or mud seam, if 
present, is not valid unless the cavity has a significant width to be 
penetrated by one of a series of equally spaced adjacent holes. The 
subterranean conduits are commonly aligned along joint planes that 
served as the initial form of permeability which transmitted the ground 
water that caused solutional enlargement. There is a greater probability 
that the full height of a joint plane within a given bed has been modi- 
fied by solution than that the solutional enlargement progressed 
laterally along a bedding plane. Therefore, theoretically at least, one 
horizontal bore hole pressure grouting in each rock unit which has 
a particular set of cross joints must encounter all joints along a line. 

Conclusions 

The mere compilation of joint data to draft a joint rose histogram 
for all the joints within several different carbonate lithologies at a 
site does not constitute the total significant data that are obtainable. 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

Joint patterns may be mapped if sufficient exposure is present, or 
joint spacing and orientation may be mapped along an outcrop of a 
rock unit or in a cavern passage. The increase in labor and time 
required to map a site accurately, as opposed to simply taking rapid 
compass readings of joint orientations, is clearly justified because the 
identification of joint types, trends, spacing, and patterns provides 
information that solves many problems. 

The preparation of large-scale maps for selected sites in south- 
central Indiana has aided in identifying some types of joints and joint 
patterns and spacings in various carbonate lithologies. The mapped 
portions of caverns clearly indicate that essentially all solution conduits 
and cavern passages originate by ground water flowing along joints 
which become enlarged by solution. Even the so-called random type 
of cavern passage is actually oriented through a more closely spaced 
joint network than is the case with more easily recognized joint- 
controlled passages. Joints impart a high permeability to carbonate 
rocks and are related to lithology and bed thickness. 

An understanding of jointing at any bedrock construction or exca- 
vation site is directly applicable to rock engineering problems, particu- 
larly those involving control of ground water and stability of final 
slopes. 



Literature Cited 

Ash, R. L. 1963. The mechanics of rock breakage: Pit & Quarry, v. 56, p. 98-100, 
112, 118-123, 126-131, 109-111 and 114-118. 

Beloussov, V. V. 1962. Basic problems in geotectonics: McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. 
Y., 816 p., 318 figs. 

Ewers, R. O. 1966. Bedding-plane anastomoses and their relation to cavern pas- 
sages: National Speleological Soc. Bull., v. 28, p. 133-140. 

Gary, M., R. McAfee, Jr., and C. L. Wolf. 1972. Gossary of geology: American 
Geological Inst., Washington, D.C., 805, appen., p. 380. 

Hodgson, R. A. 1961. Regional study of jointing in the Comb Ridge-Navajo Moun- 
tain area, Arizona: Bull. American Assoc. Pet. Geol., v. 45, p. 1-38, p. 13-1C. 

Hohlt, R. B. 1948. The nature and origin of limestone porosity: Colorado School 
Mines Quarterly, v. 43, 51 p. (p. 6 & 10). 

Larson, W. C. and J. M. Pugliese. 1974. Effects of jointing and bedding separa- 
tion on limestone breakage at a reduced scale: U.S. Bur. Mines, R.I. 7863, 13 p., 8 
figs. 

Palmer, A. N. 1969. A hydrologic study of the Indiana karst: Ph. D. Dissertation, 
Indiana University, 181 p., 68 figs., 2 tbls., 5 pis. 

Price, N. J. 1966. Fault and joint development in brittle and semibrittle rock: 
Pergamon Press, Gr. Brit., 176 p., 58 figs., 3 pis., p. 111-113. 



Probabilities and Return Periods of Earthquake Intensities in Indiana 

Robert F. Blakely and Madan M. Varma 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Introduction 

Indiana is thought to be a seismically quiet area, however two 
recent tremors coupled with interest in the safety of atomic power 
plants have kindled interest in quantifying Indiana's seismicity. Indeed, 
Indiana has 36 felt earthquakes (Fig. 1) the largest of which had an 
intensity of VI + and it occurred in Dubois County on April 29, 1899. 
Figure 1 does not show all 36 quakes because of those that occurred 
at the same location, only the largest was plotted. The occurrence of 
more than one earthquake at a location is one phenomenon that makes 
the determination of Midwest seismicity difficult. Another difficulty is 
the wide distribution of quakes in space (Fig. 1) and time. Much of 
the earthquake motion felt in Indiana resulted from earthquakes that 
occurred outside our state many years ago. Algermissen (1) estab- 
lished seismic zones for the U.S. but the data is not detailed enough 
for seismic engineering in the Midwest. Nuttli (5) and more recently 
Howell (3) have improved the resolution of seismic zones and offer 
valuable data to compare with the results of our study. 

A Method for Determining Seismicity 

The statistical range of the seismic activity of the midwestern 
U.S. in both space and time suggested a method to determine seismicity 
based on the statistics of extremes (c.f. Gumbel (2)). The steps used 
are listed below and will be described in more detail in the next section. 

1. The intensity at a point due to all historical quakes is deter- 
mined. 

2. The resultant list of intensities is used to determine the highest 
intensity for each decade. 

3. The cumulative probabilities of these extreme events are deter- 
mined. 

4. The data for the location being studied are plotted on extremal 
probability paper and the return period for certain intensities 
is determined. 

5. Such a process is repeated for many points so that an area 
may be contoured on values of return period for a given 
intensity. 

Details of the method 

We have compiled a list of over 1200 earthquakes for the eastern 
U.S. in the region between 75° W to 100° W and 25° N to 50° N. The 
intensities at a point due to all those quakes were computed using 
the relation 

355 



356 



Indiana Academy of Science 





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Figure 1. Map of Indiana and surrounding states showing the location of earthquake 

epicenters 



I 



N log 10 



V X2 + h 2 



where I is the intensity at the epicenter, N is a coefficient of absorption, 
x is the epicentral distance and h the focal depth. For the Midwest N 
has been determined by Varma and Blakely (6) to be 3.5 when x and h 
are expressed in kilometers. We used an average value of 30 km. for h. 

The procedure above results in a chronological list of intensities 
(Fig. 2) which is divided into decades and from which the largest 
intensity is selected and put into a list of extremes (Fig. 3). 

Because we are using statistics of extremes, the cumulative prob- 
abilities, P. can be computed using the relation 



Pi 



1 
N + 1 



Geography and Geology 



357 







.1 






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Figure 2. A portion of our computed intensity list. Decades are delimited and the 

highest intensity selected. 



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Figure 3. A list of the largest intensities at Indianapolis illustrating the calculation 

of cumulative probabilities. 



358 



Indiana Academy of Science 



where N is the total number of events in the list. Moreover, the theory 
states that the return period, T, may be determined from the equality 



1 — P. 



where Tj is in the units of the time span from which the maxima 
were selected — in our case, decades. 

If a phenomenon obeys the theory of extremes, the maximum 
values and their cumulative probabilities should fit along a straight 
line when plotted on extremal probability paper (4). The data from 
Figure 3 (our example is for Indianapolis) when plotted on such 
paper (Fig. 4) indicate that the statistics of extremes can be applied 
to Indiana seismicity. 

Although the example (Fig. 5) is shown in graphical form, the 
return periods for specific intensities are determined analytically. A 
straight line is fitted to the data using the criterion of least squares. 
From the coefficients of this line, return periods can be calculated for 
any intensity. We chose intensities of IV, VI and VIII. The return periods 
for Indianapolis are 43, 189 and 1110 years, respectively (Fig. 5). 
Intensity IV is felt by many and dishes are rattled. Intensity VI causes 
minor damage and Intensity VIII causes considerable damage in ordinary 
buildings. For more details of these and other intensities see Wood 
and Neumann (7). 



T (DECADES) 
4.3 18.9 



111. 




0.73 



0.947 



0.991 



Figure 4. The data for Indianapolis plotted on extreme probability paper. 






10 



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< 

LjJ 

? 6 

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0.1 



Geography and Geology 

RETURN PERIOD (DECADES) 
1.25 2.5 10 50 



359 



200 















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• 




• 


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0.2 



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0.5 



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0.995 



Figure 5. An extreme probability plot used to get the return periods for any intensity 

at a location. 



In our example we have shown our procedure for one point, Indi- 
anapolis. The procedure was repeated for one-half degree intervals in 
latitude and longitude for all of Indiana. The data for the return periods 
of the three intensities were recorded on a map and contoured (Figs. 
6 through 8). It should be emphasized that the contours are in decades. 
Thus the most active part of the state (Fig. 6) has a return period 
of 20 years for an intensity IV. 

There is a band of low seismicity running from along a NW-SE 
line through the center of the state (Fig. 7). The least active area has 
a return period of 240 years for an intensity VI event. 

The two regions of higher seismic activity (Fig. 8) are caused 
by earthquakes outside our state. The contoured area showing a return 
period of 700 years in eastern Indiana for an intensity VIII event is 
due to a seismically active area near Anna, Ohio. The 300-year return 
period in the southwestern corner reflects seismic activity of both the 
New Madrid, Mo. area and southern Illinois. 

Conclusions 

Indiana is not a seismically active area, nevertheless, its seismicity 
can be described. The northwest portion of the state has the lowest 
seismicity with a line of low seismicity extending from northwest to 
southeast through the center of the state. The southwestern portion 
of Indiana has the highest seismicity. This fact, coupled with the pres- 
ence of alluvium in the Wabash and Ohio Valleys makes Evansville 
the city of highest seismic risk in the state. 



360 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Figure 6. Map of Indiana shawing 

return period in decades for seismic 

intensity IV. 




Figure 7. Map of Indiana showing 

return period in decades for seismic 

intensity VI. 



Geography and Geology 



361 



Figure 8. Map of Indiana showing 

return period in decades for seismic 

intensity VIII. 




From maps of return period for various intensities, engineers can 
now compute the likelihood of damaging accelerations and, by taking 
local geology into account, design structures for seismic risk. 

Acknowledgement 

This work was supported by the Indiana Geological Survey and a 
research grant from the Indiana Academy of Science. 



Literature Cited 

1. Algermissen, S. T. 1969. Seismic risk studies in the United States: Proc. 4th 
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Asociacion Chilena de Sismolgia e 
Ingieria Antisismica, Santiago, Chile, pp. 14-27. 

2. Gumbel, E. V. 1958. Statistics of Extremes: Columbia University Press, New York. 

3. Howell, B. F. 1974. Seismic regionalization in N. A. based on average regional 
seismic hazard index: Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., vol. 64 (5) pp. 1509-1528. 

4. Natrella, M. G. 1963. Experiment Statistics: Natl. Bur. Stds. Handbook 91, U.S. 
Govt. Printing Office. 

5. NUTTLI, O. W. 1974. Magnitude-reoccurrence relation for Central Miss. Valley earth- 
quakes: Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., vol. 65 (4) pp. 1189-1208. 

6. Varma, M. M., and Blakely, R. F. 1974. Applications of Intensity-Epicentral Dis- 
tance Relations to Earthquakes Affecting Indiana: Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (in press). 

7. Wood, H. O. and Neumann, F. 1931. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931: 
Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer. v. 21 (4) pp. 277-283. 



Buried Pinchout of Saginaw Lobe Drift 
in Northeastern Indiana 1 

N. K. Bleuer and M. C. Moore 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Subsurface data for Allen County, Indiana, indicate that the till of the Saginaw 
Lobe (unnamed member of the Lagro Formation) is a discrete unit separable from the 
superjacent clayey till of the New Holland Till Member of the Lagro Formation, and 
from hard loamy till units below that are presumed to include the Trafalgar Formation. 
The till of the Saginaw Lobe has sandy loam to loam texture, stiff consistency, and 
contains fragments of coal, tillite, and jasper conglomerate. Although the unit is map- 
pable, a consistent means of petrographically differentiating this till from underlying 
hard tills of similar texture has not yet been found. 

The extent of Saginaw till beneath till of the Erie Lobe can be mapped. This onlap- 
underlap condition in northeastern Indiana has been recognized since the late 1800's, 
but its great extent has been documented only recently. The Saginaw Lobe till extends 
southeastward from its areas of outcrop to northwestern Allen County, where its buried 
feather edge roughly parallels the Eel River sluiceway. The unit is exposed at several 
places in Cedar Creek canyon. 

Although the Saginaw drift (and ice?) was subsequently covered by ice and drift of 
the Erie Lobe, Saginaw-drift topography was not obliterated, and it influenced the piracy 
of Cedar Creek from the Eel to the St. Joseph drainage. The topography of buried 
Saginaw drift may have been the dominant influence on the surface relief and local 
morainal topography in northwestern Allen County and perhaps elsewhere in north- 
eastern Indiana. 

Introduction 

The lobate character of the glacial deposits in the Midwest is evident 
from the shape of certain topographic trends. The Lake Michigan Lobe, 
the Erie Lobe, and the Saginaw Lobe were all present in Indiana during 
Wisconsinan time, and possibly one or more was active during Illinoian, 
Kansan, or earlier time as well. The deposits of the Packerton Moraine 
(12, 15) record a close association of the Saginaw Lobe and the Erie 
Lobe during the last advances. 

Saginaw Lobe deposits consist of a sandy loam till (unnamed till 
member of the Lagro Formation) (16) and large amounts of ice- 
contact stratified outwash. Coal brought from the Pennsylvanian rocks 
of Michigan is uniquely found in the Saginaw Lobe drift. The youngest 
deposits of the Erie Lobe consist of a silty clay loam till (New Holland 
Till Member of the Lagro Formation) (16). 

The overlap of the clayey Erie Lobe drift onto the sandy Saginaw 
Lobe drift in northeastern Indiana has been recognized for a number 
of years. But this recognition has involved the assumption that the 
Saginaw Lobe till is truly distinct from the sandy till of the Trafalgar 
Formation, the surface till of central Indiana, and the till that under- 
lies the Erie Lobe drift in east-central Indiana. The stratigraphic unit 
responsible for the relief and the local morainal topography of the 



1 Publication authorized by the State Geologist, Department of Natural Resources, 
Geological Survey. 

362 



Geography and Geology 363 

Packerton Moraine in north-central Indiana and for the Mississinewa 
and Salamonie Moraines as mapped in northeastern Indiana has not 
been determined. 

In addressing these questions, we will discuss the history of the 
recognition of the extent of overlap of the Erie Lobe drift onto the 
Saginaw Lobe drift, the nature of the till units, and the extent and 
significance of the southern underlap of the Saginaw Lobe drift below 
the Erie Lobe drift. 

History of the Interlobate Concept 

Historically, the discussion of the Saginaw-Erie relationship began 
when T. C. Chamberlin in 1883 considered the Packerton, which he 
did not name, to be "the eastern arm of the Saginaw Morainic loop," 
and termed it: "a joint intermediate moraine," (5). He was, thus, the 
first to advance the interlobate concept. 

Charles Redway Dryer (6) mapped the overlap of the Erie Lobe 
drift on the north end of the Packerton Moraine, mostly on a morpho- 
logical basis. He thought that only the Saginaw Lobe was truly inter- 
lobate and that, although it had preoccupied northern Indiana, it was 
still in place when the Erie ice overrode it. The Erie Lobe was in- 
hibited on the north side, in his opinion, and thus the moraine pattern 
of the Erie Lobe is asymmetric. The Erie Lobe moraine (Mississinewa 
Moraine) in the interlobate area was, according to Dryer, strictly a 
terminal moraine with the Erie Lobe drift constituting the bulk of 
the material (6). 

Frank Leverett considered the Packerton to be a moraine of the 
Huron-Erie Lobe but basically agreed with Dryer's placement of the 
boundary of the Mississinewa Moraine. Leverett, drawing upon his 
experience in Michigan (13), suggested that perhaps both the Packer- 
ton Moraine and the moraines associated with the Erie Lobe were 
draped over a pre-existing ridge of older glacial deposits (11). This, 
in fact, may be partly true (1) but still would not explain the differences 
in local topography exhibited. 

The Packerton Moraine was not really named until Clyde A. 
Malott wrote his section of the Handbook of Indiana Geology in 1922 
(12). He considered it to be a moraine of the Saginaw Lobe but felt that 
it might have been partly moved or overridden by the Erie Lobe which 
entered the area somewhat later. 

W. J. Wayne, in his 1958 compilation of the Glacial Geology of 
Indiana (15), did not differentiate lobes but showed a significant ice- 
marginal position along the distal edge of the Mississinewa Moraine, 
essentially the same boundary Dryer had mapped. At that time Wayne 
believed that the Mississinewa represented the outer margin of the 
drift of the Erie Lobe. Later, J. H. Zumberge argued for the correla- 
tion of the Union City and Packerton Moraines even though he recog- 
nized that field evidence showed the Erie Lobe to be superposed on 
drift of the Saginaw Lobe (19). He felt that Erie Lobe drift extended 
to the Union City Moraine but that the Mississinewa represented a 
significant readvance. 



364 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Union City Moraine was later recognized as the boundary 
of the clayey till by Wayne (17). Allan F. Schneider, formerly of the 
Indiana Geological Survey, continued to trace the extent of the Erie 
Lobe overlap, extending it beyond the north limb of the Mississinewa 
Moraine (unpublished field notes). 

We have found clayey-textured till at the surface in southeastern 
Elkhart County, and the soil survey of Elkhart County shows an ex- 
tensive area of Blount-Pewamo soils there (10). These soils typically 
form on poorly to moderately drained silty clay loam tills. The rest of 
the county is dominantly underlain by soils of the Riddles-Crosby- 
Miami association which form on loamy till. Soil surveys now underway 
in nearby counties will undoubtedly show additional areas of the 
clayier soils. 

The morainal symmetry suggests that these occurrences of clay- 
rich material could be the northern equivalent of the Union City 
Moraine. The conclusion that the Union City has a northern limb is 
logical, inasmuch as the southern limb marks the farthest extent of 
the New Holland Till Member and of the Erie Lobe during the last 
major glacial advance. 

Nature and Distribution of Saginaw Lobe Drift in Allen County 

The till stratigraphy in Allen County (fig. 1) includes the upper, 
clayey till of Erie Lobe origin (New Holland Till Member of the Lagro 
Formation) and the lower, hard sandy till of presumed Erie Lobe origin 
(Trafalgar Formation) (2, 3). The buried surface of the Trafalgar 
Formation rises markedly northwestward to a distinct buried ridge in 
northwestern Allen County (1). The unit of Saginaw Lobe till sandwiched 
between these main till sheets (fig. 1) was first mentioned in that source 
(1). 

The Saginaw Lobe till is relatively soft and sandy in comparison 
to other drift in the Fort Wayne area. Hand penetrometer measure- 
ments on split-tube cores from Survey drill holes yielded values in the 
medium- to stiff-consistency range. This contrasts with stiff to very 
stiff consistency of the overlying clayey till of the New Holland Till 
Member of the Lagro Formation and the hard consistency of the lower 
sandy till (2). The till typically is of loam texture (30 to 50 percent 
sand; 15 to 25 percent clay) and is very similar to the presumed 
Saginaw Lobe tills in counties to the north and to the lower till 
(Trafalgar Formation) in Allen County. The presumed Saginaw Lobe 
till cannot at this time be differentiated petrographically from the till 
of the Trafalgar Formation in Allen County. The tills are similar not 
only in texture but also in carbonate content and clay mineralogy. 
Both may contain traces of kaolinite, as do the Saginaw Lobe tills 
sampled to the north, apparently in relation to Pennsylvanian rocks 
eroded by the ice in Michigan. Coal chips, fragments of the Lorrain 
quartzite (jasper conglomerate of Precambrian age) and tillite of the 
Gowganda Formation (Precambrian) were found in the till in Cedar 
Creek exposures and are together highly suggestive of a Saginaw Lobe 
origin. Traceability on the basis of stratigraphic position and consistency 
are the only unique physical characteristics of the Saginaw Lobe till. 



Geography and Geology 



365 



MEMBER 




FORMATION 



Lagro 



i ■ ' _i 

1 . I Bedrock 

— i 



t— r 



Trafalgar 

and older 

units 



Figure 1. Generalized geologic section, Allen County, Indiana, showing unconsolidated 
materials and identification of major units (revised from Bleuer and Moore, 2). 



This Saginaw Lobe till unit is present in an area mostly north of 
the Eel River drainage (figs. 2 and 3). However, the feather edge of 
the unit is just south of, but parallel to, the Eel River lowland. 

The Eel River lowland (fig. 2) may have been essentially an ice- 
marginal drainageway in Allen County, just as it appears to have been 
in north-central Indiana at the front of the Packerton Moraine. Its 
course was probably determined either by ice of the Saginaw Lobe 
or by the surface of an even older drift sheet. Tills of the Saginaw 
Lobe and Erie Lobe overlie a thick confined sand body in the area 
a few miles north of the present Eel River. This sand seems to be 
continuous with the lower part of that thick unconfined sand section 
in the present Eel River axis and is part of the valley fill of an 
earlier, wider Eel River valley (fig. 3). 

The recognition of Saginaw Lobe drift in northwestern Allen 
County awaited clear definition of the primary till units mentioned 
above, but its presence was suggested much earlier by several lines of 
evidence. 

One line of evidence is the distribution of the Miami soil type, 
a forest soil developed on calcareous loam till, which has been mapped 
by the Soil Survey (9) over several small areas in northwestern Allen 
County (fig. 2). The Miami soil areas are on gently to strongly sloping 
low uplands on the north edge of the Eel River drainageway. These 
patches of Miami soils are the only extensive surface outcrops of the 
otherwise buried Saginaw Lobe drift in Allen County. Another line 
of evidence is that the area under which Saginaw Lobe drift is 
now known to be present is an area of much greater local relief and 
of more rugged and diverse morainal character than areas immediately 



366 



Indiana Academy of Science 



DEKALB CO. 
R13E R14E 



R15E' 




ADAMS CO. 



EXPLANATION 



J I I L 



5 Miles 

J 



Geological Survey drill hole 
showing till of Saginaw Lobe 



Other Geological Survey 
drill hole 



Area of Miami soil from 
Allen Co. Soil Survey Report 

• 

Water well or engineering 

boring record used in 

cross section 



Surface exposure of 
till of Saginaw Lobe 



CZI 



Southern featheredge of 
till of Saginaw Lobe 



IND. 



Q 



Surficial moraines, from 

Indiana Geological Survey 

3 x2° Ft. Wayne and Muncie 

Regional Geologic Maps 




Map showing location 
of Allen County 



Figure 2. Map of Allen County, Indiana, showing major moraines (from Burger and 
others, U, and Johnson and Keller, 9), deep drill hole data points, areas of Miami 
soils, exposures and distribution of Saginaw Lobe till and lone of cross section A-A'. 



to the south. This distinction is obvious in comparisons of topographic 
quadrangle maps of areas north and south of the Saginaw Lobe 
boundary. This distinction is the basis for our mapping of the buried 
pinchout of the Saginaw Lobe drift (fig. 2). The extreme, massive 
morainal character of the northwestern part of Allen County, which 
includes abundant linear features, closed depressions, and wildly de- 



Geography and Geology 



367 




Figure 3. Geologic cross section A-A' (see Fig. 2 for section location, Fig. 1 for 
explanation) , shoiving the vertical distribution of tills in northwestern Allen County. 



ranged drainage, is much like the topography on the presumed Saginaw 
Lobe deposits in counties to the north, and the area's classification as 
a southward continuation of Chamberlin's "joint intermediate moraine" 
by Dryer (7) was fitting. 

Saginaw Lobe drift can be recognized in a few road-cut exposures 
and in a few isolated cutbanks along Cedar Creek (fig. 2). The till 
is exceptionally loose and is oxidized in the surface exposures. In one 
Cedar Creek exposure, the contact between the Saginaw Lobe till and 
the overlying clayey till is sharp and not marked by intervening strati- 
fied sediments, a situation similar to many examples seen in counties 
to the north. In the other Cedar Creek exposures, the Saginaw Lobe 
till overlies sand and gravel that extends to creek level — regional corre- 
lation of well data places the top of the hard lower till, the Trafalgar 
Formation, just below creek level. 

The Saginaw Lobe drift was encountered in 4 of 13 Indiana Geologi- 
cal Survey drill holes, which were intended to confirm the position of 
the top of the Trafalgar Formation (fig. 1). Rotary drilling was com- 
bined with split-tube sampling and rotary diamond coring in these 
tests. The holes were located in problem-correlation areas with respect 
to the top of the Trafalgar Formation and so not in the best possible 
lines with respect to mapping the Saginaw Lobe drift that was 
encountered. 

Because stratified sediments commonly are not present between the 
tills of the New Holland Till Member and this unnamed member (of 
Saginaw Lobe origin) of the Lagro Formation, water-well records are 
not very useful in documenting the extent of this boundary. 

Considering both the surface of the lower till (1) and the surface 
of an added wedge of Saginaw Lobe drift, the elevation of the present 
morainal landscape in northwestern Allen County (and perhaps much of 
northeastern Indiana) seems to be mostly inherited. In addition, some 
of the local relief and extremes of morainal topographic form charac- 
teristic of northwestern Allen County (including an incipient Cedar 
Creek canyon) possibly were inherited, either from drift or stagnant ice 
of the Saginaw Lobe. Detailed boring traverses are needed to substan- 
tiate these interpretations. 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 

The buried margin of the Saginaw Lobe drift may be evident 
through its influence on the geomorphic features developed in the 
overlying drift of the Erie Lobe. An example of this influence on an 
isolated feature may be found in the piracy of the headwaters of the 
Eel River by the lower section of what is now Cedar Creek. Regionally, 
lakes, bogs and other depressions formed when the stagnant ice of 
the Saginaw Lobe melted now fairly well delimit the eastern and south- 
ern extent of the drift of the Saginaw Lobe. Although lakes and bogs 
are concentrated along the Packerton and Mississinewa Moraines, many 
are scattered throughout the area of the Saginaw Lobe (west of the 
Maxinkuckee Moraine are many areas of internal drainage formed by 
sand dunes, which are excluded from consideration here). Moreover, 
many depressions are aligned northeast-southwest and southeast-north- 
west, probably along former fracture trends in the ice of the Saginaw 
Lobe. 

Piracy of Cedar Creek 

The valley of Cedar Creek in the north-central part of Allen 
County is one of the most striking physiographic features in the area. 
It cuts almost perpendicularly across the Wabash Moraine and carries 
water from upper Cedar Creek to the St. Joseph River instead of to 
the Eel River, into which it once flowed. This canyon, as it is locally 
called, is a classic example of stream piracy. 

Although the piracy occurred after the deposition of the New Hol- 
land till, the straight upstream half of Cedar Creek canyon may follow 
a course dictated by strain patterns in the Saginaw Lobe ice. The 
straight segment may be seen on the Cedarville 7% -minute topographic 
quadrangle map (T. 32 N., R. 12 E.). It is the only drainage channel 
to reach more than half-way across the Wabash Moraine from the 
west. A sharp bend at the point where State Route 427 crosses the 
stream marks the division between the two contrasting sections of the 
canyon. Downstream from this bridge the canyon follows a much more 
meandering course to its junction with the St. Joseph River, just 
below Cedarville (T. 32 N., R. 13 E.). 

Outcrops of Saginaw Lobe drift were found at the State Route 427 
bridge and just upstream (NWV* sec. 10, T. 32 N., R. 12 E.) and just 
downstream (SW 1 ^ sec. 18, T. 32 N., R. 13 E.) from it. On the Fort 
Wayne Regional Geologic Map (9), the upstream section of the valley 
is shown to be underlain by alluvium, whereas the downstream section 
is shown to be floored by outwash sand and gravel. The edge of the 
buried Saginaw Lobe drift, as deduced from topography (see below) 
(fig. 2), passes through the Wabash Moraine just southeast of the 
State Route 427 bridge. 

We therefore propose the following hypothetical sequence of events 
for the piracy of Cedar Creek (fig. 4A-F). 

First, the Saginaw Lobe advanced into Allen County from the 
northwest. At one point it drained along an ice-marginal fracture (A). 

When Saginaw ice melted or was overridden, this drainage feature 
was preserved as a buried trough (B). Eel River, formed along a 
marginal position of Saginaw ice, was also buried. 



Geography and Geology 




Figure 4. Maps showing the sequential development of the Cedar Creek canyon. Allen 

County outlined. 



At the time the Erie Lobe occupied the position of the Wabash 
Moraine, the Eel River sluiceway was reactivated and included Upper 
Cedar Creek (C). Upper Cedar Creek formed as a stream along the 
Erie Lobe margin. The Eel River sluiceway was reactivated along the 
retreating Erie Lobe margin. 

As the Erie Lobe front melted back to the position of the Fort 
Wayne Moraine, subice drainage followed the pre-existing sag left by 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Saginaw drift as well as continually using the main outlet of the 
Wabash-Erie Channel (D). 

The St. Joseph valley was an ice-marginal drainageway as the 
glacier receded from the Fort Wayne Moraine (E). A short tributary 
probably developed along the lower course of Cedar Creek canyon, 
while the upper part of the canyon remained tributary to the Eel. 
The St. Joseph emptied into the Wabash-Erie Channel, which was also 
carrying meltwaters from glacial Lake Maumee. Occasionally lake 
discharge may have been great enough to back up the St. Joseph 
and cause floodwaters to flow over the divide in the Wabash Moraine. 
The presence of easily eroded Saginaw Lobe till, as opposed to the 
tight clayey New Holland or the very hard Trafalgar tills, facilitated 
erosion of a through-flowing channel. 

By the time the Maumee drainage reversal had taken place, melt- 
water flow in the St. Joseph and especially in the Eel had substan- 
tially diminished (F). No longer competent to move coarse outwash 
at the northwest end of Cedar Creek canyon, the Eel was ponded and 
occasionally spilled through the canyon. Thus, the piracy was quickly 
completed. 

Lakes, Bogs and Closed Depressions as Regional Indicators of the 
Extent of Deposits of the Saginaw Lobe 

The morphologic characteristic most commonly associated with 
drift of the Saginaw Lobe is a rolling, hummocky surface of extreme 
irregularity. The rugged knob and kettle topography most associated 
with end moraines is found only on the northern limbs of the Missis- 
sinewa, Salamonie and Wabash Moraines and in areas north of and 
including the Packerton Moraine. Lakes, bogs and closed depressions 
abound in the area of Saginaw Lobe drift, scattered amongst numerous 
irregular hillocks of sand and till. 

Because the typical loose sandy Saginaw Lobe till has been found 
as far southeast as the crest of the Wabash Moraine, we propose that 
the strong swell-and-swale morainal topography is the result of chaotic 
deposition during final melting of the stagnant Saginaw Lobe. Where 
this topography is found in the north limbs of the Mississinewa, Sal- 
amonie, and Wabash Moraines, the clayey till of the New Holland 
member is but a thin veneer (fig. 3). 

The extent of such topographic expression and the extent of the 
Saginaw deposits can be visualized from parts of the Chicago, Fort 
Wayne, Danville, and Muncie Regional Geologic Maps published by the 
Indiana Geological Survey (14, 8, 18, 4). Nearly all the areas mapped as 
open lake (light blue, excluding, of course, man-made reservoirs) and 
muck and peat (Qmp, purple), when plotted, are shown to be north of 
the Eel River and thus within the area surrounded by the Packerton 
and Maxinkuckee Moraines. Those west of the overlap of the Packerton 
Moraine by the Mississinewa Moraine are shown to be north of the 
Eel River. East of the Mississinewa overlap boundary, the depressions 
are distributed in a broad tongue beyond the Eel River that extends 
into Allen and Dekalb Counties (fig. 2). 



Geography and Geology 371 



Conclusions 



The sandy till of the Saginaw Lobe is a discrete body that is sepa- 
rable from underlying sandy till of the Trafalgar Formation and from 
the overlying clayey till of the New Holland Till Member of the Lagro 
Formation (figs. 1 and 3). The Saginaw Lobe on the southeast extended 
to the Eel River and, in Allen and Dekalb Counties, a few miles beyond 
(fig. 2). It left loose sandy loam till in a hummocky ice-disintegration 
topography that, along with remaining ice masses, was subsequently 
covered by the Erie Lobe bearing the silty clay loam till of the 
New Holland Till Member. This later till extended over much of the 
northeastern end of the Packerton Moraine of the Saginaw Lobe and 
perhaps reached as far northwest as Elkhart County. The elevation of 
the present morainal landscape in northwestern Allen County (and 
perhaps much of northeastern Indiana) seems to be mostly inherited 
(fig. 3). 

The New Holland is thin and simply mantles the rugged topography 
developed on the Saginaw drift and does not interfinger with it (fig. 3). 
The Saginaw Lobe material is not contemporaneous with New Holland 
till, and because they were deposited by different lobes they are not 
depositionally continuous. 

Apparently, members of Wayne's (16) Lagro Formation should 
no longer be considered as a part of a single depositional unit, and 
similarly they do not have enough common characteristics to be regarded 
as members of a single formation. The distinct units which have been 
aggregated into the Lagro Formation should, with this newer informa- 
tion, be defined and named on a physical basis, which is beyond the 
scope here. 

Finally, the concept of a northeastern Indiana interlobate moraine 
needs reappraisal, inasmuch as no evidence suggests more than the 
clean overlapping of one drift sheet by another. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bleuer, N. K. 1974. Buried till ridges in the Fort Wayne area, Indiana, and their 
regional significance. Geol. Soc. America Bull. 85:917-920. 

2. , and M. C. Moore. 1972. Glacial stratigraphy of the Fort Wayne area 

and the draining of glacial Lake Maumee. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:195-209. 

3. ■ and . 1972. Glacial stratigraphy, buried landforms, and early 

drainage at Fort Wayne, Indiana. Geol. Soc. America Abs. with Programs (North 
Central Sec). 4:309-310. 

4. Burger, A. M., J. L. Forsyth, R. S. Nicoll, and W. J. Wayne. 1971. Geologic 
Map of the 1° x 2° Muncie quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing bedrock and 
unconsolidated deposits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geol. Map 5. 

5. CHAMBERLIN, T. C. 1883. Preliminary paper on the terminal moraine of the second 
glacial epoch. U.S. Geol. Survey Annu. Rep. 3:291-402. 

6. Dryer, C. R. 1894. The drift of the Wabash-Erie region — a summary of results. 
Indiana Dep. Geol. and Natur. Res. Annu. Rep. 18 :83-90. 

7. . 1889. Report on the geology of Allen County. Indiana Dep. Geol. and 

Natur. Hist. Annu. Rep. 16:105-130. 



372 Indiana Academy of Science 

8. Johnson, G. H., and S. J. Keller. 1972. Geologic Map of the 1° x 2° Fort Wayne 
Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, showing bedrock and unconsolidated 
deposits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geol. Map 8. 

9. Kirschner, F. R., and A. L. Zachary. 1969. Soil survey of Allen County, Indiana. 
U.S. Dep. Agric. Soil Cons. Serv., and Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 76 p. 

10. , and P. McCarter. 1974. Soil survey of Elkhart County, Indiana. U.S. 



Dep. Agric. Soil Cons. Serv., and Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 96 p. 

11. Leverett, Frank, and F. B. Taylor. 1915. The Pleistocene of Indiana and Michigan 
and the history of the Great Lakes. U.S. Geol. Surv. Monogr. 53. 529 p. 

12. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana. In Handbook of Indiana Geology. 
Indiana Dep. Conserv. Pub. 21 :59-256. 

13. Russell, I. C, and F. Leverett. 1908. Description of the Ann Arbor Quadrangle. 
U.S. Geol. Surv. Geol. Atlas, Folio 155. 15 p. 

14. Schneider, A. F., and S. J. Keller. 1970. Geologic Map of the 1° x 2° Chicago 
quadrangle, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, showing bedrock and unconsolidated 
deposits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geol. Map 4. 

15. Wayne, W. J. 1958. Glacial geology of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Atlas of 
Mineral Resources of Indiana. Map 10. 

16. . 1963. Pleistocene formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 25. 



85 p. 



17. . 1968. The Erie Lobe margin in east-central Indiana during the Wiscon- 
sin glaciations. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 77:279-291. 

18. , G. H. Johnson, and S. J. Keller. 1966. Geologic Map of the 1° x 2° 

Danville quadrangle, Illinois and Indiana, showing bedrock and unconsolidated 
deposits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geol. Map 2. 

19. Zumberge, J. H. 1960. Correlation of Wisconsin drifts in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
and Ohio. Bull. Geol. Soc. America. 71:1177-1188. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: William R. Eberly, Department of Biology, 
Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 46962 

J. Bennett Olson, Department of Biological Sciences, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Further Indiana Background To The National Plant Board. John J. 
Favinger, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana 46204. Further research has revealed additional Indiana contribu- 
tions that led to the establishment of the National Plant Board in 
1925. The introduction of the serious fruit and ornamental pest, San 
Jose scale, into the eastern part of the United States led Indiana and 
many other states to enact specific plant regulatory legislation to slow 
down spread of the pest by nursery stock and other material. C. M. 
Hobbs, a Bridgeport nurseryman and President of the Indiana Horti- 
cultural Society, was an active delegate to a national convention in 1897 
which made recommendations for both national and state legislation to 
deal with the problem. Later Professor James Troop, first State 
Entomologist of Indiana was one of the organizers of the American 
Association of Official Horticultural Inspectors in 1901. He later served 
as secretary of this organization which eventually merged with the 
American Association of Economic Entomologists as the Section of 
Horticultural Inspection. It was the activities of this section, largely 
under the leadership of a native Hoosier, T. J. Headlee, State Entomol- 
ogist of New Jersey, that led to the formation in 1925 of the Regional 
and National Plant Boards as they are still constituted today. Frank 
N. Wallace, State Entomologist of Indiana 1915-1958, helped draw 
up recommendations of nursery inspection officials in 1924 that reflect 
much of the thought that was expressed in the National Plant Board's 
Principles of Plant Quarantine seven years later. 



373 



House Bill No. 246 Revisited 

Arthur E. Hallerburg 

Department of Mathematics 

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Introduction 

In the year 1966 the State of Indiana celebrated the Sesquicen- 
tennial of its admission into statehood, and the Indiana Academy of 
Science joined in this observance with a number of appropriate activi- 
ties. Among these was a program of invited papers on the history 
of the various sciences and of mathematics in the state over the 
150-year period. 

For a small number of persons the association of "Indiana" and 
"mathematics" immediately brings to mind the true story of the 
attempt in 1897 of the state legislature to pass a bill establishing a 
new way of "squaring the circle." In essence the bill would have pro- 
vided for use in this state a new value of w, the "circle number." 
But Dr. Will Edington [4], who wrote on the history of mathematics 
in Indiana for the above observance, did not include reference to this 
story in his review — and probably rightfully so. For, first of all, the 
bill was not passed (parenthetically, nor was it defeated — only "indefi- 
nitely postponed"); second, incorrect or false "mathematics" is not 
mathematics; and finally, Dr. Edington had already recounted in detail 
in the 1937 Proceedings of the Academy [3] the action of both the 
House and the Senate on House Bill 246. 

Accounts of circle squarers and angle trisectors have been so com- 
mon over the centuries that mathematicians customarily pay them no 
concern. The fact that the mathematical work of E. J. Goodwin, M.D., 
found its way into the legislative halls and was almost passed into 
law has set this solution somewhat apart from the rest. The story 
has been given a brief paragraph in several journals and books on 
the history and miscellania of mathematics, and it gives a bit of comic 
relief to any account of the "history of tt." The usual reference notes 
that the bill actually proposed, in verbose and hidden verbiage, two 
different values of ?r, first the value of 4, and then 3.2. In 1961 the 
story was featured in a Sunday Supplement article in the Indianapolis 
Star Magazine [19]; that account is based largely on Dr. Edington's 
source material, with the addition of pictures and information con- 
cerning some of the legislators involved. 

There is a view that the history of mathematics, when properly 
examined, is not just the recounting of mathematical discoveries and 
developments, but rather that it mirrors, reflects and illustrates various 
cultural and social forces and changes— indeed, is inseparable from 
these. 

Within this frame of reference a number of questions arise. Who 
was Dr. E. J. Goodwin, author of the bill — what was his background? 
Since he was a resident of Solitude, Posey County, a small community 
just seven miles from New Harmony, Indiana, were his ancestors con- 



374 






History of Science 375 

nected in any way with that "boat load of knowledge" which in the 
1820s was to establish New Harmony as one of the innovative educa- 
tional enterprises of the mid-west? Why did he find interest in mathe- 
matics, and what happened to him after passage of his bill was denied? 
What was the editorial reaction, if any, of the newspapers of Indian- 
apolis, of other Indiana towns, of the press of other states? What 
was the response of the mathematicians to this proposal? 

Recent investigations covering previously unnoted sources now 
permit us to answer most of these questions. They reveal details which 
make a strange story even stranger! 

Goodwin's Education and Medical Practice 

Edward Johnston Goodwin was born in the Commonwealth of 
Virginia, Amherst County, near Lynchburg, on December 30 of uncer- 
tain year. His tombstone gives the birth year as 1824, other sources 
give 1825 and 1829, but perhaps the most reliable year is 1828. 
Based on the 1828 year, Dr. Goodwin was 68 at the time his bill was 
considered. 

A reporter for the Indianapolis Sun [13] interviewed Dr. Good- 
win at the time his bill was proposed and records the following 
(February 6, 1897): 

Dr. Goodwin was born in old Virginia in 1825, absorbed the 
Lynchburg school instruction, then went to Roanoke college, but did 
not graduate because of a shortage in his father's purse-string. 
So he went out and gave the young idea [sic~\ lessons in archery. 
He had an aunt who thought there was something in the boy and 
sent him to Philadelphia, where he took lectures and stepped out 
of a medical college with "M. D." attached to him, which has 
clung to his name to this day. The west attracted him. He came to 
West Virginia, and later on west to Indiana, stopping in Orange 
county, where he rode the hills on horseback to cure the sick. 
Bad health contracted in riding the hills drove him to Gibson 
county, where he lingered three years, then went to Posey county, 
w r here he has lived near Solitude up to this time. 

"It is remarkable how I have survived all the hardships through 
which I have passed," he reflected, "but in time the purpose of 
my life will be revealed." 

From information supplied by Dr. Goodwin himself we are able 
to outline with reasonable completeness the chronology of his medical 
education and practice. The same 1897 Indiana legislature for the first 
time required a state license for the practice of medicine (prior to 
that time the licensing was done only in the county of practice). From 
the application of E. J. Goodwin, filled out in his own hand, we can 
ascertain the following [8], 

He spent three years in the study of medicine, surgery, and 
obstetrics at Lynchburg, Virginia, under John H. Patterson, M.D., from 
October, 1851 to October, 1853, and again in 1854. He attended courses 
of instruction at the Philadelphia College of Medicine, Philadelphia, 
Pa., for five months in 1853 and 1854, and again for five months in 



376 Indiana Academy of Science 

1854-1855. Goodwin stated he was a graduate of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Medicine, March, 1853 but the correct year is 1855. 

From his application for certification we also have the specific 
places where he had engaged in his practice — Burks Garden, Chatham 
Mill, and Washington Springs, Virginia, 1855 to 1867; at Vallene, Honey- 
Creek, and Princeton, Indiana, 1867 to 1878; and at his present place 
of residence (Springfield) since the spring of 1878. The mail address 
for Springfield was actually Solitude, Posey County. Dr. Goodwin then 
continued to live there until his death in 1902. 

Two Years in New Harmony 

From another source we can fill in several significant details 
which recount some of the hardships that he had endured and also 
open up another episode in Dr. Goodwin's life. It is of particular 
interest since it directly relates to New Harmony, that small community 
which played an important role in the history of communal and educa- 
tional developments in Indiana. 

Again the information comes directly from Dr. Goodwin himself. 
In two successive issues of the weekly New Harmony Register, for 
April 23 and April 30, 1880, there appear Letters to the Editor from 
E. J. Goodwin. Since there were no regular news stories covering the 
incident involved, we must turn to Dr. Goodwin's own account of what 
had happened: 

Mr. Editor: Two years ago I removed from Owensville, Ind. 
to New Harmony. This was done in the face of all the disadvantages 
which a physician necessarily incurs when, from any cause, he 
may see fit to change his business relations with a community 
wherein he is known for one in which he may be a total stranger. 
In making such a change in the aspect of its professional bearing 
I was not governed by the pecuniary consideration which such a 
move of necessity involved. Devoting six years of my life in building 
up at Owensville a reputable standing among men who had accorded 
me a living patronage, it was relinquished from an inexorable law 
of necessity. The hand of misfortune had been laid upon me so 
heavily at Owensville that it was a duty to myself to get out of 
sight of scenes which only served to daily remind me of an 
unbearable wreck of fortune. 

In June of 1876 I was one of the 11 who suffered from the 
fire which destroyed nearly the entire business part of the town. 
This reverse tended to hasten another already in anticipation, 
which a few months later culminated in the death of my wife — 
my truest and dearest earthly friend. The effect of such reverses 
coming in the order they seemed by fate decreed, completely divorced 
me from all the business charms which the place might have 
appeared to others to have for me from my established professional 
relations. 

People never pause to think how easy and convenient a matter 
it is to prejudice a community against a doctor who has recently 
changed his business locality. Generally, the first thing that is 






History of Science 377 

insinuated against him, is that he has proved a failure where he 
left, otherwise he would not have changed his location. Now I 
came to New Harmony fully aware of all these little difficulties 
with which I had to contend, and prepared to offset, as the best 
I could, any thing I might hear derogatory to my professional 
claims at least. 

I want, by this, the members of the medical profession to 
know all over Posey county that I had not been in New Harmony 
ten days before I was informed by a doctor of the place that 
another doctor of the town had already started the report that 
my own "daughter would not trust me in the capacity of physician." 
I said, in reply "that this was indeed a heavy one to begin with." 
To offset the influence of such an unkind and malicious report as 
this was in all of its characteristics, I addressed through the 
Postoffice the following printed circular, which would never have 
been circulated but for the reasons as above stated. 

The following is a true reprint of the card whose circulation 
the physicians have took occasion to pronounce as in violation of 
medical ethics. 

E. J. Goodwin. 



E. J. Goodwin, having permanently located at New Harmony, 
hereby respectfully tenders his services as a physician and surgeon, 
to its citizens and those of its adjacent vicinities. 

Owensville, Ind., March 6, 1878. 

The undersigned citizens of Gibson County, having been ac- 
quainted with Dr. E. J. Goodwin for a number of years, would 
cheerfully recommend him to the public as a worthy gentleman 
and a skillful and honorable physician. 

The names of 48 signatories then follow. The circular also 
included two brief signed statements that Dr. Goodwin had given 
"complete satisfaction" in his services to the undersigned (one was a 
clergyman). 

A week later, in the second letter, Dr. Goodwin wrote at great 
length (an entire double-width newspaper column) on "Medical Ethics 
and the Relation of the Physician to the Public." His theme was that 
the slanderous comments of the other physicians were more in violation 
of professional ethics than what he had done, and that the true test 
of "professional honor and acumen" is "at the bedside." No additional 
facts of the controversy were given. One of the closing paragraphs 
of the letter will give some insight into the Doctor's rhetorical if not 
mathematical style: 

He who assumes to perform the functions of the true physician, 
undertakes to exercise a class of the most solemn and difficult 
duties engaging the feelings and attentions of finite superintendence. 
To be the true and gentle watchman of the advent and exit of 
the generations as they take on visible life to be but again trans- 



378 Indiana Academy of Science 

ferred by disease, death, and the grave, is to become a sentinel 
over which the angels must watch and vie with one another in 
guarding. When looking down the silent vista of ages gone, what- 
ever may be thought of the bright hopes and aspirations which 
once enlivened the varied forms of the buried generations, the 
association of one thought more than all else connects the feelings 
of the present with the dreams of the past. Whatever may have 
been the form of the fatal agencies entering upon the confines of 
precious life and earthly joys, found the portals of both budding 
and decrepit age guarded by the sleepless watchman with armor 
donned with all that had been revealed as potent against disease 
and death. The buried of the generations past but points out the 
landmarks of the battle ground whose opposing contestants grow 
incessantly more fierce and active as the lapse of time continues 
to encroach upon the future ages. And as long as human life and 
hope and suffering continue to ebb and flow, will this terrible and 
universal conflict continue to be as incessantly waged. That con- 
flict over which angelic vigilance presides with ceaseless concern to 
guard against the possible transgression of nature's most sacred 
laws, must indeed be one of infinite moment both in heaven and 
in earth. 

Apparently within several weeks after these letters Dr. Goodwin 
moved from New Harmony to Springfield, where he lived until his 
death. His medical application, filed in 1897, stated that he had lived 
in his "present place of residence since Spring of 1878," that being 
"Springfield, County of Posey, State of Indiana, my address being 
Solitude, Posey County, Ind." In his own eyes the two years in New 
Harmony were pages torn from the record of his professional life. 

There is another reference to New Harmony. To understand the 
inferences which we will draw we must first refer to another source of 
information about Dr. Goodwin. 

An entire issue of the William and Mary College Quarterly His- 
torical Magazine of 1897 [9] is devoted to the geneology of "The 
Goodwin Families in America." The detailed geneological records pre- 
sented there are of no particular significance for our study, except to 
note that our Dr. Goodwin was the third generation of Goodwins resid- 
ing in Amherst County, Virginia, and his grandfather had served in 
the Revolutionary War under General Lafayette. The date of the 
publishing of this geneology survey, October, 1897, is particularly 
significant, since it will be recalled that the bill was presented to the 
1897 Legislature in January and February. 

The entry for Dr. Edward Johnston Goodwin gives his descent; 
his birthdate is given as December 30, 1828; mention is made of three 
wives, although the third is unnamed. "He resides in Solitude, Posey 
County, Indiana. He is a physician and mathematician." Then follows, 
for three and one-third pages and without explanation or comment, 
a reprinting of an article from the Indianapolis Journal, undated, 
"Indiana's Squared Circle." This article describes in great detail Dr. 
Goodwin, his mathematical accomplishments, and the bill itself. Follow- 
ing are the opening and closing sentences of the article. 



History of Science 379 

Official recognition by one branch of the Indiana Legislature 
has been given Dr. Edward Johnston Goodwin for solving three 
geometrical problems which have puzzled the brains of mathema- 
ticians since the erection of the pyramids of Egypt. . . . [The 
bill] passed the House under a suspension of the rules, without 
a negative vote. Professors from Ann Arbor and Johns Hopkins 
have seen the demonstration, and declared it perfect. 

The article does not state anything about the bill's reception in 
the Senate, nor does it indicate in any way any adverse criticism 
of Dr. Goodwin's accomplishments. The article reads like a "Sunday 
Supplement" feature article — and indeed, that is what it turns out 
to be! 

This article did appear in Part II of the Indianapolis Journal for 
Sunday, February 21, 1897 [11]. This date is significant, since the 
Senate terminated the bill on February 12. The editorial staff of the 
Journal had been won over by Dr. Goodwin (at least for a time, 
as we will document shortly). The article as it originally appeared in 
the Journal was favorable to Dr. Goodwin, and it did not refer to 
the bill's defeat in the Senate. There are several deletions in the 
copy appearing in the William and Mary Supplement, mostly in the 
technical description of the mathematics. There is one deletion which 
may be of greater significance. 

The original article in the Journal contains the following paragraph. 

The man who has thus shown the errors in the text-books from 
Euclid's time to Loomis is a native of Virginia, where he was 
born near Petersburg, Dec. 30, 1828. A wealthy aunt sent him 
to school and furnished the funds for a course at the Philadelphia 
Medical College. For forty years he has been a practicing physician 
in the vicinity of Solitude, Posey county, Indiana, that densely 
rural part of the State referred to by the humorists as Hooppole 
township. He might be considered another illustrious product of the 
famous Robert Dale Owen colony that was established at New 
Harmony in Posey county, about seven miles from Dr. Goodwin's 
home. He was not only a friend and early associate of Dr. David 
Dale Owen, but is related to the family. He is a most modest 
citizen, refusing all modern methods of advertising himself. He is 
six feet tall and his frame is strong and elastic and his massive, 
angular head correctly suggests his rugged mathematical brain. 

Now the article as reprinted in the Quarterly geneology study 

gives the place of birth as being near Lynchburg, and it does not 

contain the two sentences referring to his being a product of New 
Harmony and an associate of Dr. David Dale Owen. 

It is our conjecture that Dr. Goodwin himself submitted a copy 
of this favorable article to the collector of the geneology material for 
the William and Mary Quarterly; that he corrected the place of birth 
from "near Petersburg" to "near Lynchburg" (Petersburg was another 
town in Virginia near Richmond, and a reporter may easily have 
confused the names); and that he, for some reason, deleted the refer- 



380 Indiana Academy of Science 

ence to the association with New Harmony. The ''illustrious product 
of the famous Robert Dale Owen colony" is the sort of comment a 
favorably disposed feature writer might likely add. The association 
with David Dale Owen is clearly a mistake, since Dr. Owen died in 
1860, and we do not have Dr. Goodwin in this area until the late 
1860s. His relation to the Owen family is another problem. Since 
Dr. Goodwin's own ancestry was clearly unrelated to New Harmony, 
the relationship, if there was one, could only have been by marriage. 
We have found no name of his third wife. Hs geneology record states 
that his first wife, whom he married in Virginia, died in 1866. "Dr. 

Goodwin was married, second, to Hester L. Wills, and third, to ." 

The second wife would be the one who died shortly after the Owensville 
fire in 1878. At the the time of Goodwin's own death (1902), we find that 
he was survived by his widow (unnamed), and a son and married 
daughter, whom we can identify as children by his first wife. 

One can well imagine that the 1878-1880 episode in New Harmony 
may well have been a source of discomfort to the Doctor for the rest 
of his life. Who the personalities were with whom Dr. Goodwin had 
his conflict in 1878-1880 we do not know. We do feel that there is sig- 
nificance in the deletion of this section in the reprinted article. 

Motivation for Mathematics 

We turn now to another question: what motivated a country 
doctor to turn to mathematics and, in particular, to the topic of 
squaring the circle. The Indianapolis Journal (February 21) reported 
simply: "Dr. Goodwin discovered the formula for squaring the circle 
eight years ago." This would have placed the "discovery" about 1888, 
some years after he moved from New Harmony. This date would 
agree with the 1889 date which Dr. Goodwin gives for the date of 
copyright for his discovery. Dr. Goodwin would have been of about age 
60 at this time. 

The Indianapolis Sun (February 6) reporter who interviewed 
Goodwin immediately after the bill was passed by the House was also 
interested in this question. He reports as follows: 

The reporter repeated a question often put before as to how 
he came to dabble in mathematics, for the doctor confessed that 
he had never devoted much time to it. Only since 1888 has he 
thought about the circumference of the circle. The doctor evaded 
the question time and again by saying: 

"If I were to say that the discoveries are revelations to me, 
they wouldn't believe it. This is an age of unbelief. Do you 
know it?" 

Dr. Goodwin did dally with a Loomis geometry a while, read 
what he could find about the circle, but found it of little service. 
A discovery like his owes no allegiance to any hitherto known 
truth in mathematics, for according to him the world has been 
of the opinion, for 2,000 years, that what he has done could not 
be done. 



History of Science 381 

We will note in several other instances that Dr. Goodwin often 
refers to the fact that he has solved all three of the famous problems 
of mathematics — squaring the circle, trisecting an angle, and duplicating 
a cube. Historically speaking, these were originally presented as 
geometrical construction problems, restricted to straightedge and com- 
pass, but nowhere does Dr. Goodwin refer to a compass and straight- 
edge construction for squaring the circle. Primary motivation for 
attacking these problems seems to be that peculiar combination of 
inquisitiveness, disbelief, ingenuity, persistence, and irrationality which 
has beset from mathematical time immemorial those who have been 
unable to comprehend them. In this sense Dr. Goodwin was probably 
no different from hundreds of other circle squarers. 

We shall offer a possible second reason, but this is only a con- 
jecture. New Harmony in a special sense epitomized education and to 
a large degree, scientific knowledge. Dr. Goodwin's experiences in 
New Harmony were such that he undoubtedly found himself in opposi- 
tion to the community — or if not the rank and file of the community — 
at least to some specific segments of it. This certainly included some 
of the medical profession, and possibly this may have spilled over to 
some of the more educationally elite. What better way to compensate 
for his problems and show up the opposition than to prove that mathe- 
maticians and scientists had been wrong for all these years, and that 
he had discovered "the truth"! Thus Dr. Goodwin's results may well 
have been "a product of New Harmony", but in an opposing rather 
than a creative sense. We know of no way to test this conjecture, 
but it offers an interesting hypothesis! 

We believe another factor was involved — probably not as original 
motivation, but as a feed-back and reenforcement agent. Dr. Goodwin 
developed the devotion of a zealot in his callings. Recall his impassioned 
letter describing the role of the physician in relation to the patient. 
Having made a mathematical discovery, he wanted to share it. And his 
sharing met with a considerable amount of favorable response — or at 
least so he interpreted it. This reassurance naturally was a justifying 
and accelerating feature which eventually was to turn into an obsession. 

National and Foreign Acceptance 

To illustrate this, let us turn to the period between 1888 and 
1897, between the time of the discovery and consideration of House 
Bill No. 246. We must relie entirely on several newspaper accounts 
for our information, and we must remember that all of this was trans- 
mitted to reporters by the good Doctor himself. 

The first account is from the Journal (February 21, 1897) : 

Dr. Goodwin had his formulas and laws derived from them 
copyrighted in the United States and in seven countries of Europe 
— England, Germany, Belgium, France, Austria, Italy, and Spain. 
During his visit to Washington he won the support of the pro- 
fessors at the National Astronomical Observatory, at the head of 
which is the celebrated Professor Hall, whose fame is secure with 
the discovery of the moons of Mars. Dr. Goodwin's demonstration 



382 Indiana Academy of Science 

was accepted by all at the observatory. When it was made clear 
to Professor Hall that the old multiple of "Pi" should be 3.2 instead 
of 3.1416 plus, he exclaimed: "I always thought the earth traveled 
pretty fast in its orbit." 

Professor Hall's practical mind at once grasped the fact that 
the known speed of the earth in its orbit was now explained 
because the orbit was much greater than the astronomers had 
figured it. Mr. Goodwin has an instrument constructed by Gardner, 
the well-known astronomical instrument maker at the Washington 
observatory, which gives a practical demonstration of the correct- 
ness of his formulas. The venerable author has a deskful of letters 
from mathematicians at the leading colleges in America, and, better 
than all, a letter from his agent in London showing that his demon- 
stration was presented to both Huxley and Tyndall and indorsed 
by them before it was copyrighted in England. 

It is difficult to accept this account as complete truth. The Pro- 
fessor Hall referred to was Asaph Hall, who in 1877 discovered the 
two moons of Mars and calculated their orbits. He was professor 
of mathematics at the U. S. Naval Observatory, in Washington, D.C., 
until his retirement in 1891. 

Dr. Goodwin and the Chicago World's Fair 

We turn to another episode in the pre-legislative years. In the 
New Harmony Register, September 2, 1892, under "Illinois Items" 
we find: "Dr. E. J. Goodwin, of Indiana, has been granted space at 
the world's fair to give scientific lectures." This would refer to the 
1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 

Amplification of this appears in the Journal Sunday supplement 
article (February 21): 

Dr. Goodwin discovered the formula for squaring the circle 
eight years ago, but not until the World's Fair did he make any 
effort to get his discovery before the world. He secured space in 
the liberal arts building for hanging his charts and intended to be 
present and make his demonstration to those visiting the educa- 
tional exhibit, but Selim H. Peabody, chief of the department, 
after granting the space, revoked his permit and advised the author 
to present his solution to the mathematical journals. 

Our knowledge of the World's Fair episode is limited to the 
above items. We have not been able to determine, either from the 
New Harmony papers nor from any records of the World's Fair 
exactly when the doctor's permit was revoked, or what led Mr. 
Peabody to do this. The episode is significant — approximately four 
years after his discovery Dr. Goodwin felt his results were important 
enough to receive the exposure that an exhibit at the World's Fair 
would afford. Furthermore, it supplied the impetus for an exposure 
to the mathematical world — which brings us to another chapter in the 
story of Dr. Goodwin. 



History of Science 383 

Dr. Goodwin and the American Mathematical Monthly 

We continue with the Journal's account. (Recall that Mr. Peabody 
had advised the author to present his solution to the mathematical 
journals.) 

Dr. Goodwin then sent his solution to the American Mathe- 
matical Journal, the highest authority in this country, and the 
editor instantly accepted it and printed it in the September num- 
ber of 1893, while the world's fair was in progress. It attracted 
the attention of mathematicians the world over, the scientific 
journals at Paris at once communicating with the author for 
original contributions to their papers. 

On Sunday, February 28, a week after the above had been pub- 
lished, there appeared two more columns in the Indianapolis Journal 
devoted to "Squaring the Circle." The first began with a letter to the 
editor from Wm. E. Heal, of Marion, Indiana, dated February 22 
(1897). We will have more to say about William Heal and the 
remainder of his letter, but for the moment we note just one of the 
paragraphs of the letter. 

It is stated that Dr. Goodwin's solution was sent to the 
editor of the American Journal of Mathematics and "instantly 
accepted" and published in the September, 1893, number. The 
writer is and has been for several years a reader of the above 
mentioned publication. The September, 1893, number is now in his 
library, bound with the other numbers for that year, and he can 
assure your readers that no such article appears there. And fur- 
ther, it is not likely to appear in that or any other mathematical 
publication of repute. 

Such was the response of a mathematician of that day — one that 
we of today would expect. Mr. Heal was both correct, and incorrect. 
No contribution of Dr. Goodwin appeared in the September, 1893 
issue, but one does indeed appear in July, 1894. Since the Journal's 
original reference has referred to the American Mathematical Journal 
as "the highest authority in this country," and "the editor instantly 
accepted it and printed it," the contribution must be reviewed in the 
context of the actual situation. 

The American Mathematical Monthly is today the official journal 
of the Mathematical Association of America. But the Association was 
not founded until 1915. For many years the Monthly carried the 
inscription, "The American Mathematical Monthly, founded in 1894 
by Benjamin F. Finkel, was published by him until 1913. From 1913 
to 1916 it was owned and published by representatives of fourteen 
Universities and Colleges in the Middle West." Finkel taught at Drury 
College, Kidder, Missouri, and published the journal with the assistance 
of a succession of associate editors. 

In the Fiftieth Anniversary Issue of the Monthly, Albert A. Bennett 
[1] wrote the history of the MAA before World War I, and in speaking 
of the Monthly before it was taken over by the Association refers to 
"the largely rustic quality of early issues." He also reported that 



384 Indiana Academy of Science 

"early issues brought much bitter argument and personal denunciation 
over what most of us would regard as matters of pedagogical taste." 

In July, 1894 (Volume 1, Number 7), in the department "Queries 
and Information," conducted by J. M. Colaw, member of the American 
Mathematical Society and principal of the high school in Montery, 
Virginia, there appears a contribution, "Quadrature of the Circle, by 
Edward J. Goodwin, Solitude, Indiana. Published by the request of the 
author." The article which follows is essentially the same as the 
content of House Bill No. 246. 

A year later, in the same department, we find another contribution 
of Dr. Goodwin [7]. 

(A) The trisection of an angle: The trisection of a right line taken 
as the chord of any arc trisects the angle of the arc; 

(B) Duplication of the Cube: Doubling the dimensions of a cube 
octuples its contents, and doubling its contents increases its 
dimensons twenty-five plus one per cent. 

By request of the author, 
Edw. J. Goodwin, Solitude, Indiana. 

Note again the "By request of the author"! Briefly, the editorial 
policy of the Monthly at its inception was to print whatever was sub- 
mitted (or at least as much as there was room for), without the 
screening or evaluation of one or more referees. Significant is the 
statement which appeared in the October, 1894 issue, where Editor 
Finkel wrote [5]: 

We have on hand a number of criticisms to leading articles in the 
Monthly, also a number of replies to previous controversies; but 
as we also have numerous papers of high order and great value, 
we desire that these shall appear first. 

One may suspect that there were criticisms of Dr. Goodwin's article 
on the quadrature of the circle, but if so, none was ever printed in 
the Monthly. 

It should be noted that Wm. Heal apparently was aware of the 
second contribution of Dr. Goodwin in the Monthly, since the last 
paragraph of his letter begins as follows: 

Concerning Dr. Goodwin's solution of the "trisection of an 
angle," it is only necessary to remark that any schoolboy with 
the slightest knowledge of elementary geometry can convince 
himself that it is absolutely false and incorrect. The solution is 
enough to resurrect old Euclid's mummy. As for Dr. Goodwin's 
solution of the "duplication of the cube," it is to be remarked that 
it is an approximation, nothing more. 

Der Tagliche Telegraph and House Bill No. 246 

We again pick up the story as it unfolded when the bill was 
introduced as legislation in 1897. Dr. Edington's article reports the 
legislative action as recorded in the Indianapolis papers, the Journal, 
the Sentinel, and the News. It did not include the reports of the Sun 






History of Science 385 

and of Der Tagliche Telegraph. Happily, at least from the viewpoint 
of the mathematician, voices were almost immediately raised in pro- 
test of what was happening. The Telegraph was a German language 
newspaper, a daily, with, as we shall see, a staff better qualified to 
meet the challenge of reporting on matters mathematical than its 
English speaking competitors. 

First, the article on January 19, the day after the bill was first 
introduced into the House (14): (translation) 

The Squaring of the Circle 

The squaring of the circle is not a myth. Someone is certain 
he has discovered this; the farmer Taylor I. Record from New 
Harmony, Posey County, is responsible for the bill dealing with this 
subject which was introduced yesterday in the House. 

The clerk of the House, 0. P. lies, succeeded in reading the 
Greek words with which the bill superabounded only with the 
greatest effort. The members could hardly believe their ears, as 
they were compelled to listen to the new way to accomplish this 
squaring, and how it should be taught in the schools. 

After the bill was read and the representatives had enough 
time to recover from their amazement and dread, the Speaker 
posed the humble question as to which committee the Squaring of 
the Circle should be referred. 

Gast of Bloomington, a Democrat, moved, amid great laughter, 
that the bill be referred to the Finance Committee, as it has 
made itself responsible for the solving of great problems, and 
since it has the time to do the job. 

Another representative arose and said that he believed the 
Committee on Swamplands was the appropriate place for successful 
wrestling with the problems. 

Midst general cheerfulness the Speaker then referred the 
"Squaring of the Circle" to the Committee on Swamplands where, 
in the swamp, the bill will find a deserved grave. 

The editorial writer for the Telegraph did his research promptly, 
and well. The very next day, January 20, the Telegraph carried an edi- 
torial on "Squaring the Circle," which we shall only summarize here. 
After noting the "soaring progressiveness" reached in the state of 
Indiana through the bill introduced by the representative "from the 
formerly communal colony of New Harmony in Posey County," the 
article traces the history of the squaring of the circle problem, men- 
tioning, among others, the Rhind Papyrus, Archimedes, Huygens, Lam- 
bert, Lindemann, and Weierstrass. The editorial closes as follows: 

Only the great group of the pseudo-educated concerns itself 
anymore with the squaring of the circle, but this with such eager- 
ness that the famous French academician Arago let it be known 
that each further solution of this sort sent to him would be tossed 
aside unread. This class of men is the same as that which con- 
tinually torments itself with the problem of perpetual motion. 



386 Indiana Academy of Science 

Well — such strange fellows there will always be. 

(Parenthetically, Dominique Arago (1786-1853) had been permanent 
secretary of the French Academy of Science, after having held the 
chair of Analytical Geometry at the Ecole Poly technique in which he 
succeeded Gaspard Monge.) 

There is little reason to suppose that many of the state legislators 
read the German Telegraphl As an indication of the attitude of at 
least some of the legislators over against foreign languages, witness 
another bill introduced into the same 1897 Legislature (but also not 
passed into law) — a bill which would have forbidden the printing of 
restaurant menus in French! 

There is one other item of interest from the Telegraph. On Febru- 
ary 15, three days after the bill was finally laid to rest by being 
indefinitely postponed by the Senate, we find the following: 

The Squaring of the Circle 

With regard to the bill introduced by a farmer from New 
Harmony concerning the squaring of the circle, a leaflet states, 
among other things: "An inaccuracy of computation cannot be 
avoided in the irrationality of the number 'Pi.' But this apparently 
does not satisfy those sages. They believe themselves destined to 
magnify this inaccuracy, and to publicly expose their wholly unclear 
view of mathematical concepts and values. But the matter also has a 
serious side. The delusion that everything can be altered through 
laws must have in such heads climbed to the heights of irreparably 
muddle-headed thinking." 

Fortunately the Senate was wiser than the House and received 
an unfavorable report from the committee. 

The bill is accordingly as dead as a coffin nail. 

This is the only reference to such a leaflet (ein Wechselblatt) 
that we have found. Perhaps it was an editorial from some other 
newspaper. 

Whether or not the German Telegraph was reajd by the editorial 
staffs of the other newspapers is something we cannot determine. 
If it was read by the staff of the Indianapolis Journal, they found 
it quite unconvincing. The Journal had printed the long Sunday Sup- 
plement article on February 21. The following day there appeared 
this brief editorial in the Journal: 

Some newspapers have been airing their supposed wit over 
a bill introduced in the Legislature to recognize a new mathematical 
discovery or solution of the problem of squaring the circle, made 
by Dr. Goodwin, of Posey county. It may not be the function of a 
Legislature to indorse such discoveries, but the average editor 
will not gain much by trying to make fun of a discovery that has 
been indorsed by the American Mathematical Journal, approved 
by the professors of the National Astronomical Observatory at 
Washington, including Professor Hall, who discovered the moons of 
Mars; declared absolutely perfect by professors at Ann Arbor 






History of Science 387 

and Johns Hopkins Universities, and copyrighted as original in 
seven countries of Europe. The average editor is hardly well 
enough versed in high mathematics to attempt to down such an 
array of authorities as that. Dr. Goodwin's discovery is as genuine 
as that of Newton or Gallileo, and it will endure, whether the 
Legislature indorses it or not. 

We should point out that the Journal did ultimately set the record 
straight, even if it did not publicly confess its previous editorial 
indiscretions. 

Wm. E. Heal vs. E. J. Goodwin 

We return now to the three items which appear in the Journal 
for Sunday, February 28. The first of these was the letter from Wm. 
E. Heal, previously mentioned. (Recall that he had not found Good- 
win's article in the Monthly, but he had looked in the wrong issue.) 
In his letter Heal also briefly recounted the history of the problem, 
ending with Lindemann's proof of the transcendency of -k, 1882. In 
fact, he had translated a later, simplified proof of the same result by 
Gordan, read it before the State Teachers' Association in Indianapolis 
in December, 1895, and afterwards published it in the American 
Mathematical Monthly (10). One paragraph of Heal's letter is of 
special interest: 

The permit to exhibit the solution at the world's fair was 
probably revoked because the chief of the department found he 
had made a mistake in admitting such "stuff." Felix Klein of 
Gottingen, Sophus Lie of Leipsic, and Henri Poincare of Paris are 
the acknowledged leaders of the mathematical thought of today. 
The writer had the pleasure of meeting the first named and 
hearing him lecture at the Mathematical Congress of the world's 
fair in August, 1893. In one of his lectures (on the impossibility 
of the quadrature of the circle) he said: "The proof of the 
transcendency of Pi will hardly diminish the number of circle 
squarers, however, for this class of people has always shown an 
absolute distrust of mathematicians and a contempt for mathe- 
matics that cannot be overcome by any amount of demonstration." 

Who was William E. Heal? Let us again refer to Dr. Edington's 
history of mathematics in Indiana (4): 

To the best of my knowledge the earliest research paper 
by an Indiana native was published by William Ephraim Heal 
(1856-1925) in 1879 in Volume 6 of the Analyst, the only mathe- 
matical periodical being published until the American Journal of 
Mathematics appeared in 1878. Heal received his education in 
the Marion, Indiana, Normal School, and he never was pro- 
fessionally associated with any college or university. Mathematical 
research was his avocation, and he published a number of research 
papers in American journals and one in the Proceedings of the 
London Mathematical Society on Number Theory and advanced 
Theory of Equations. He became a member of the London Mathe- 



388 Indiana Academy of Science 

matical Society in May, 1892. He was undoubtedly the outstanding 
Indiana mathematician before 1900. He was one of the first four 
Indiana men elected to the New York Mathematical Society in 
April, 1891. . . . Heal became a professional auditor but spent 
the last fifteen years of his life in U. S. Government Service in 
Washington, D. C. 

We return to the February 28 Journal for the second of the three 
articles. It immediately follows HeaPs letter. 

WHAT DR. GOODWIN SAYS 

The venerable Dr. Goodwin fairly exploded with laughter when 
he saw the above letter declaring that the doctor's demonstration 
of the quadrature of the circle is grossly false because "every 
mathematician knows it is impossible." 

"Of course they know it is impossible," said Dr. Goodwin, 
"and particularly this Mr. Heal, whom I do not know. It must be 
impossible to square the circle, for Mr. Heal says so. Now isn't 
that a bright argument? Drop out the middle initial of W. E. 
Heal's name," said the doctor, "and it is "W-h-e-a-1", or wheel, and 
if a man has "wheels" in his name he may also have them in his 
head, and a man with wheels in his head always thinks he is the 
only man on earth whose trolley is not misplaced." 

Here the doctor laughed again and exclaimed: "You can't expect 
me to answer this letter. He simply denies without giving any 
evidence that he has so much as read my copyrighted demonstra- 
tion printed in the Journal last Sunday. A denial is not a proof. 
I may deny his existence, but that does not alter the fact. What 
if Professor Beman, of Ann Arbor, is writing a book to demon- 
strate the impossibility of the quadrature of the circle? My demon- 
stration is already out. Professor Beman should have written his 
book a century ago to have been original. This is an age of progress. 
New things come up every day. Seems to me I have heard of a 
discovery that enables a physician to look through the human body, 
to observe the pulsations of the heart, count the number of nails 
and pants buttons swallowed by a baby, and so on. How long ago 
was it anyone might have denied the possibility of the X-ray? 
But not today. 

"No, you must excuse me from answering this man. He is 
only one of thousands, many of them learned men, who will declare 
it is impossible to square the circle. But if he is a real mathematician 
he would not say it is impossible after reading my demonstration." 

"There is no mystery or quackery in that demonstration. A 
schoolboy can be made to see it if he has mastered the elements of 
geometry. I can't deceive anyone. You can take out a tape line 
and verify my demonstration in the fraction of a minute." 

"But cannot you suggest some simple example by which the 
quadrature of the circle may be — " 

"Of course I can. Here: Tell any one who questions my demon- 
stration to describe a circle whose radius is 5-8 (the diameter thus 



History of Science 389 

being l l A). The circumference is 3.2 according to my ratio. Then 
circumscribe the circle with an equilateral rectangle and compute 
the area of the rectangle first, which you can do if you know 
anything about geometry. Then allow one square inch of area for 
the circle and see if the difference between the area of the circle 
and the area of the circumscribed rectangle proves that the area of 
the circle is more than one-fifth greater than the area of a square 
with an equal perimeter. I am offering five prizes of $200 each to 
any man who will disprove five of my propositions, and one of 
the prizes is for my quadrature of the circle. Mr. Heal might win 
one of those prizes if he is able to prove what he says. 

"According to the old method every mathematician has to 
compute the area of a circle as more than one-fifth greater than 
the area of a square on an equal perimeter. The absurdity is not 
in my demonstration, for mathematicians all agreed that to square 
a circle is to find a square whose perimeter exactly equals the 
circumference of the given circle. That being the case, is it not 
simple enough to say that one side of the unknown square must 
be equal to the quadrant of the given circle? Don't you know that?" 

"Why of course, doctor." 

"Well, then, I'm done with quibblers." 

With this the doctor indicated that the interview was at 
an end. 

Dr. Goodwin left Indianapolis for his home in Solitude, Posey 
county on Wednesday, but announced that he would return here, 
perhaps in May, to give a public lecture and demonstrate his 
propositions, when he hoped to meet all the mathematicians of the 
State who care to see several propositions corrected after a cen- 
tury of errors taught in the schools. 

It is due the doctor to say that his copyrighted demonstration 
printed in last Sunday's Journal was printed in the July number, 
1894, of the American Mathematical Monthly, instead of the Sep- 
tember number of 1893, as was incorrectly stated. 

Following immediately thereafter is the third item appearing in 
the Journal: 

HISTORY OF THE QUADRATURE 

Dr. Goodwin's claim that he has squared the circle has resulted 
in a number of communications declaring that Dr. Goodwin's demon- 
stration is in error because in it he asserts that the ratio of one 
side of a square to its diagonal is as 7 to 10. According to the 
Pythagorean theorem, long since adopted by mathematicans and 
proved by Euclid, 300 B.C., the sum of the squares on the sides of 
a right triangle are equal to the square on the hypotenuse. If Dr. 
Goodwin's demonstration be correct, this old theorem is incorrect, 
for the sum of the squares on his right triangle is 98, while the 
square on the hypotenuse is 100. Mathematicians also believe they 
have demonstrated that the old multiple "Pi" cannot be as great 
as 3.2, which Dr. Goodwin finds. They arrive at this circumscribing 



390 Indiana Academy of Science 

a square about a circle whose diameter is one. The circumscribing 
square will then have a perimeter of 4. Reducing the circumscrib- 
ing square by duplicating the sides over and over again, thus 
constantly drawing the perimeter nearer and nearer to the cir- 
cumference of the circle, mathematicians find that when the square's 
perimeter has so nearly approached the circumference of the circle 
as to practically coincide, it measures 3.1416 plus, and this is taken 
as "Pi." 

The article then quotes from "the new geometry just issued by Andrew 
W. Phillips and Irving Fisher, professors at Yale University," giving 
a brief history of pi, concluding with reference to Lindemann's proof 
that 7T is transcendental. 

With that the Journal appears to have closed the story — there 
were no apologies or further admonitions to editors to check their 
authorities ! 

The Chicago Tribune and House Bill No. 246 

During the floor discussion of the bill in the Senate on Friday 
afternoon (February 12), Senator Hubbell said that "in reading the 
leading newspapers of Chicago and the East, he had found that the 
Indiana State Legislature had laid itself open to ridicule by the action 
taken on the bill." 

We are able to trace the handling of the story in one Chicago 
paper, the Chicago Tribune. On February 6 it reported briefly the 
House action of the previous day of suspending the rules and adopting 
"a new principle to define the relationship of the circumference of a 
circle to its diameter," the new value being 3.2 instead of the old 
principle of 3.1416. "The new method is the work of Dr. Goodwin, a 
physician and mathematician of Posey County." 

An enterprising reporter or editorial writer for the Tribune did 
what enterprising newsman should do under such circumstances — he 
contacted a mathematician to find out what this was all about! As a 
result, in the Sunday Tribune (February 7) a second newsstory and 
also an editorial appeared. Prof. Elias Colbert of Northwestern Univer- 
sity was questioned and was quoted as follows. "The tendency of mod- 
ern school methods is to shorten work as much as possible. My im- 
pression was that the ratio was unchanged, and the object in altering 
the rule was to save school boys a lot of multiplying." The article also 
stated that the rule using 3.1416 "is one whose validity cannot be 
shaken. Any attempt to change it is bogus mathematics. The general 
impression was that the Indiana school children were getting lazy, 
and the man who contributed the 3.2 rule came to their rescue." 

In a delightful editorial in the same issue, entitled "Indana's Finger 
in the Pi," the writer enlarged upon this theme. 

The Indiana Board of Health having taken radical action 
towards the suppression of kissing, the State Legislature has felt 
impelled, apparently, to attempt a similar crusade against an 
established custom, and has voted for the repression of the mathe- 



History of Science 391 

matical Pi. Since the days of Euler, Pi has enjoyed a combination 
of all the numerals, with the exception of 6 and 8, and when 
delineated in all of its glory has been known as 3.1415927. Its 
early use was confined to multiplying the diameters of circles by 
itself to find the circumferences, but it has subsequently played 
an important part in the development of the species by bringing 
out in the young all their latent and innate depravity. Young men 
of unquestioned morality have been known to battle successfully 
with the trials of life up to the time they first made the acquaintance 
of Pi, but the uncompromising obstinacy of this debased array of 
numerals to contribute to correct solutions of problems has unset- 
tled all sound principles and sown the seeds of reckless profanity. 

The Indiana Legislature undoubtedly has been inspired by this 
historic circumstance to restrict the pernicious influence of this 
unholy mathematical factor. The House has therefore decided that 
hereafter in the State of Indiana Pi shall be 3.2. All that comet- 
like tail of perplexing figures is to be cut off. Circumferences of 
circles will not be the same number of times the diameters as they 
used to be but a trifle more in Indiana. 

The immediate effect of this change will be to give all circles 
when they enter Indiana either greater circumferences or less 
diameters. An Illinois circle or a circle originating in Ohio will 
find its proportions modified as soon as it lands on Indiana soil. 
It will find itself under the sway of a modified Pi. But this revolu- 
tionizing effect on circles will be a small circumstance compared 
to the healthy moral tone that will be restored to the young 
people of Indiana who have been suffering from a Pi Blight. A 
Pi that is so simple as 3.2 ought to be free from any entangling 
features, but if perchance it still proves obdurate no doubt the 
Legislature will promptly lop off another decimal and call it 3. 

This simplification of the mathematical Pi may be the fore- 
runner of some similar modification of its etymological associates, 
both of which are known as Pie. Pie, as constituted at present, 
consists of a mixture of foodstuffs or lead type, according to the 
circumstances of its production. Both mixtures are frequently 
vague and contain ingredients of their kind as multitudinous as 
those that have cumbered the usefulness of Pi. Any legislation that 
will assure a fixed and simple identity to pies, such as has been 
provided for Pi, should be welcome to all the pie makers or pie 
eaters in the land. 

On February 13 the Tribune reported the ultimate fate of the 
bill under the headline "Senators Afraid to Change Pi." 

The bill was about to be passed when the point was raised 
that the Legislature had no power to declare a truth, and it was 
indefinitely postponed. The State Superintendent has accepted the 
demonstration and it is understood will introduce the same in 
Indiana text books. . . . Dr. Goodwin has his formula copyrighted 
not only in this country and also in 7 countries of Europe. 



392 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Chicago Tribune had kept close watch on another bill before 
the Indiana Legislature, one which was introduced by E. I. Patterson 
of Franklin County, which would have made it "unlawful for any 
person or persons to engage in playing football in the State of 
Indiana "(January 23, 1897). It was noted that this was "the first 
measure thus far proposed that has met with applause when its title 
was read." This time the Tribune was supportive of the bill. On 
January 24 it stated, "This is a move in the right direction, and should 
be followed by similar legislation in other states. There is no room 
in a civilized community for demoralizing contests of this character." 
It did report (January 30) that "Colleges are getting together against 
the bill to stop football playing. DePauw University students had a 
meeting, and a committee was planned to lobby against the bill." 

Before leaving the football bill one other item should be men- 
tioned. In its column on "Views of the State Press" on its own editorial 
page, the Indianapolis News for February 11 reprinted the following 
item: 

If football is killed in Indiana, hundreds of young men will go 
to more enlightened States for their education and the enjoyment 
of such athletic privileges as experience has demonstrated is bene- 
ficial to them. 

This item in support of football originally appeared in — the South 
Bend News] 

Perhaps this is an appropriate place to give one paper's final 
evaluation of the entire work of the 1897 Indiana Legislature. The 
following appeared in the New Harmony Register on March 12, 1897, 
and perhaps its political bias is showing! 

(Special to New Harmony Register) The legislature died a natural 
death yesterday, without any blaze of glory. Its chief features were 
the seizing of everything in sight for Republican office seekers. 

The New York Herald Tribune and House Bill No. 246 

We are also able to recount the handling of the story in the 
New York Daily Tribune, where two editorial references appear. It 
should be noted that both of these appeared after the bill was termi- 
nated by the Senate. The second of these appeared on February 24, 
and is entitled "Vaudeville Legislators." It begins "An unusual number 
of freak bills have turned up in state legislatures this year," and then 
goes on to recount some of the more bizarre bills introduced in Mis- 
souri, Nebraska, and Indiana. Indiana was noted for, among others, 
the bill compelling hotels to print their bills of fare in English, and 
"a bill about the true method of squaring a circle, and though the 
Speaker cruelly referred it to the Committee on Swamp Lands, it has 
actually passed." The concluding paragraph is of particular note as 
a reflection on the times and the legislators of 1897 in much broader 
terms than just Indiana House Bill No. 246. 

While these examples by no means exhaust the list of fantastic 
bills, introduced in various legislatures, they give a fair idea of 



History of Science 393 

their character. The men who introduce these bills are classed as 
sane and sensible men, which only goes to show that sane and 
sensible men can occasionally do very foolish things. These vaude- 
ville antics of state legislators do no particular harm, perhaps, but 
the time taken up in discussing such absurd bills is wholly wasted 
and the time of a legislator is paid for out of the pockets of the 
people. 

An earlier article appeared in the New York Tribune of Saturday, 
February 13. The editorial is particularly relevant to our story as it 
was reprinted in the New Harmony Times, in its February 28 issue. We 
first give the editorial as it appeared in the New Harmony paper. 

Squaring the Circle in Indiana 

From the time when Euclid first passed the laws of geometry 
up till recently, no legislator has sought to amend it. To one who 
has studied history there is nothing surprising in the fact that 
these laws, so long held binding, were the enactments of one man, 
and not of the Legislature of Athens. That was the custom of the 
day, as it was shown by the legislation of Drako and Solon. In 
these democratic times, however, it is not unnatural that a legis- 
lative body, duly representing the people, should procede to the 
enactment of other similar geometric laws. The Indiana General 
Assembly has, in fact, just done so. On Friday of last week it 
passed a bill providing that the area of a circle shall be and 
hereby is equal to that of a square whose perimeter equals that 
of a circle. This is the old problem of "squaring the circle" done 
away with by the will of the people. Great is the people when it 
arises in its might and majesty! At the same time down goes 
"pi," that enemy of youth, that wearisome number that begins 3.14 
and continues beyond the utmost limits of patience. This law, if 
signed by the Governor, puts on the statute books the mathe- 
matical discovery of Dr. Goodwin of famous and destined to be 
more celebrated Posey County. To be sure, it makes the area of 
the Indiana circle somewhat smaller than that of the falsely pre- 
tentious circle of the rest of the world. Let us hope it does not 
similarly affect the volume of spheres, lest the real capacity of an 
almost spherical cranium may be much less than its apparent 
capacity. 

New York Tribune. 

The alert reader will note the mathematical error of the writer — 
an increased value of pi would increase the area of the Indiana circle. 
But the writer would claim literary license if not mathematical ac- 
curacy, for he had a point to make. The original editorial in the New 
York Tribune [18] contained one additional sentence, which was de- 
leted in the New Harmony Times. 

How seriously that would affect the head of Dr. Goodwin, which 
seems, by reason of its size, to be in irrepressible conflict with 
the confines of the universe! 



394 Indiana Academy of Science 

The other New Harmony paper, the Register (this is the same 
paper which carried the two letters in 1880 concerning medical ethics), 
kept the progress of the bill before the home people, often using items 
from the Indianapolis papers. The fact that the terminology of the bill 
had been considered so complex was something which had to be cor- 
rected for the local readers, and so on February 19 it reprinted the 
first paragraph of the bill, preceded by this sentence: 

It is probably the strangest bill ever acted upon by our legislature, 
and explains itself in the following clear, simple, comprehensive, 
and transparent manner: . . . 

(Or was the editor's tongue in cheek?) 

Dr. Goodwin's Mathematics 

It is not the purpose of this paper to attempt to analyze the 
mathematics of the circle as developed by Dr. Goodwin. It is ap- 
propriate to point to the crux of the matter, which really is not ap- 
parent if one reads only the statement of House Bill No. 246. Dr. 
Goodwin began simply by redefining a "circular area." In his contri- 
bution to the American Mathematical Monthly he begins: 

A circular area is equal to the square on a line equal to the 
quadrant of the circumference; and the area of a square is equal 
to the area of the circle whose circumference is equal to the 
perimeter of the square. (Copyright by the author, 1889. All rights 
reserved.) 

(Fortunately the copyright has expired!) 

Of course the quadrature of the circle problem is to find a square 
whose area is exactly the same as that "enclosed by the given circle." 
Historically this problem was first presented as a geometrical con- 
struction problem, in that such a square was to be actually constructed 
by means of only compass and straightedge. 

Having begun with a false hypothesis (really an incorrect defini- 
tion), Dr. Goodwin was led to various conclusions, but none of these 
seemingly by deductive reasoning. Several newspaper reporters en- 
deavored to pin the Doctor down on his mathematics, but he always 
worked his way out of the situation without giving any real answers. 
The Sun reporter does give the specific rules as Dr. Goodwin gave them 
to him: 

To find the circumference of a circle: Multiply the diameter by 
3.2. To find the area of a circle: Divide the circumference by 4 
and square the quotient. To find the solid contents of a sphere: Divide 
its circumference by 4 and cube the quotient. 

Just for the circle alone Dr. Goodwin thus introduces two errors — 
an incorrect circumference-to-diameter ratio, and then the incorrect 
assumption that a given perimeter, whether in circular or square form, 
would enclose the same area. In House Bill No. 246 this latter re- 
lationship is stated in the form of a proportion, which has led to the 
incorrect inference that he was advocating the value of 4 for ic. Any 



History of Science 395 

attempt to follow the Doctor's "logic" in any of his mathematical 
explanations is thus doubly compounded — one never knows exactly which 
figure he is referring to at any time. 

A Description of Dr. Goodwin 

We are indebted to the reporter of the Indianapolis Sun for a 
vivid description of Dr. Goodwin as a person. Dr. Goodwin was inter- 
viewed by this reporter immediately after the bill had passed the House, 
and this report appears in the February 6 issue. 

Typical of that era of the newspaper, the headlines are in five tiers 
and three different type sizes. Following are several paragraphs from 
the story. No explanatory comments are necessary! 

A MAN OF 'GENIUS' 

SOME FOLKS DON'T CALL IT THAT, HOWEVER. 

Dr. Goodwin Pays no Attention to Their Taunts, 

BUT KEEPS CLOSE TO HIS CROCHET WORK 

And Hopes to See the Day When the World Will Believe His Theory 

of a Round Square or Whatever You Call It. 

"If I live ten years, and I hope I shall, you watch out for 
Goodwin. My discovery will revolutionize mathematics. The as- 
tronomers have all been wrong. There's about 40,000,000 square 
miles on the surface of this earth that isn't here. Watch out for 
Goodwin if you live ten years." 

These were the parting words which Dr. Goodwin gave a SUN 
reporter who called to ask him about the mathematical discovery 
presented to the state of Indiana in the form of a bill passed in 
the legislature, Friday afternoon. . . . 

Dr. Goodwin is a tall angular man, and is stoop-shouldered. 
His hair is iron-gray and his mustache likewise. He wears a neglige 
shirt without necktie and buttons a long Prince Albert close up to 
his neck. He is nervous. While slipping off his tongue's end an 
avalanche of mathematical terms in explanation of his discovery, 
his left eye twitches, both eyes flash and his features are electri- 
fied with genius, or something akin to it. His face beamed for a 
minute when he was told that his bill had passed the house. But 
he avoids publicity, has avoided it all his life. He lives down at 
Solitude, Posey county, and prefers to be away from towns and 
noises. He stays in his room on Ohio St. most of the time. Oc- 
casionally he ventures out in the state house. In his room he 
has his pamphlets of lectures on the relativity of relations, etc., 
etc., solving problems of life and the universe that have made the 
sages of all times scratch their heads until they became bald. 

On the bed in his room lay an old violin on which he plays the 
old-time tunes to beguile the passing hours of waiting until the 
world speaks regarding his discovery. 

"I'm contending with a boycott of silence. That's what I have 
been through for many years," he said in explanation of his 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

struggles of the past few years. His story has it that his dis- 
covery is copyrighted in seven European countries, but that 
despite the truth of his find [sic], the world has been loth to 
recognize the value of it. Hence he speaks of the "boycott of sil- 
ence." If men will only see that he has made a discovery, science 
will be transformed. . . . 

Dr. Goodwin has ideas on other subjects than mathematics. He 
has studied force and demonstrated that Herbert Spencer has been 
on the wrong tack entirely. He offers rewards of from $200 to 
$10,000 to any person who will disprove assertions about his "law 
of life" and other things. If these prizes are not won by some- 
body by the time a certain period of years shall have passed, he's 
going to set out on a lecturing tour and explain it all. 

Dr. Goodwin doesn't belong to any church, but says he's 
close to being a universalist. He has ideas on the central idea 
of the bible, and can quote you as much from Paul as you like. 
It is the carnal in man, according to his views, that prevents ter- 
restrial perfection. . . . 

He has an acquaintance with many noted educators, and has 
never had any of them deny the truth of his assertions. This he 
takes to mean that he is right. He never votes, he avoids po- 
litical discussions, and will return to Solitude to make more dis- 
coveries as soon as he can. 

We have found no reference to Edward J. Goodwin in the period 
from the defeat of the bill until his death on June 22, 1902, some 
five years later. Perhaps he would have attributed this to the fact 
that he had been denied the ten years he had hoped for in order to 
revolutionize mathematics. 

The Workingmen's Institute Library 

One of the legacy's of William Maclure, who joined with Robert 
Owen in the early years of the Owenite experiment in New Harmony, 
was the Workingmen's Institute, for the self improvement of those 
"who work with their hands." Still in existence today is the library of 
the Institute, which together with a museum and art gallery houses 
many of the records and memorabilia of the early years of New 
Harmony. The building which houses the library was built in 1893, 
with a large share of the funds given by a more famous physician in 
the annals of New Harmony, Dr. Edward Murphy. The New Harmony 
Register for July 7, 1893 lists the items placed into the corner stone 
at that time — there is no listing of any manuscripts of E. J. Goodwin. 

In the files of the library today is a three-by-five card, on which is 
typed "Goodwin, Edward J M.D. 1825-1902," and on which is pasted 
four newspaper clippings. Three are very brief items, clipped from the 
"Fifty Years Ago" column of the local paper, with a pencil notation 
indicating the original date. 

Dr. E. J. Goodwin left New Harmony to locate in Springfield. 
(1880 May) 



History of Science 397 

Dr. E. J. Goodwin, from Owensville, located here. (1878) 

Dr. E. J. Goodwin died June 23— aged 77 years. (1902) 
These items thus date back from 1952 to 1928. 

The fourth item apparently is of somewhat corresponding date, 
although thus far we have not been able to complete identification. 

Found In A Collection 

Among the manuscripts left by the late Clarence Lichten- 
berger is a treatise on Squaring the Circle or to give the title the 
treatise bears, "Quadrature of the Circle," by Dr. Edward J. 
Goodwin, a former resident of Springfield. Dr. Goodwin was one 
of the noted men of Posey county a generation ago and possessed a 
nation-wide reputation as a mathematician, he having gained 
fame by his solutiton of squaring the circle problem. He delivered 
many lectures on the subject and attracted the attention of scien- 
tific men everywhere. However his theory failed to be adopted and 
he died disappointed not to see his dream realized. 

It can be noted that the contribution of Dr. Goodwin to the American 
Mathematical Monthly was also entitled "Quadrature of the Circle." 
Mention will be made below of a book Goodwin had written on his 
subject, but we have no way of further identifying either of these items. 

Obituaries of Dr. Goodwin 

We have already indicated the absence of source material on 
Dr. Goodwin from 1897 until his death. That he continued in his belief 
of the truthfulness and value of his discovery until the very end we 
are able to verify. 

There are two obituaries that we have been able to locate, printed 
at the time of his death and in the local newspapers. They stand in 
striking contrast to the polemic articles which appeared five years 
earlier in the Indianapolis papers, for these appeared in small news- 
papers, close to the people who knew him — and for them he was a 
prophet with honor in his own county! First, the obituary in the 
Mount Vernon Western Star, June 26, 1902. (Mt. Vernon is the county 
seat of Posey County.) 

The many friends of Dr. Edwin [sic] J. Goodwin will regret 
to learn of his death which occurred at his home in Lynn township 
Sunday evening after an illness of about six weeks. He was 77 
years of age and no one was better known in this county than 
the doctor, having given years of his time to mathematics and by 
so doing convinced many of the mathematicians of the Country that 
by his principle he could square a circle. He leaves a wife, son and 
daughter to mourn his death. 

But undoubtedly the most touching of all the items concerning 
Dr. Goodwin is the story in the New Harmony Times, Friday, June 27, 
1902. 

End of a Man Who Wanted to Benefit the World 



398 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Edwin [sic'] J. Goodwin died at his home in Springfield 
Sunday, aged 77 years. He had been in feeble health for some 
time and death came at the end of a long season of illness. Dr. 
Goodwin was no ordinary man, and those meeting him never failed 
to be inspired by this fact. He was of distinguished appearance 
and came from Virginia where he received an excellent education. 

He has devoted the last years of his life in an endeavor to 
have the government recognize and include in its schools at West 
Point and Annapolis his method of squaring the circle. He wrote 
a book on his system and it was commented on largely and 
received many favorable notices from professors of mathematics. 

He felt that he had a great invention and wished the world to 
have the benefit of it. In years to come Dr. Goodwin's plan for 
measuring the heavens may receive the approbation which was un- 
tiringly sought by its orginator. 

As years went on and he saw the child of his genius still 
unreceived by the scientific world, he came broken with disappoint- 
ment, although he never lost hope and trusted that before his end 
came he would see the world awakened to the greatness of his 
plan and taste for a moment the sweetness of success. He was 
doomed to disappointment, and in the peaceful confines of village 
life the tragedy of a fruitless ambition was enacted. 

Dr. Goodwin leaves a widow, one son, John Goodwin, and a 
daughter, Mrs. Clifford Thompson. The funeral occurred Monday 
from the home in Springfield. 

Dr. Goodwin is buried in Moore Cemetery, near Farmersville, Ind., 
on the New Harmony-Mt. Vernon road. His grave is marked with a 
medium-sized tombstone, with the family name GOODWIN. Under- 
neath is inscribed his name, Edward J. Goodwin, Dec. 30, 1824, June 22, 
1902. Beneath that is still another inscription — not, as perhaps you 
have dared to hope for — a "squared circle," but the words 

"Crowned with mercy, how sweet will eternal friendship be." 

When Dr. Edington wrote his paper on House Bill No. 246 he said, 
"My purpose in presenting this paper is to have on record in an ac- 
cessible place the facts concerning this most interesting piece of at- 
tempted legislation. The drawing of morals I leave to others." 

We close in similar open-ended fashion. For clearly there are dif- 
ferent morals to be drawn — by different persons: professional mathe- 
maticians and scientists, newspaper editors, legislators, the-common- 
man-in-the-street. But let us not expect any from the circle squarers 
themselves — we cannot break through into their phantasy land! 



History of Science 399 

Literature Cited 

1. Bennett, A. A. 1967. Brief history of the Mathematical Association of America 
before World War II. Am. Math. Monthly 74:1-11. 

2. The Chicago Tribune. 1897. January 23, 24, 30; February 6, 7, 13. 

3. Edington, W. E. 1935. House bill no. 246. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 45:206-210. 



4. 1966. Mathematics in Indiana, 1816 to 1966, from the rule of three to 

the electronic computer. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 76:116-128. 

5. Finkel, B. F. 1894. Editorial comment. Am. Math. Monthly 1 :369. 

6. Goodwin, E. J. 1894. Quadrature of the circle. Am. Math. Monthly 1:246-247. 

7. 1895. Trisection of an angle. Am. Math. Monthly 2:337. 

8. 1897. Application for certification upon license, May 26, 1897. Original 

in Archives of Board of Medical Registration and Examination of Indiana, Indianap- 
Indiana. Indiana Physician's License No. 1382 issued May 28, 1897. 

9. Goodwin, J. S. 1897. The Goodwin families in America. William and Mary College 
Quarterly Historical Magazine. 6 : (Supplement, October) 94-98. 

10., Heal, W. E. 1896. Quadrature of the circle. Am. Math. Monthly 3:41. 

11. The Indianapolis Journal. 1897. February, 21, 22, 28. 

12. The Indianapolis News. 1897. February 11, 16. 

13. The Indianapolis Sun. 1897. January 19; February 6. 

14. The Indianapolis Telegraph (Der Tdgliche Telegraph). 1897. January 19, 20; Feb- 
ruary 6, 15. 

15. The Mt. Vernon Western Star. 1902. June 26. 

16. The New Harmony Register. 1880. April 23, 30. 1892: September 2. 1893: July 7. 
1897: January 29; February 12, 19; March 12. 

17. The New Harmony Times. 1897. January 22; February 19, 28. 1902: June 27. 

18. The New York Tribune (Herald-Tribune). 1897. February 13, 24. 

19. Shepard, J. K. 1961. Legislating Mathematics. The Indianapolis Star Magazine. 
April 30, 1961: 10-14. 

20. Waldo, C. A. 1916. What might have been. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 26:445-446. 



History of Indiana Department of Natural Resources : 

A Symposium. 

John J. Favinger, Moderator, 

John Patton, Robert Hollingsworth, Burt Hamrick, Louis Hasenstab, 

Robert Jackson, W. B. Barnes 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

The Department of Natural Resources as it is organized at present 
was created by an amalgamation of existing state agencies by the 
General Assembly in 1965. The first of the agencies that are an integral 
part of the Department had its beginning when David Dale Owen, M.D., 
of New Harmony was appointed by the Governor in 1837 to be Geologist 
of the State of Indiana and to conduct a geological reconnaissance of 
Indiana. This first survey, authorized by the General Assembly on 
February 6, 1837, was an "ad hoc" assignment to be completed and a 
report issued for the use of the next legislature. In 1839 the General 
Assembly authorized continuation of a geological survey of the State 
for one additional year, but Dr. Owen was not reappointed, and state- 
supported geological work ceased for a time. 

In 1851 the newly created State Board of Agriculture authorized 
Dr. Ryland T. Brown to act as its "Geological Agent", and in this 
capacity Dr. Brown in 1853 issued a report on various aspects of the 
State's geology and mineral resources. The Brown survey was an 
administrative action of the State Board of Agriculture, rather than 
a commission from the General Assembly. 

The General Assembly recommissioned David Dale Owen to under- 
take a second geological survey in 1859. Before this project was com- 
pleted, Owen died suddenly in 1860, and the survey was finished by 
his younger brother Richard, who was appointed State Geologist. The 
results of the second Owen survey were published in 1862, and again 
state-supported geological work was suspended. 

After the Civil War a Department of Geology and Natural Science 
was created by the Legislature and there has been continuous survey 
work since 1869. At times the State Geologist was elected and, for 
thirty years prior to the 1919 legislation creating the Department of 
Conservation, he headed up a Department of Geology and Natural 
Resources. 

In 1857 the first closed seasons on game reflected concern for 
diminishing supplies of deer, wild turkey, quail, ruffed grouse, and 
prairie chicken. Ten years later it became unlawful to trap, net, shoot, 
or seine fish in all Indiana waters, except the St. Joseph and Ohio Rivers. 

The State Museum gradually evolved during this period from 
geological samples and other natural history specimens gathered by 
the geologist and their aides during the early surveys. Returning 
Civil War veterans deposited flags, souvenirs, and other memorabila in 
the growing collection. The dusty cabinets in the basement of the 
State House have been replaced by the modern highly professional 

400 



History of Science 401 

exhibits in new quarters in the old Indianapolis City Hall at Ohio and 
Alabama. This magnificent example of classical revival architecture 
has never been more appropriately utilized than at the present time. 

In 1871 spearing of fish was prohibited during part of the year, 
and two years later certain song birds were given protection by law. 

In 1881 the Office of Commissioner of Fisheries was created. Colonel 
Wm. J. Dennis was appointed Commissioner and called a state con- 
vention to discuss various problems. Governor Alvin Hovey noted the 
polluted condition of the Ohio River at this convention. About this time 
enforcement of game and fish laws became an additional responsibility 
of township road supervisors. 

The transition period between the Nineteenth and Twentieth 
Centuries was reflected by a flurry of activity in Conservation legis- 
lation. The Office of Commissioner of Fisheries was expanded to in- 
clude Game in 1899. The original Indiana San Jose Scale and Nursery 
Inspection Law was passed by the General Assembly that same year, 
with the enforcement in charge of Professor James Troop at Purdue. 

In 1901 the State Board of Forestry was created and the first 
hunting permits issued by the Commissioner of Fisheries and Game. 
Two years later deer, wild turkey and ruffed grouse were given year- 
around protection. 

In 1903 the Clark County State Forest was created, and the first 
forest fire protection laws were enacted two years later. 

The year 1907 saw the Fish and Game Laws incorporated into the 
criminal code and the requirement that one have a license to hunt 
rabbits outside his home township. 

This same year the State Entomologist's Office was made into an 
autonomous state agency with headquarters in the State House and in- 
creased regulatory functions. In 1909 responsibility for apiary inspection 
to control American foulbrood, a serious and infectious bee disease, 
was added. 

In addition to the beekeeping laws, 1909 saw a closed season on 
prairie chickens and an event of considerable impact to Indiana's 
natural resources when C. C. Deam was appointed State Forester. 

Any historical account of the development of our Department of 
Natural Resources would be remiss without mention of Charles Deam, 
Frank Wallace, and Richard Lieber, who appeared on the scene in 
approximately that order. Each of these in separate fields worked 
toward increased cognizance of the need for regulation and protection 
of all natural resources. 

A State Parks Commission was appointed in 1915, and 1916 a 
State Park system was created with McCormick's Creek as Indiana's 
first State Park and Turkey Run the second. Richard Lieber was a 
member of this Commission. 

With the establishment of the State Park system came a move- 
ment to consolidate it and related agencies into a single Department 
to eliminate duplicaton of effort and to present a unified approach to 
the preservation and conservation of our natural resources. In 1917 



402 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Corydon State Memorial was established; the 1919 General As- 
sembly created the Department of Conservation consisting of the fol- 
lowing divisions: 

1. Geoology 

2. Entomology 

3. Forestry 

4. Land and Waters 

5. Fish and Game 

The existing agencies were abolished and absorbed into the new 
Department with most of the incumbent personnel retained. Richard 
Lieber was appointed the first Director, and he also served as Super- 
intendent of Lands and Water (State Parks and Memorials) and, 
initially, as Acting Superintendent of Fisheries and Game. 

The Roaring Twenties was a period of great expansion for the 
new Department. Seven State Parks, Muscatatuck, Indiana Dunes, 
Pokagon, Spring Mill, Shakamak, Brown County, and Mounds, and 
three Memorials, were added during this period. 

During the Great Depression the Department of Conservation was 
organized by being absorbed into a Department of Public Works, with 
Virgil Simmons appointed as Commissioner. Shortly afterwards dis- 
cretionary power was granted to the Department to suspend, abridge, 
and shorten open seasons and reduce bag limits when deemed necessary. 
In 1937 the Fish and Game Laws were recodified and the Federal Aid 
to Wildlife Restoration Act (Pittman-Robertsen) passed. 

In 1941 administration of the Conservation Department was re- 
turned to a four-member, bi-partisan Commission, and long-time State 
Entomologist Frank Wallace was appointed Acting Director for the 
first year. The Department maintained this basic structure until the 
Department of Natural Resources came into existence in 1965. 

The conservation movement had gained impetus during the tag-end 
of the depression with increased Federal participation, but it came 
virtually to a stand-still during World War II. Activity to preserve our 
natural resources accelerated in the post-war period and has continued. 

The Flood Control and Water Resources Commission was established 
in 1945 with Anton Hulman as Chairman. The Water Resources Di- 
vision in the Conservation Department was created in the same year 
and the Geology Division moved to the Indiana University campus. 
Responsibility for the State Museum was transferred to the Division 
of Lands and Waters. 

The late 1950's and early 1960's were a period of growth and 
realignment of responsibilities. Public hunting and fishing sites were 
acquired to ease the pressure on private land. 

In 1965 the Department of Natural Resources was created by the 
combination of the following agencies: 

Department of Conservation ...... 

The Flood Control and Water Resources Commission 



History of Science 



403 



The State Soil and Water Conservation Committee 
The Indiana Recreation Council 

The following chart shows the present structure of the Department: 



2 y 




404 Indiana Academy of Science 

The current president of the Indiana Academy of Science, or 
his designate, serves as one of the twelve members of the Natural 
Resources Commission. The association between the Academy and the 
Department of Natural Resources is of long standing. In the legisla- 
tion creating the Department of Conservation in 1919 it was required 
that the Governor appoint one member of that four-man commission 
from a list of persons nominated by the Academy. Dean Stanley Coulter 
of Purdue was appointed and served with distinction for many years. 

New Divisions have evolved as the need has arisen over the years. 
Some have been by Commission action, but new responsibilities normally 
are a direct legislative mandate. The establishment of the Division of 
Nature Preserves is a good example and came about, at least in part, 
by Academy prompting and effort. 



History of the Phosphate Detergent Ban in Indiana 1 

William R. Eberly, Manchester College 

Public Law No. 174, adopted by the Indiana State Legislature on 
April 9, 1971, limited the amount of phosphate in laundry detergent 
formulations that could be sold in the state. This action and similar 
regulations taken by a number of states and cities brought forth a 
considerable public response protesting the law. Many considered this to 
be one of a number of actions taken by the then current environmental 
action movement. Jesse Steinfeld, then Surgeon General of the U.S., 
said, "In an emotional atmosphere of excessive and unproved state- 
ments, the nation recently got caught up in a controversy over clothes- 
washing that has become a classic case of environmental extremism and 
governmental ineptitude" (44). Norman Borlaug, Nobel prize winner, 
called such legislation "ridiculous" and "idiotic" (8). A professor from 
Rutgers University said, ". . . this absurd campaign is nothing short of a 
gigantic public 'put on'" (8). The Indianapolis Star referred to this 
action as "the Phosphate Bugaboo" (6). Two writers in Canada declared 
"We Hung Phosphates Without a Fair Trial" and said that "this may 
prove to have been the most incredible scientific /political hoax in the 
history of Canadian and American relations" (27). Robert R. Jones, who 
describes himself as an "Institutional Laundry Consultant", wrote to 
the Fort Wayne Journal Gazette, "Your defenses of the state phosphate 
law are based on misconceptions shared by laymen everywhere, phos- 
phate pollution being in the esoteric realm of organic chemistry. You 
and the public have over-reacted in an area understood best by technical 
experts. Few ecologists qualify" (26). 

Few people are aware that the study of the relation of algae to 
phosphates goes back over 50 years and that the decision to limit or 
ban phosphates in detergents is in part the result of international 
agreements made by representatives of Canada and the United States, 
duly appointed at the top level by both governments. It is the purpose 
of this paper to document and relate some of the significant events 
leading up to the Indiana law. 

Early Research on Phosphorus and Algae 

One of the first papers to draw attention to the relationship of 
algae growth and dissolved phosphates in water was the work of Atkins 
in 1923 (9). He pointed out that in natural waters phosphates were found 
in minute quantities and the presence of much phosphates was con- 
sidered evidence of sewage contamination. Atkins demonstrated both 
in laboratory cultures and in field studies that as plankton algae 
increased in numbers, the phosphate content of the water decreased. 
Recognizing the small quantity of phosphates required by the algae, 
he calculated that one gram of P 2 5 is sufficient to produce 900 trillion 
diatom cells. 



Presented at the Indiana Academy of Science meeting, November 1, 1974. 

405 



406 Indiana Academy of Science 

Since that time many papers on phosphorus in freshwater have been 
published by limnologists in many parts of the world. After summar- 
izing much of this literature in 1957, Hutchinson concluded: 

Phosphorus is in many ways the element most important 
to the ecologist, since it is more likely to be deficient, and 
therefore to limit the biological productivity of any region 
of the earth's surface, than are the other major biological 
elements (20). 

This is essentially the conclusion reached 25 years earlier by Einar 
Naumann, of the University of Lund in Sweden, in his "Grundziige der 
regionalen Limnologie" published in 1932 (31). The culture of plankton 
algae to determine their growth requirements was reported in 1927 by 
Schreiber (42) and in 1932 by Franzew (17). Much work has been done 
since then to determine the nutrient requirements and growth pattern of 
algae. A major contribution was a study by Wilhelm Rodhe of the Uni- 
versity of Uppsala in Sweden, "Environmental Requirements of Fresh- 
water Plankton Algae", published in 1948. Rodhe demonstrated that 
phosphate requirement for growth can vary considerably among dif- 
ferent types of algae (38). 

It has long been known that much material that supplies plant 
nutrients is generated by human activities and flows into lakes and 
rivers, stimulating plant growth. This was pointed out as early as 1947 
by Sawyer in a paper titled "Fertilization of lakes by agricultural and 
urban drainage" (41) and by Hasler in the same year in his paper 
"Eutrophication of lakes by domestic sewage" (18). Sawyer used 
the phrase "domestic eutrophication" while Hasler called it "cultural 
eutrophication". Sawyer concluded that "all the evidence obtained in 
the Madison (Wisconsin) survey lends support to the belief that phos- 
phorus is a key element in determining the biological activity in a 
body of water". 

Mortimer in 1937 observed that algae growth was proportional to 
the amount of phosphorus flowing into a lake from the outside (30). 
Pearsall in that same year (1937) said a way to control algae growth 
was to "remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the inflowing water" 
(33). 

Detergents Implicated 

After World War II, algae problems became rapidly more serious 
in lakes in the U.S. as well as in Europe and Japan. This was clearly 
associated with an increase in the rate of phosphate loading in the 
lakes after 1945. 

As the problem of excess algae growth became more pronounced, 
a number of seminars and conferences were sponsored by various agen- 
cies and organizations to bring together experts from all over the 
world to discuss this world-wide problem. Some of the more important 
of these meetings are: 

1960. Seminar on ALGAE AND METROPOLITAN WASTES, spon- 
sored by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 
Cincinnati, Ohio (3). 



History of Science 407 

1962. ALGAE AND MAN, a NATO Advanced Study Institute held at 
Louisville, Kentucky (24). 

1966. A Symposium on ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS OF 
BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, sponsored by the Federal Water Pollu- 
tion Control Administration and the University of Washington, 
Seattle, Washington (4). 

1967. INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EUTROPHICATION, 
sponsored by the National Academy of Science — National Research 
Council, at Madison, Wisconsin (39). 

1967. ALGAE, MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT, an International 
Symposium sponsored by Syracuse University and the New 
York State Science and Technology Foundation, at Syracuse, New 
York (25). 

1971. SYMPOSIUM ON NUTRIENTS AND EUTROPHICATION, 
sponsored by American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 
the E.P.A., the Institute of Water Research, Michigan State 
University, and the federal Office of Water Resources Research, 
at Michigan State University (28). 

1971. Symposium on NUTRIENTS IN NATURAL WATERS, spon- 
sored by American Chemical Society, at Los Angeles, California 
(2). 

From these studies and conferences there has emerged a strong 
consensus that in many, if not most, cases of excess algae growth in 
lakes the cause has been chiefly an increase in the input of phosphorus 
into the lake system. The definitive statement is the paper on the 
''Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication" by A. F. Bartsch, head of the 
National Environmental Research Center at Corvallis, Oregon (12). 

In 1957 a short paper was published which reported that in this 
study the algae growth could not be accounted for on the basis of the 
quantity of orthophosphate measured by standard tests (1). Therefore 
the algae must be using phosphorus from larger, more complex phos- 
phate compounds that were not being measured. This provided a clue for 
researchers to look for complex phosphate compounds, and they found 
the polyphosphates from synthetic detergents. 

A. F. Bartsch, speaking at the 1960 Seminar mentioned earlier, 
said, "As the quantity of sewage increases, its character changes 
also in many ways. One is the per capita increase in phosphorus con- 
tent traceable to the recent popularity of phosphorus bearing deter- 
gents. Most of it finds its way to the sewer" (11). 

In 1963, Leon W. Weinberger, chief of the Basic and Applied 
Sciences Division of Water Pollution and Supply, HEW, speaking 
before the Natural Resources and Power Subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Government Operations, said: 

Foaming has been the principle objectionable feature asso- 
ciated with water pollution by ABS, although the phosphates 
that are present in the synthetic detergents may turn out to 
be of greater significance than the ABS in that they provide 
nutrients for algae growth (45). 



408 Indiana Academy of Science 

In 1963, the New York State Legislature was dealing with a report 
from its Commission on Water Resources Planning, which said in part: 
"The detergent problem and the algae problem may be related. They 
may have a common denominator. Phosphates which are present in the 
former and which serve as fertilizers or nutrients to induce growth 
of the latter" (55). 

The Crisis Year, 1964 

One of the consequences of excess algae growth in a lake is the 
reduction in dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the lake due to the 
decomposition of the dead algae cells that have settled to the bottom. 
The amount of oxygen consumed in this way is proportional to the 
quantity of algae produced. For a number of years it had been observed 
that the oxygen concentrations in the deep water of Lake Erie had 
been declining. In August of 1964 the oxygen completely disappeared 
at the bottom of the large central basin in an area of about 2,600 
square miles, roughly one fourth of the total lake area (46). This 
triggered a series of events in both the United States and Canada 
which dealt with the problem of eutrophication in lakes and rivers, 
especially Lake Erie and the Great Lakes. 

In October, 1964, both the United States and Canadian govern- 
ments asked the International Joint Commission to study the problem 
in the boundary waters, especially the Great Lakes, and to report 
recommendations on the pollution of Lakes Erie and Ontario. The I.J.C. 
is an international advisory body created by treaty between the U.S. 
and Canada in 1909 (10). 

The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration established a 
"Lake Erie Enforcement Conference Technical Committee" which was 
to make its report in June of 1967. But in the meantime in 1965 a very 
significant study was released by the President's Science Advisory 
Committee titled, "Restoring the Quality of our Environment". In rela- 
tion to eutrophication and the algae problem, the committee said: 

Polyphosphate detergents, after domestic or industrial use, are 
carried in sewage effluents into rivers, lakes and estuaries, where 
the phosphate is readily taken up by algae and other aquatic 
plants. If present in sufficient quantities, such detergents can 
give rise to obnoxious algal blooms. . . . Investigations of the 
chemical composition of the effluents of sewage plants indicate 
that the phosphorus concentrations are considerably higher 
than was common in sewage effluents 20 years ago. This in- 
crease is attributed to detergents. ... At some locations, as 
much as half the phosphorus in sewage effluents comes from 
detergents ... if phosphate from detergent products is a 
major contribution to the problem, a non-phosphate additive 
should be sought (34). 

W. Q. Kehr of the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration 
issued a paper in July of 1966 titled, "Statement on Phosphate — The 
Critical Nutrient in the Water Pollution Control of Lake Erie and 
the Great Lakes". This paper was prepared primarily for the Com- 



History of Science 409 

mittee on Government Operations that was holding hearings at that 
time on Water Pollution in the Great Lakes. In this paper, Kehr 
calls for "research on substitution of other chemicals for phosphate 
in detergents, (which) could provide further reductions in phosphate 
inputs" (46). 

The Lake Erie Enforcement Conference on June 1, 1967, adopted 
the report of its Technical Committee, which recommended the "Pro- 
motion and encouragement of accelerated research and development of 
a suitable product solution to the detergent-phosphate problem" (5). 
This recommendation (and many others) was approved by representa- 
tives of each of the states involved in the Lake Erie Conference, 
including Indiana. 

On August 23, 1967, the Committee on Government Operations rec- 
ommended that "The soap and detergent industry should expedite and 
expand its research efforts to find suitable substitutes for the phosphate 
used in the manufacture of detergents" (47, 48). 

On August 4, 1967, the then Secretary of the Interior Stewart 
Udall had announced the formation of a "Joint Industry /Government 
Task Force on Eutrophication". The Task Force was made up mostly of 
representatives of companies that manufacture detergents or produce 
phosphates for use in detergents (49, 50). 

One of the original objectives of the Task Force was "To recom- 
mend a cooperative research program on controlling eutrophication of 
lakes, including the role of phosphates and their possible replacement" 
(49). In a re-statement of the objectives of the Task Force in 1969, 
all reference to phosphate substitutes had been deleted. Evidently the 
industry representatives on the committee (who held almost a 2 to 1 
majority over the government representatives) had won the rest of 
the committee over to their view that it is preferable to take the 
phosphates out at the sewage treatment plant rather than out of the 
detergents. 

In fact, the detergent industry and their suppliers must have con- 
vinced the FWPCA that they would in fact be the most logical agencies 
to research methods of taking phosphates out of sewage wastes, because 
in 1968 and early 1969 the Dept. of the Interior made grants of over 
$500,000 to the Soap and Detergent Association, FMC, General Mills, 
and the W. R. Grace Co., for this purpose (49). No grants were made 
to any detergent company to develop phosphate substitutes. In fact, only 
one grant was made at all to an independent laboratory for this pur- 
pose up to 1969. A second grant to develop non-phosphate detergents 
was made in 1970. Both laboratories later reported favorable and opti- 
mistic results of their research (21, 36, 43). 

The International Joint Commission made its first report in 1969. 
The Commission, addressing its recommendations to the governments 
of the United States and Canada, urged "immediate reduction to mini- 
mum practical levels of the phosphorus content of detergents and the 
amounts of phosphate-based detergents used" and "complete replace- 
ment of phosphorus compounds in detergents with environmentally less 
harmful substitutes as soon as possible, but not later than 1972" 
(10, 51). 



410 Indiana Academy of Science 

With this urging from an international commission, acting on the 
request and authority of both governments, Congressman Henry S. 
Reuss introduced a bill into the U.S. Congress (H. R. 12435) on June 
25, 1969, which would prohibit the import or manufacture of any deter- 
gent containing phosphorus after June 30, 1971. To solicit public 
response to this bill, Congressman Reuss, chairman of the Conservation 
and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Govern- 
ment Operations, held hearings on December 15 and 16, 1969, on 
Phosphates in Detergents and the Eutrophication of America's Waters 
(49). 

The Canadian government acted in July, 1970, to limit phosphorus 
in laundry detergents to not more than 8.7 percent, effective in August 
of that year. The phosphorus content was to be further reduced to 
about 2.2 percent in 1972 (51, 54). 

When the U.S. Congress failed to act on this matter, the various 
states which surround the Great Lakes and some local communities 
passed legislation limiting the phosphorus content of detergents that 
could be used in those areas. Both Indiana and New York passed such 
laws in their 1971 legislative sessions. The New York law reduced the 
phosphorus content to 8.7% by January, 1972, and to only a trace by 
July 1, 1973 (13, 14). 

The Indiana law limited phosphorus to about 5% (12% phosphate) 
after January 1, 1972, reducing it further to 3% phosphate after Janu- 
ary 1, 1973. In the 1972 legislative session, the law was changed to 
read 8.7% phosphorus after January 1, 1972, and the permissible level 
of phosphorus after January 1, 1973, was changed to zero percent. 
Indiana thus became the first state to prohibit phosphorus completely 
in laundry detergents (23). 

Numerous efforts were made in 1973 to repeal or amend the Indiana 
law, but it was changed only to exempt certain specialized cleaners and 
to allow up to 0.5% phosphorus traces incidental to the manufacturing 
processes. In 1974 another effort was made to repeal the law by the 
House, but the Senate did not even consider the measure. 

In addition to Indiana and New York, laws limiting phosphorus 
in detergents were enacted by Florida, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Connecticut and Oregon, as well as in Chicago, Akron (Ohio) and Dade 
County (Florida) (14). 

The Detergent Industry Responds 

In the late 1960's when there was pressure for the detergent com- 
panies to reduce the content of phosphorus or even eliminate it entirely, 
only Procter and Gamble of the major producers seemed reasonably 
supportive in that direction. The reason seemed to be that P & G had 
been using NT A (nitrilotriacetate) to replace part of the phosphate as 
early as 1966 (40). By 1970 they were using NTA to replace 25% 
of the phosphate in one-third of their company's laundry detergent pro- 
duction. A widely circulated full page ad that appeared in many of 
the nation's newspapers in the spring of 1970 declared: 



History of Science 411 

Procter and Gamble is engaged in an all out effort to reduce — 
and eventually to eliminate — the phosphate content of its deter- 
gents. We have not waited for 'proof that the elimination of 
phosphates from our products will have any significant effect 
one way or the other on lakes and streams. Neither are we 
waiting for proper sewage treatment facilities which could 
answer this and other problems. Our position is that if there 
is any possibility that our detergents are contributing to the 
excessive growth of plant life in lakes and streams, we want to 
correct this situation. We are working toward that end with 
all possible speed (35). 

On September 15, 1971, the Surgeon General of the United States, 
apparently with the concurrence of the EPA, the CEQ, and the FDA, 
declined to approve NTA as a phosphorus replacement in detergents and 
advised housewives to go back to using phosphate detergents (51, 52). 

Following this "about-face" by government agencies, the Soap and 
Detergent Association, now with the full support of Procter and 
Gamble (who produces more than half the nation's detergents) attacked 
the legality of all restrictive legislation, including the law in Indiana. 
All such laws were upheld by both state and federal courts (37). The 
Chicago regulation was overturned by a court in 1973 after a second 
attempt by the industry, primarily because the sewage effluent from 
Chicago flows away from Lake Michigan through the Illinois River, 
so that detergent restrictions in Chicago would not have any effect in 
Lake Michigan (14, 19, 32). 

The industry also launched a massive campaign against any legisla- 
tive regulation of the detergent industry, both on the national and state 
levels. At least three federal bodies held extensive hearings on this 
matter in 1971 (51, 53). Many of the "outside" experts who supported 
the view that it was inadvisable to remove phosphates from deter- 
gents were actually paid by the industry. F. Alan Ferguson, an indus- 
trial economist, wrote an article titled "A Nonmyopic Approach to the 
Problem of Excess Algae Growths" which has been widely quoted (15). 
The Soap and Detergent Association paid Dr. Ferguson $5,000 to write 
the article (49). 

Dr. Daniel Okun, an environmental engineer from the University of 
North Carolina, who appeared in two of the federal hearings in 1971 
and had his written statement presented at the other, declared that 
only 15 percent of the U.S. population live anywhere close to where 
eutrophication could ever become a problem, and it has never been 
shown to be a problem for most of these, therefore it will do no good 
to take phosphates out of detergents (51, 53). For his services over 
a several month period Procter and Gamble paid him "$5,850 plus 
out-of-pocket expenses" (51). 

Two researchers from the University of North Carolina, Francisco 
and Weiss, cultured algae in waste water from laundry using non- 
phosphate detergents and in waste waters from laundry using conven- 
tional detergents but from which the phosphate had been removed by 
"tertiary treatment". They concluded that "simply removing detergent 



412 Indiana Academy of Science 

phosphates from wastewater would have no practical significance in 
eutrophication control" (16). Their research was paid for by Procter 
and Gamble. Many other similar examples could be given. 

The Current Situation 

After failing in their efforts to repeal or modify restrictive laws 
through court actions and lobbying in legislative sessions, the detergent 
manufacturers finally began producing and marketing non-phosphate 
detergents. Procter and Gamble was the last of the major companies to 
give in. With the detergent companies now profitably engaged in 
selling non-phosphate detergents, the only losers are the suppliers of 
the phosphate chemicals. Business Week magazine said in 1972, ". . . 
it could mean a 50% drop in phosphate sales in the next 18 months. 
The major U.S. producers of phosphates are Monsanto Co., FMC Corp., 
and Stauffer Chemical Co" (7). The FMC Corp. has been especially 
active since 1973 in trying to force the repeal of the Indiana law (29). 

The International Joint Commission has just recently issued their 
second annual report on Great Lakes Water Quality. They report 
improvement in water quality since 1971 and "RECOMMEND that the 
U.S. Government seek legislation similar to Canadian law which limits 
the amount of phosphorus in detergent formulations" (22). 

On August 29, 1974, the International Society of Limnology, meet- 
ing at their 19th Congress at Winnipeg, Canada, adopted the following 
resolution: 

Because of the critical role of phosphorus in the rapid eutrophi- 
cation of inland waters, be it resolved that in addition to the 
secondary treatment of sewage, it is necessary to control addi- 
tions to this element to any inland waters. This should be done 
by any means available, including: 

1. Restrictions on the use of cleaning products that 
contain phosphates, or other potentially harmful 
substances. 

2. Removal of phosphate at sewage treatment plants 
discharging effluents into such waters. 

3. Control of drainage from feedlots, agricultural 
areas, septic tanks and other diffuse sources of 
phosphates. 

Control measures for nitrogen should be considered as well 
in basins where there is evidence that such controls are appro- 
priate. 

This is the first time in its more than 50-year history that this 
distinguished international body of aquatic scientists has gone on record 
as supporting a particular course of action that is eventually politically 
determined. 

No doubt there will continue to be much activity, both pro and 
con, centered around this issue. But it is hoped that this review of the 
long history of events leading up to the present action (and inaction) 
will enable the interested and concerned individual to make a more 
accurate evaluation of the current state of events. 



History of Science 413 

Literature Cited 

1. Abbott, W. 1957. Unusual phosphorus source for plankton algae. Ecology 38:152. 

2. Allen, H. E., and J. R. Kramer, eds. 1972. Nutrients in Natural Waters. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York. 457 p. 

3. Anon. 1961. Algae and Metropolitan Wastes. Dept. Health, Education and Wel- 
fare, Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. 162 p. 

4. ANON. 1967. Environmental Requirements of Blue-Green Algae. Pacific Northwest 
Water Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon. Ill p. 

5. Anon. 1968. Lake Erie Report. Dept. of the Interior, FWPCA, Washington. 107 p. 

6. ANON. 1971. Editorial. Indianapolis Star, Indianapolis, Indiana. June 16. 

7. Anon. 1972. P & G gets ready to dump phosphates. Business Week, October 28, p. 
41. 

8. Anon. n.d. Independent Scientists Statements on Detergent Phosphates. 4 page flier 
distributed by pro-phosphate lobbyists. No identification or documentation on paper. 

9. Atkins, W. R. G. 1923. The phosphate content of fresh and salt waters in its rela- 
tionship to the growth of the algal plankton. J. Marine Biol. Assoc, U.K., 13:119- 
150. 

10. Barros, J., and D. Johnson. 1974. The International Law of Pollution. The Free 
Press (Macmillan), New York. 476 p. 

11. Bartsch, A. F. 1961. Induced eutrophication, a growing water resource problem. 
IN: Algae and Metropolitan Wastes, p. 6-9. Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering 
Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

12. Bartsch, A. F. 1972. Role of Phosphorus in Eutrophication. Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency, Report EPA-R3-72-001, Washington. 45 p. 

13. Council on Environmental Quality. 1972. Environmental Quality. Third Annual 
Report, GPO, Washington. 450 p. 

14. Council on Environmental Quality. 1973. Environmental Quality. Fourth Annual 
Report. GPO, Washington. 499 p. 

15. Ferguson, F. A. 1968. A nonmyopic approach to the problem of excess algal 
growths. Environ. Science and Technol. 2(3) :188-193. 

16. Francisco, D. E., and C. M. Weiss. 1973. Algal response to detergent phosphate 
levels. J.W.P.C.F., 45(3) :480-489. 

17. Franzew, A. W. 1932. Ein Versuch der physiologischen Erforschung der Produk- 
tionsfahigkeit des Moskauflusswassers. (In Russian, W. German summary) Micro- 
biology (U.S.S.R.) 1:122-130. 

18. Hasler, A. D. 1947. Eutrophication of lakes by domestic drainage. Ecology 28:383- 
395. 

19. Howe, R. S., J. G. Morris, and H. W. Poston. 1973. Laundry Detergents and En- 
vironmental Quality. Occasional Papers, School of Public and Environmental Af- 
fairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 25 p. 

20. Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. A Treatise on Limnology. Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, 
New York. 1015 p. 

21. I.I.T.R.I 1970. Development of Phosphate-Free Home Laundry Detergents. Environ- 
mental Protection Agency, Report 16080DVF12/70, Washington. 103 p. 

22. I. J. C. 1973. Second Annual Report on Great Lakes Water Quality. International 
Joint Commission, Windson, Ontario. 18 p. 

23. Indiana Legislative Council. 1971-1973. Acts of the Legislature. P.L. 174, 1971; 
P.L. 97, 1972; P.L. 117, 1973. 

24. Jackson, D. F., ed. 1964. Algae and Man. Plenum Press, New York. 434 p. 

25. Jackson, D. F., ed. 1968. Algae, Man, and the Environment. Syracuse Univ. Press, 
Syracuse, N.Y. 554 p. 

26. Jones, R. R. 1974. Letter to the Editor. Journal Gazette, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
January 4. 

27. Legge, R. F. and D. Dingeldein. 1970. We hung phosphates without a fair trial. 
Canad. Research & Development, March, p. 18 et. seq. 

28. Likens, G. E., ed. 1972. Nutrients and Eutrophication. Amer. Soc. Limnol. and 
Oceanog., Special Symposia Vol. 1. Lawrence, Kansas. 328 p. 

29. MOONEY, R. F. 1974. McDaniel Charges Political Threats by Phosphate Lobby. The 
Indianapolis Star, Wednesday, February 6, p. 4. 

30. Mortimer, C. H. 1937. On changes taking place in the mud of lakes. 5th Report, 
Freshwater Biolog. Assoc, of the British Empire. (Abstracts of Water Works Litera- 
ture, J. A. W. W. A., 29(9):1403.) 



414 Indiana Academy of Science 

31. Naumann, E. 1932. Grundziige der regionalen Limnologie. Binnengewasser 11:1- 
176. 

32. Niehoff, B. 1971. Phosphates in Detergents: The Chicato-type Ordinance and other 
Remedies. Cincinnati Law Review, 40:548-568. 

33. Pearsall, W. H. 1937. A fundamental problem on freshwater biology. 5th Report, 
Freshwater Biolog. Assoc, of the British Empire. (Abstracts of Water Works 
Literature, J.A.W.W.A., 29(9):1403.) 

34. President's Science Advisory Committee. 1965. Restoring the Quality of Our En- 
vironment. The White House, Washington. 317 p. 

35. Proctor and Gamble. 1970. Questions and answers about phosphates in detergents 
and their possible effect on our lakes and streams. The Journal Gazette, Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. April 23, 1970, p. 17A. 

36. Reilich, H. G. 1972. Technical evaluation of phosphate-free home laundry deter- 
gents. Environmental Protection Agency, Report 16080 DVF 02/72, Washington. 
120 p. 

37. Reitze, A. W., Jr. 1972. Environmental Law. Vol. 1. North American International, 
Washington, p. four-25 to four-31. 

38. Rodhe, W. 1948. Environmental Requirements of Fresh- Water Plankton Algae. 
Symbol. Botan. Upsalienses X(l) : 1-149. 

39. Rohlich, G. A., ed. 1969. Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. Na- 
tional Acad. Science, Washington. 661 p. 

40. Rukeyser, W. S. 1972. Fact and foam in the row over phosphates. Fortune, Jan- 
uary, pp 71-73, 166-170. 

41. Sawyer, C. N. 1947. Fertilization of lakes by agricultural and urban drainage. J. 
New England Water Works Assoc, 61:109-127. 

42. Schreiber, E. 1927. Die Reinkultur von marinem Phytoplankton und deren Be- 
deutung fur die Erforschung der Produktionsfahigkeit des Meerwassers. Wiss. 
Meeresunters., N.F. 16(10) :l-34. 

43. Schwartz, A. M. and A. E. Davis. 1974. The Development of Phosphate-Free 
Heavy Duty Detergents. Environmental Protection Agency, Report 600/2-74-003, 
Washington. 234 p. 

44. Steinfeld, J. L. 1973. Behind the great phosphate flap. Reader's Digest, November, 
pp. 170-174. 

45. U.S. Congress. 1964. Water Pollution Control and Abatement. Part 1 B. Com- 
mittee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Washington. 

46. U.S. Congress. 1966. Water Pollution — Great Lakes. Part 2. Committee on Gov- 
ernment Operations, House of Representatives, Washington. 

47. U.S. Congress. 1967. To Save America's Small Lakes. House Report No. 594. 
G.P.O., Washington. 20 p. 

48. U.S. Congress. 1968. Views of the Governors on Saving America's Small Lakes. 
House Report. No. 1571. G.P.O., Washington. 48 p. 

49. U.S. Congress. 1970. Phosphates in Detergents and the Eutrophication of America's 
Waters. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Opera- 
tions, House of Representatives. G.P.O., Washington. 318 p. 

50. U.S. Congress. 1970. Phosphates in Detergents and the Eutrophication of America's 
Waters. House Report No. 91-1004. G.P.O., Washington. 88 p. 

51. U.S. Congress. 1972. Phosphates and Phosphate Substitutes in Detergents. Hearings 
before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of 
Representatives. G.P.O., Washington. 844 p. 

52. U.S. Congress. 1972. Phosphates and Phosphate Substitutes in Detergents: Govern- 
ment Action and Public Confusion. House Report No. 92-918. G.P.O., Washington. 
126 p. 

53. U.S. Congress. 1972. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1971 and Amendment. 
Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Environment of the Committee on Com- 
merce, United States Senate. Parts 2 and 3. G.P.O., Washington. 843 p. 

54. Vallentyne, J. R. 1974. The Algal Bowl. Lakes and Man. Dept. Environment, Fish- 
eries and Marine Services, Ottawa. Canada. 186 p. 

55. Weber, C. E. 1972. The Phosphate Story. J. Milk Food Technol. 35(10) :597-603. 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Ralph L. Nicholson, Department of Botany and 

Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

David C. Madsen, Lobund Laboratory, 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Localization of Proteolytic Activity on Low pH-urea, BSA-included 
Polyacrylamide Gels. Thomas A. Cole, Department of Biology, Wabash 
College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933.— A sensitive method for de- 
tection of proteinases has been developed with polyacrylamide gel elec- 
trophoresis techniques. Using low pH and low-pH-urea systems, bovine 
serum albumin (BSA), a soluble protein, is incorporated into the 
running gel. At low pH, BSA does not move and the proteolytic enzymes, 
trypsin and chymotrypsin, may be electrophoresed into the BSA-included 
gels. Incubation of the removed gels at around pH 7 and staining 
with Coomassie blue produce a gel with clear zones of enzyme activity 
against a blue background of unhydrolyzed, stained substrate. 



415 



w-Muricholate: A Tertiary Bile Acid of the Wistar Rat 

D. C. Madsen, L. Chang and B. Wostmann 

Lobund Laboratory 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Abstract 

Hyodeoxycholate (HDC) and w-muricholate (w-muri) are two bile acids found in 
gut contents of conventional but not of germfree rats. Both disappear upon intensive 
oral treatment with antibiotics. It was known that HDC is formed under bacterial in- 
fluence, and that this bile acid may then be a precursor of w-muri. After feeding HDC 
to germfree rats we found w-muri in intestinal contents and feces. This indicates that 
HDC, and not a bacterial metabolite of this bile acid, is transformed by the liver to 
w-muri. 

Introduction 

The liver of vertebrates forms bile acids (BAs) de novo directly 
from cholesterol. These primary BAs may be transformed by in- 
testinal bacteria to secondary BAs. Both types are for the most part 
reabsorbed in the ileum and large intestine, with a small fraction being 
excreted with the feces. Secondary BAs, after returning to the liver 
via the portal vein, may be changed back to their original, primary 
type. However, in certain cases the liver will remodel secondary BAs 
to those which differ qualitatively from both their primary and sec- 
ondary precursors. One such "tertiary" BA is hyodeoxycholate (3a, 6a- 
dihydroxy-5/3-cholanic acid) which has been shown to be derived ulti- 
mately from chenodeoxycholate (3a, 7a-dihydroxy-5/3-cholanic acid) (1) 
or from /3-muricholate (3a, 6/3, 7/3-dihydroxy-5/3-cholanic acid) (2). 

The determination of the origin of BAs in conventional animals 
often involves complicated procedures, including surgery (bile duct 
cannulation) or antibiotic treatment. Results can nevertheless be equiv- 
ocal, especially since bile duct cannulation affects bile acid homeostasis 
irreversibly by removing material from the enterohepatic circulation. 

By contrast, BAs which are found in the enterohepatic circulation 
of germfree rats are a priori denned as primary. In the germfree 
Lobund /Wistar rat, cholate and /3-muri together comprise about 97% 
of all intestinal and fecal BAs, the remainder being chenodeoxycholate 
and traces of keto BAs (Table 1). In conventional rats many additional 
BAs occur, and these are presumably secondary. Hyodeoxycholate 
(HDC) and or -muricholate ( w -muri) comprise about 30% and 20%, 
respectively, of total fecal BAs (Table 1) of the conventional Lobund 
rat. 

O j-Muricholate (3a, 6a, 7/3-trihydroxy-5/3-cholanic acid) has only 
rarely been reported as a constituent of the enterohepatic circulation of 
the conventional rat. For this reason we attempted to prove the identity 
of the presumed j-rciuri beyond reasonable doubt. Since the absence of 
oj-muri from germfree rats suggested that it is a secondary or pos- 
sibly a "tertiary" BA, w -niuri would be unique in being the only known 
trihydroxy BA not primary in origin. We thus conducted experiments 
designed to elucidate the origin of w -muri. 

416 






Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



417 



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to CO 

10 +1 



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C ii 



418 Indiana Academy of Science 

Materials and Methods 

Germfree rats (LOB:(WI)h) were maintained in flexible plastic 
isolators by generally accepted procedures (5). The genetically closely 
related conventional animals were housed in wire bottom cages in an 
open animal room. All rats were males, 3-6 months of age. During the 
experimental periods they were fed steam sterilized semisynthetic diet 
L-488, based on the casein/rice starch formula L-474 E 2e (6) with some 
slight modifications. 

BAs were purified and analyzed by thin-layer- (TLC) and gas- 
liquid-chromatographic (GLC) techniques described elsewhere (3). 
The material presumed to be o)-niuricholic acid was isolated from con- 
ventional rat feces by the above procedure combined with additional TLC 
purifications; purity was monitored by GLC. Nuclear (proton) mag- 
netic resonance spectra and Mass spectra of authentic 1 and putative 
o-muri were determined by Dr. D. Pasto of the Department of Chem- 
istry, University of Notre Dame. 

The HDC (free acid) was purchased from Applied Science, Inc. 
No contaminants were detected by TLC or by GLC. 

Results 

Identity of ^-Muricholate 

It was found that the authentic sample of o-muri and our purified 
isolate had identical R f values in three different TLC solvent systems 
(3). The two compounds also had identical retention times on two GLC 
packings — 1% SE-30 and 3% QF-1. Finally, proton magnetic resonance 
and mass spectra were identical. Dr. Pasto advises that all of this 
evidence indicates very strongly that the BA in question is actually 
oo-muri. 

Metabolism of oo-Muricholate 

In a study to be published elsewhere we fed an antibiotic cocktail 
(consisting of Streptomycin, Neomycin, Bacitracin, and Fungizone (4)) 
in drinking water to conventional rats. This resulted in the disappearance 
of HDC, o)-muri, and deoxycholate from the feces, thus strengthening 
the idea that (o-muri is a secondary or a "tertiary" BA. 

There was a reason to expect that HDC might be a precursor of 
.)-muri (see discussion). In order to elucidate the possible role of bac- 
teria in the formation of w -muri from HDC, we fed HDC to germfree 
rats with the diet. oj-Muri was subsequently detected in the intestines 
and feces of these germfree rats (Table 2). 

Discussion 

Einarsson (1966) showed that HDC is formed in the rat by a 
complex sequence, as follows: 



1 Authentic w-muri was a generous gift of Dr. William Elliott, Department of Bio- 
chemistry, St. Louis University, St. Louis Mo. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



419 



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mi © <=> 



5 S 
H 3 



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•* M M 



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s 1 




420 Indiana Academy of Science 

Cheno gut 

(3a, 7a) bacteria 7 (3a) ^^^^ liver 

3a, 6/3 

Hyodeoxy ^ —3a, 6-keto (^ bacteria 

3a, 6a bacteria 

Sacquet, et al. (1974) presented evidence that /3-muricholate (3a, 6/3, 
7/3) could also be a precursor of HDC in rats, although they did not 
attempt to elucidate the pathway involved. 

The total absence of HDC in the germfree rat, which produces 
/3-muricholate as a major primary BA, indicates that microbial action 
is essential for the eventual formation of HDC in the rat. By the simple 
expedient of feeding HDC to germfree rats, we have shown that HDC 
(3a6a) itself can be absorbed from the gut and converted by the rat 
liver to j-niuri (3a,6a,7/3). The latter is now secreted into the gut 
and accumulates in the feces. Thus, both HDC and w -muri are "tertiary" 
BAs, i.e., they are formed from secondary BAs in one or more steps 
including the action of the liver. 

It is worth noting that this experiment does not preclude the 
possibility that any bacterial metabolite (s) of HDC could also be 
absorbed and converted to o-muri. While this possibility is amenable to 
experimentation, we have not yet addressed ourselves to it. 



Literature Cited 

1. Einarsson, K. 1966. On the formation of hyodeoxycholic acid in the rat. J. Biol. 
Chem. 241:534-539. 

2. Heijenoort, Y. V., E. Sacquet, and M. Riottot. 1974. Degradation bacterienne de 
l'acide /8-muricholique chez le rat. Comptes Rend, de L'Acad. Science, Paris. 278 
(Ser.D.:1067-1070). 

3. Madsen, D., M. Beaver, L. Chang, and B. Wostmann. 1974. Influence of the in- 
digenous microflora on the enterohepatic bile acids of the Wistar rat. J. Lipid Res. 
(Submitted). 

4. van der Waay, D. and C. Sturm. 1971. The production of "bacteria-free" mice. 
Relationship between fecal flora and bacterial population of the skin. Antonie van 
Leeuwenhoek. 37:139-151. 

5. Wostmann, B. S. 1970. Gnotobiotes. Nat. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C. 

6. Wostmann, B. S. 1973. Intestinal bile acids and cholesterol absorption in the germ- 
free rat. Jr. Nutr. 103:982-990. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: Charles W. Miller, Department of Physics 
Anderson College, Anderson, Indiana 46011 

Robert E. Hale, Huntington College, Huntington, Indiana 46750 
was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Progress Report on Radiocarbon Dating at Ball State. John Lepera 
and David Koltenbah, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and 
John Meiser, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. The method of radiocarbon dating in use at Ball 

State University involves, first, the pyrolization of a sample and the 
conversion of the carbon to acetylene. This is followed by the trimeriza- 
tion of the acetylene to benzene over a vanadium pentoxide catalyst. 
The radiocarbon activity is subsequently measured in a liquid scintilla- 
tion counter. The overall yield for the conversion of modern charcoal 
to benzene has been fair to good. The conversion ratio for several 
conversions of post-Wisconsin glacial peats has been poor, due pri- 
marily to the failure of the catalyzation stage. When commercial 
acetylene was introduced at this stage, the trimerization produced good 
yields. The possibility of the presence in the natural peat of contami- 
nants which are adsorbed on the catalyst surface and inhibit the 
trimerization process is discussed. Investigations of the nature of the 
contaminants are proposed for neutron-activation, mass spectrographic, 
and gas chromatographic analysis. 

Laboratory Experiments in Nanosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy. 

James Cunningham and Torsten Alvager, Department of Physics, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Nanosecond 

fluorescence spectroscopy of macromolecules has in recent years become 
an important method in biophysical research. In many instances it may 
also be suitable as laboratory experiments and student research projects. 
Some examples will be discussed. 

The Role of College and University Physics Departments in the In-Service 
Training of Physics Teachers. L. Gene Poorman, Associate Professor 
of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. — — 
The author of this paper has interacted with more than half of the 
physics teachers in Indiana Secondary Schools in the past seven years. 

The interaction has been possible through conducting institutes, 
projects and workshops, and through attendance at professional meet- 
ings and school visitations. 

Based on the direct contacts made, the need to specify in-service 
activities is emerging. The paper will concentrate on identifying specific 
needs and suggesting types of programs needed to enhance the prob- 
ability of closer cooperation between professional staffs and students 
in physics classrooms. 

421 



422 Indiana Academy of Science 

Types of requests made by teachers and students will be summar- 
ized as validation arguments justifying suggested programs. These 
requests will also serve as the basis for describing the present status 
of physics teaching in Indiana Secondary Schools. 

The 8 Scuti Variable Star HR5329: Preliminaries of a Further Investi- 
gation. A. C. Warner, R. L. Place, and P. R. Errington, Department 
of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

In this paper the observing program employed, method of data 

reduction, and Barning's (1963) periodgram method of light curve 

analysis are briefly discussed in relation to the star HR5329 (K Bootis 

a d 

A). Two periods have been reported: 0.069 and 0.07306 by Millis 
(1966) and Desikachary, Parthasarathy, and Rao (1971) respectively. 
A UBV photometric program was initiated to determine whether the 
previously found periodicities are distinct and the possible existence 
of other including a suggested 16-day beat period. 

A Field Emission Electron Gun. J. Swez, J. Westgard, and A. Barbee, 

Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. A field emission electron gun has been designed as the basis 

for a scanning electron microscope. The results of testing this electron 
gun are reported here. This electron gun utilizes an axially symmetric 
lens with an oriented tungsten wire tip as a source of electrons and 
a defining aperture of 100 microns diameter. The electron gun was 
fabricated from stainless steel and lava and is housed in a steel bell 
jar pumped down to a pressure of 10 — 10 Torr. Verification of actual 
field emission was accomplished with a Fowler-Nordheim analysis of 
voltage versus current data. 1 A computer program utilizing a graphics 
display subprogram has been written to analyze such data. It was 
found that the stability of field emission can be greatly enhanced by 
proper heating and subsequent remolding of the field emitter tip prior 
to field emission. 

Low Temperature Anomalies in Specific Heat in Carbons and Graphites. 

S. Mrozowski, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Whereas the specific heat of good 

graphite crystals corresponds exactly to theoretical expectations down 
to the lowest temperatures investigated, interesting anomalies are 
found when lattice defects are present either due to incomplete graphiti- 
zation or when they are introduced by neutron irradiation. The coef- 
ficients of the linear and of the Debye's cubic temperature terms are 
strongly modified, and specific heat peaks are observed in the tempera- 
ture range 0.1-0.8 °K. All the evidence indicates that in soft carbons 
and graphite the appearance of the high temeprature peak ( 0.6-0.7 °K) 
as well as of most of the changes in linear and cubic terms are caused 
by the presence of localized electronic spins, the high temperature peak 
corresponding to an antiferromagnetic phase transition. The evidence 



1 "A Simple Method for Deriving, from Measured I(V) Data, Information on the 
Geometry of a Field Emission Current Source of Unknown Characteristics" by E. M. 
Charbonnier and E. E. Martin, J. Appl. Phys. 33,1897 (1962). 



Physics 423 

for the exchange interaction between the localized and conduction spins 
will also be discussed. 

The Increase in Residual Electrical Resistivity in Pure Cu, Ni, Co and 
Fe Due to Irradiation by Fast Neutrons and Its Correlation with Elec- 
tron Scattering Between the s- and d-Bands. C. C. Sartain, Department 

of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 

Horak and Blewitt 1 at Argonne have measured the increase in the 
residual resistivity in pure Cu, Ni, Co and Fe when irradiated with 
1.3 x 10 1 - fission neutrons per cm 2 to be 116.2, 363.9, 794.6 and 1137.2 
nano-ohm-cm. As the number of holes in the d-band increase from 
zero to one, two and three, each step increases the residual resistivity 
by about 350 nano-ohm-cm. 

It would appear that this increase correlates with s-d band scatter- 
ing in the metals. 

Lithium Precipitation in Fast-Neutron Irradiated Germanium. Niel 
Bendsen and R. Cosby, Department of Physics, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. The kinetics of precipitation of lithium in 

germanium are known to depend on the number, nature, and geometry 
of nucleating centers present. Using ultra-high purity germanium as 
the starting material, the experimental study described here has shown 
that defect complexes introduced via fast-neutron irradiation serve as 
nucleation centers for lithium. The manner in which the precipitation 
kinetics are affected by the presence of the defect complexes is dis- 
cussed. Through annealing studies, the possibility that lithium precipi- 
tation may be used as a tool in the study of disordered regions is 
examined. 

A Sulfur Dioxide Survey for Anderson, Indiana. 1 David Duecker, 
Marion College, Marion, Indiana and Mike Gwinnup, Thomas Lyon, 
and Charles W. Miller, Department of Physics, Anderson College, 

Anderson, Indiana 46011. During July, 1974, a thirty-day survey of 

the sulfur dioxide content of the atmosphere over Anderson, Indiana 
was conducted. Huey sulfation plates were exposed at 36 sites over the 
city during the study. The results of the survey indicate that levels 
of sulfur dioxide over certain parts of the city may be approachng 
the national ambient air standards for sulfur dioxide. Also, when the 
sulfur dioxide results are combined with the pertinent wind data, the 
resulting pattern corresponds with the expected sources of sulfur 
dioxide in Anderson. 



1 This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through its Under- 
graduate Research Participation program, grant number GY-11210. 

1 J. A. Horak and T. H. Blewitt, J. Nuclear Materials 49,161-180, (1973/74). 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Thomas R. Mertens, Department of Biology, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

JOE F. Hennen, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Genetic Isolation in Genus Tragopogon. George M. Brooks, University 
of South Dakota, Springfield, South Dakota 57062, and Thomas R. 

Mertens, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Observations 

of natural populations and a study of pertinent literature suggest that 
interspecific hybridization in Tragopogon is not uncommon. Since the 
time of Linnaeus, the hybrid, T. pratensis X porrifolius has fascinated 
botanists. Unlike certain other interspecific hybrids resulting from 
crosses of Tragopogon species, there are no reports of amphidiploid 
species having been derived from the T. pratensis X porrifolius hybrid. 
In the present study five categories of data were collected for T. 
pratensis L., T. porrifolius L., and their hybrid: (1) achene germina- 
tion, (2) pollen viability, (3) meiotic chromosome behavior, (4) paper 
chromatography, and (5) insect pollinators which frequent the plants. 
Fewer achenes were produced on plants of the three taxa when 
inflorescences were covered prior to anthesis than when they were 
uncovered. Under all conditions fewer achenes were produced by hybrids 
than by plants of the two species. Pollen of the hybrid was strikingly 
less viable than that of the two species. Meiosis appeared normal in 
plants of all three taxa. T. pratensis and the hybrid produced similar 
chromatograms for free amino acids, while the hybrids possessed a 
blend of the flavonoids of the two species. Most insects collected on 
Tragopogon inflorescences were dipterans (family Syrphidae). No evi- 
dence of amphidiploidy or introgressive hybridization was found. The 
interspecific hybrids appear to have little evolutionary significance. 

Chromosomes and Apomixis in the Fern Genus Bommeria. Christopher 
H. Haufler and Gerald J. Gastony, Department of Plant Sciences, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Species of the fern 

genus Bommeria Fourn. occur from the southwestern United States, 
throughout much of Mexico and into Guatemala, Honduras and Nica- 
ragua. Specimens collected in the southwestern United States and 
Mexico are presently in culture in the Indiana University greenhouses 
and are being used in a biosystematic study of the genus. Based on 
recent work with three of the five putative species, the first chromosome 
counts recorded in the genus are reported here and will be documented 
in a subsequent communication: n=30 in Bommeria hispida (Mett.) 
Underw. and B. subpalacea Maxon; "n"=90 in B. pedata (Sw.) 
Fourn. These chromosome counts, gametophyte culturing data and the 
number of spores per sporangium indicate that B. pedata is apomictic. 

425 



426 Indiana Academy of Science 

At early sporogenetic stages, 8 or 16 spore mother cells are found in 
sporangia of B. pedata. Mature, viable spores, however, are found 
only in 32-spored sporangia and are apparently the products of normal 
meiosis in sporangia which contained 8 spore mother cells. Sporangia 
which contained 16 spore mother cells apparently abort. These data sug- 
gest the "normal" type of apomictic sporogenesis as described by 
Manton in 1950 (Problems of Cytology and Evolution in the Pterido- 
phyta, Cambridge University Press). Parthenogenetic rather than 
apogamous apomictic sporophyte development is suspected since both 
antheridia and apparently functional archegonia are present on the 
gametophytes. 

Gametophyte Development in the Fern Genus Anogramma. JUDITH G. 
Baroutsis and Gerald J. Gastony, Department of Plant Sciences, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. The tropical and 

subtropical fern genus Anogramma comprises five or six species, two 
of which have been described as having annual sporophytes and perennial 
gametophytes. This unique situation is attributed to gametophytic 
tubercles which permit survival and regeneration of the gametophyte 
following cold or dry periods. These tubercles were first described for 
Anogramma leptophylla and A. chaerophylla by Goebel in 1877 and 
1889 respectively. Five species are presently being cultured to deter- 
mine the extent of tubercle formation in the genus and to examine 
other aspects of gametophyte biology that might prove useful as part 
of a broader taxonomic treatment of the genus. Germination rates for 
each species range from six to nine days, and early prothallial develop- 
ment is similar in all of them. Subsequent development results in a 
lateral meristem in all cases, but species differ in extent of lobing, 
gametangial sequences, and tubercle formation. Changes in light in- 
tensity, light quality, and substrate lead to varying developmental pat- 
terns that differ from those seen under standard conditions. A small 
percentage (1% or less) of A. Lorentzii spores can germinate in dark- 
ness and develop slowly for a few weeks before death of the filamentous 
prothallia. These factors have both ecological and taxonomic relevance. 

Experimental Hybridization of the Cultivated Chenopods (Chenopodium 
L.) and Wild Relatives. Hugh Wilson, Department of Plant Sciences, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Chenopodium, a 

cosmopolitan genus of weedy annuals, is generally regarded as tax- 
onomically difficult. One area of confusion centers in section Chenopodia, 
subsection Cellulata. This subsection contains six tetraploid taxa, two 
of which are American Indian cultigens, plus a complex of diploids. 
The literature contains contradictory statements regarding the affinity 
of the cultivated taxa and little data concerning putative wild progenitors 
and relatives. 

Chenopodium Quinoa Willd. (Quinua) has been cultivated as a 
"pseudocereal" for millennia by inhabitants of the high Andes. A 
morphologically similar taxon, C. Nuttalliae Safford (Huazontcle) , is 
utilized in modern Mexico primarily as a broccoli-like vegetable, 
although a "grain" variety is cultivated in the state of Michoacan. The 
relationship between these cultivated chenopods has received considerable 



Plant Taxonomy 427 

attention, mostly of a speculative nature, in both the anthropological 
and botanical literature. 

Aellen's 1929 treatment of North American chenopods places C. 
Nuttalliae in synonymy under C. Quinoa. Aellen postulates a derivation 
of C. Quinoa from the wild South American tetraploid, C. hircinum 
Schrader which, in turn, shows affinities with the polymorphic and wide- 
ranging- North American tetraploid, C. Berlandieri Moq. More recent 
studies, essentially based upon comparative morphology, suggest specific 
rank for C. Nuttalliae. 

A hybridization program, involving the tetraploids of subsection 
Cellulata, has been initiated as part of a biosystematic examination of 
the group. Preliminary study of artificial Fi hybrids indicates a basic 
genomic continuity between Mexican and North American taxa. Hybrids 
between C. Nuttalliae and C. Berlandieri show 90% pollen stainability 
in most crosses. Crosses between C. Nuttalliae and C. Bushianum 
Aellen, a weedy species of eastern North America, produce hybrids 
that show approximately 50 % stainability. The same pollen stainability 
is obtained in hybrids between C. Nuttalliae and C. macrocalycium 
Aellen, a North American Atlantic coastal species. 

Stainability decreases markedly when South American taxa are 
involved in hybridization with Mexican and North American species. 
Hybrids between C. Quiyioa and C. Nuttalliae never exceed 10% pollen 
stainability. Backcrosses to either parent, however, usually produce a 
small amount of fruit set. Similar results are obtained when C. Quinoa 
is crossed with C. Berlandieri and C. Bushianum. 

The crossing program is not complete and more data from other 
lines of investigation are required before final conclusions can be 
drawn regarding relationships among the tetraploids of subsection 
Cellulata. It appears, however, that C. Nuttalliae is closely related to 
C. Berlandieri rather than to C. Quinoa, and thus it should probably 
be given subspecific status under the former rather than recognition 
as a distinct species. 

New County Records for Porter and LaPorte Counties. Gayton C. 

Marks, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383. In The 

Flora of Indiana Deam indicates that Kyllinga pumila is rare or absent 
from Northern Indiana counties while Pepoon, earlier, states that it 
was found in Miller, Indiana. This plant now known as Cyperus tenui- 
folius has been found in LaPorte County. Viola primuli folia has also 
been found in LaPorte County. This is reportedly a rare species. 

Epipactis hellborine (Serapias) , an orchid naturalized from Europe 
has now become well established in Porter County. Centaurium 
pulchellum previously reported from Lake County has now been found 
in Western Porter County. 

Procedures and Problems in the Incorporation of Distributional Data 
into a Computerized Data Bank. Clifton Keller, University of Notre 

Dame, South Bend. Deam's Flora of Indiana was used to extract 

county distribution data on more than 2000 taxa. They are compared 
to similar data, for eight northwestern Indiana counties, from Swink's 



428 Indiana Academy of Science 

Plants of the Chicago Region. This comparison reflects changes in 
taxonomy, plant distribution, and in extent of collection between 1940 
and 1969. These data also pose questions of a more theoretical nature. 
For example, we could construct a frequency distribution of the total 
number of species found in each county. Is this explainable by chance 
alone ? Does the pattern change from family to family ? How do 
number of genera per county distributions compare with the number 
of species per county? Is the tension zone across Indiana a reality? 
Are closely related taxa in juxtaposition geographically? As examples 
of the problems encountered, we may cite changes in taxonomic nomen- 
clature, procedures to use to integrate data from several sources, and 
coding of taxon names. 

FLIP: The Flora Indiana Program — Possible Procedures. Theodore J. 
Crovello, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Indiana 46556. At last year's Indiana Academy of Science 

meeting, the scope, value and feasibility of a computerized Flora of 
Indiana was discussed. The latest published flora of the State is over 
thirty years old, but its information will serve as the foundation of any 
printed revision of it. We have already captured the distribution data 
by county for each species given in Deam. The purpose of the present 
paper is to report on our progress during the last year and to obtain 
from systematists and others preferences for the different procedures 
that can be followed from this point on. We envision a program in 
which anyone in State who so desires, can make a real contribution. 
Furthermore, financial support for FLIP will not be at one university 
or college only. Rather it should be possible to provide individual 
herbaria and botanists with at least some of the resources to get the 
job done. 

Indiana Plant Distribution Records, XXII. 1971-1974. Barbara Kays 
and Jack Humbles, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

Genera are listed in the order of their appearance in Deam's Flora 

of Indiana (1) ; species within each genus are in alphabetical order, 
and they are followed by the county in which they were collected. 
Nomenclature is in accord with that used in Gray's Manual of Botany, 
8th ed., 1950 (2), unless noted. 

The specimens were collected by the following persons: Bob Bell, 
R. Betz, T. A. Chandik, M. Pat Coons, Charles Deam, Zoe Ellis, Raymond 
J. Fleetwood, Chris H. Haufler, Charles B. Heiser, Jack Humbles, Larry 
D. Jayne, Lewis Johnson, H. Lamp, J. Love, Arthur Mergen, Robbin 
Mester, Patrick J. Munson, Mark C. Sheehan, Floyd Swink, and Eliza- 
beth H. Youngman. Voucher specimens for all new records are in the 
herbarium of Indiana University. 

The records include one plant new to the state : Pycnanthemum 
Torrei Benth. collected by Mark C. Sheehan and Chris H. Haufler. 
Also included are removal of seven county records due to redetermination 
as reported in 1970. Remove from the old county records Cystopteris 
bulbifera, Knox. Cystopteris fragilis, Gibson, Jefferson, Monroe, and 
Owen. Dryopteris Goldiana Laporte. Sporobolus clandestinus, Cass. 



Plant Taxonomy 429 



Taxonomic Entities 



Osmunda Claytoniana, Monroe. Lycopodium complanatum var. 
flabelliforme, (L. flab e Hi forme in Deam), Brown, Spencer. Potamogeton 
nodosus, Brown. Scirpus validus, Monroe. Car ex Frankii, Starke. Car ex 
intumescens, Monroe. Carex louisianica, Monroe. Muscari botryoides, 
Spencer, Polygonatum biflorum, Spencer. Tipularia discolor, Owen. 
Aplectrum hyemale, Spencer. 

Polygonum lapathifolium, Monroe. Atriplex patula, Monroe. Atriplex 
patnla var. littoralis (as listed in Deam), Jackson. Amaranthus spinosus, 
Monroe. Cerastium vulgatum var. hirsutum, Spencer. Stellaria pubera, 
Spencer. Dianthus Armeria, Spencer. Nelumbo lutea (N. pentapetala 
in Deam), Monroe. Actaea pachypoda (A. alba in Deam), Spencer. 
Cardai'ia Draba (Deam has Lepidium Draba) , Lake. Thlaspi arvense, 
Pulaski. Arabadopsis Thaliana (Deam has Sisymbrium Thalianum), 
Spencer. Brassica Rapa (Deam has B. campestris) , Spencer. 
Cardamine pensylvanica, Spencer. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Spencer. Draba verna, Spencer. Fragaria 
virginiana, Spencer. Vicia villosa, Spencer. Viola sororia, Spencer. Viola 
missouriensis, Spencer. Rotala ramosior var. interior, Monroe. Erigenia 
bulbosa, Spencer. Hydrophyllum macrophyllum, Spencer. 

Lithospermum arvense, Spencer. Synandra hispidula, Spencer. 
Pycnanthemum Torrei, Brown. Conopholis americana, Spencer. Diodia 
teres var. setifera (Deam has var. setifolia) , Newton. Valerianella 
olitoria, Spencer. Solidago juncea, Spencer. Antennaria neglecta, Spen- 
cer. Coreopsis lanceolata, Spencer. Bidens bipinnata, Starke. Matricaria 
Chamomilla, Spencer. Matricaria matricarioides, Hancock. Carduus 
nutans, Marion, Morgan. 

Cirsium arvense, Bartholomew. Krigia biflora, Spencer. Taraxacum 
officinale, Spencer. Pyrrhopappus carolinianus, Spencer. Aegilops 
cylindrica, Hancock. 



Literature Cited 

1. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, Indianap- 
olis, 1236 p. 

2. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co., New York. 
1632 p. 



SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: Stanley S. Shimer, Science Teaching Center, 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Leon Bernhardt, Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Common Problems in the Development of Carrel Learning Packets. 

Stanley S. Shimer, Assistant Professor, Science Teaching Center, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Carrel learning 

packets provide children with alternative, independent activities which 
reinforce or broaden learnings. Students in a pre-service elementary 
school science methods course were given an assignment to develop a 
carrel activity appropriate for school children at a specific grade level, 
to field test it, to improve it, and to share it with their classmates. 

Specifically, in the assignment, the university students were in- 
structed to construct a carrel which would lead a child to interact with 
materials without direct teacher involvement, provide immediate feed- 
back to reinforce the child's learnings and instruct the child to return 
the matherials to the original state so that the next child could work 
through the carrel packets as designed. In addition, the university 
students were directed to prepare a carrel description which indicated 
the topic, type of activity, grade level, performance objective, concept, 
materials needed, procedure, and sources of the idea. 

Two hundred seventy-eight carrels were reviewed. Some of the 
more common problems detected were: 

1) the objective or concept was not in agreement with the content 
of the activity; 

2) the directions were not clear nor specific enough; 

3) the directions were too complex or too difficult to read at the 
grade level indicated; 

4) the feedback tended to be too general and did not give all 
possible solutions; and 

5) the directions for recycling the carrel were omitted. 

A review of approximately forty carrel activities devised by in-service 
teachers enrolled in graduate science education courses indicated these 
carrels illustrated the same common problems. 

Although individualized carrel learning packets are valuable in- 
structor learning tools, inexperienced carrel developers generally tend 
to encounter the same predictable problems. 

Environmental Field Day. Marshall D. Malcolm, Department of 

Education, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. On 

October 5, 1974 an Environmental Field Day was held at the Tippecanoe 

431 



432 Indiana Academy of Science 

Battlefield, near Battle Ground, Indiana. The purpose of this activity 
was to provide the preservice teacher an opportunity to work with small 
groups of elementary school children who are in the same grade level 
as the classroom to which he has been assigned to do his student teach- 
ing. This teaching was to start at the end of the eight-week science 
methods course. Each teacher developed a process-oriented activity in 
some area of enivronmental education. The 233 Girl Scouts were divided 
into forty small groups, one for each preservice teacher. Each group 
was composed of children from the same grade level. The activities 
were followed by the showing of two movies, "Pitch-In!" and "The Lit- 
ter Monster." Each girl received materials from the national Pitch-In 
program. Slides were shown of the preservice teachers using their 
environmental activities with the elementary school children. The feed 
back from both students and preservice teachers indicated that the field 
day had been a rewarding experience for all who participated. 

Environmental Science: A New Direction in Science Education. Claire 
A. Puchy and Gary W. Barrett, Institute of Environmental Sciences, 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056. Environmental Science is a 

new interdisciplinary field of study that may be the "academic key" 
for training the personnel needed to attack systematically the complex 
problems that threaten the quality of our environment. Environmental 
Science is based on a three-pronged academic philosophy: (a) an inter- 
disciplinary problem-solving core curriculum, (b) in-depth training in 
a multidisciplinary area of concentration (e.g., regional planning, popu- 
lation studies, environmental health, water resources, etc.), and (c) 
an on-the-job training or research experience (e.g., practicum, intern- 
ship, or thesis). Whereas ecology is defined as the study of the struc- 
ture and function of ecosystems, Environmental Science is defined as 
the study of the impact of man on the structure and function of 
ecosystems and the management of these systems for man's benefit 
and survival. 

A relatively new Master's Degree program in Enivronmental Sci- 
ence at Miami University has been highly successful in training gradu- 
ate students in the above-mentioned educational philosophy. We chal- 
lenge science education specialists to encompass this philosophy in 
programs ranging from kindergarten through adult (continuing) educa- 
tion. Such curricula would, therefore, better balance the basic (liberal 
arts) and applied (mission-oriented) aspects of science education. 

The Lecture Demonstration: A Neglected Audio- Visual Aid. John A. 
Ricketts, Chemistry Department, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indi- 
ana 46135. When properly introduced, the lecture demonstration 

provides the avenue that can lead to a viable, academic teacher-student 
interaction. The science teacher who is provided with a repertoire of 
meaningful lecture experiments can stimulate student interest, reinforce 
ideas within the text, and supplement the laboratory experience in those 
instances where only a limited time is allocated for laboratory. Several 
demonstrations are presented for purposes of illustration. 

The emphasis to use the lecture demonstration in the teaching of 
science is undergoing a renaissance; at the Penn State Priestley Con- 



Science Education 433 

ference 1974, a featured symposium was titled "Lecture Experiments 
Revisited." This Division can constructively serve science education in 
the state of Indiana by encouraging the presentation of unique lecture 
demonstrations and laboratory experiments at the Academy meetings and 
insuring that these are published as part of the Proceedings of the 
Indiana Academy of Science. 

Let's Put "Audio" into Audio-Tutorial Teaching. Larry R. Yoder, The 
Ohio State University, Marion Campus, Marion, Ohio 43302, and James 
T. Addis, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. Taped porgrams for audio-tutorial teaching provide a medium 

for audio techniques that are not conveniently used in a lecture. Audio- 
tutorial biology tapes produced at the Marion Campus of The Ohio 
State University utilize musical backgrounds scored to the verbal script 
to emphasize the taped commentary. Period music was used with re- 
marks about the history of biology, and electronic music helped describe 
the movement of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis. Dramatic 
reading highlighted quotations and historical accounts, and sound effects 
such as bird calls and chain saws were used for a unit on forest 
ecology. Varied tape speeds and electronic echo were special effects 
used in a dialogue with a human embryo in which the embryo described 
its stages of development. Interviews with professionals and laymen were 
integrated into the audio programs for variety and stimulation. Multiple 
readers provided conversational dialogue for the scripts. 

We attempted to produce the highest quality of tapes possible 
within the limits of our equipment and technical abilities since students 
compare the quality of audio instructional materials with programming 
on commercial or public broadcasting. To maintain a lively, stimulating 
style, taped commentary proceeds for no more than 3-5 minutes between 
student learning activities. 

We suggest that instructors who write and produce audio-tutorial 
materials should make judicious use of every production technique at 
their disposal for maximum student motivation. 

Enhancing Science Education Accountability: A Model for University 
Secondary School Cooperation. Jon R. Hendrix, Thomas R. Mertens, 

and Jerry J. Nisbet, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

After receiving eight weeks of instruction in an N.S.F. Biology Insti- 
tute, fourteen high school life science teachers cooperated with their 
public school administrators and higher education personnel in testing 
a model designed to enhance science education accountability. Our model 
held teachers accountable for pupil gains as measured by pre /post-tests 
based upon performance criteria. Higher education personnel, public 
school teachers and administrators were held accountable for coopera- 
tive establishment of performance objectives, for implementation of 
teaching strategies, and for assessment of measurable student gains. 
Participants were visited six times during the academic year by the 
Coordinator of the School Science Visitation Program from Ball State 
University. The model involved the following steps: (1) Cooperative 
assessment of student needs relative to local school science goals. (2) 
Development of curricular guidelines based upon needs assessment. (3) 



434 Indiana Academy of Science 

Development of instructional units composed of performance objectives, 
pre /post-tests, and instructional strategies. (4) Administration of pre- 
test prior to initiating instructional strategy. (5) Adjustment of in- 
structional strategy based upon analyzed pretest data. (6) Implementa- 
tion of instructional strategy for student attainment of desired per- 
formance. (7) Administration of post-test and application of student t 
test to pre /post- test data, testing the null hypothesis that the mean of 
the differences between the paired measures is zero. (8) Evaluation of 
the effectiveness of instruction through analysis of test data. 

The null hypothesis was rejected for test data gathered on 84 
instructional units; in all cases the probability that the differences 
between pre and post-test scores was due to chance was less than .001. 
We may thus conclude that statistically significant learning had taken 
place. 

Fostering Communication and Attitudinal Development in Science be- 
tween Elementary and Secondary Teachers and Administrators. Dr. 

Harold H. Jaus, Dr. Gerald Krockover, Purdue University, Education 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The purpose of this investigation was 

to determine the effects of teaming elementary and secondary teachers 
and administrators and their subsequent changes in communication and 
attitude toward teachers from diverse grade levels. The changes in 
communication and attitude were measured by a Likert-type attitude 
scale and written comments by the subjects involved. 

The 38 subjects in the study were participants in a four-week sum- 
mer NSF Implementation Program. This sample consisted of 17 ele- 
mentary teachers, 17 junior-senior high teachers, and 4 administrators. 

Prior to treatment all subjects were administered the attitude 
measure. This instrument measured attitudes toward (1) science, (2) 
teaching science, and (3) teaching in a team consisting of individuals 
from diverse grade levels. The subjects also wrote several brief state- 
ments concerning their feelings about team teaching with individuals 
from diverse grade levels. 

Treatment consisted of team teaching S-APA and ESS lessons 
to children in grades K-6. A "team" consisted of (1) an elementary 
and a senior high teacher; (2) an elementary, junior high and senior 
high teacher; or (3) an elementary, junior high teacher and adminis- 
trator. Each "team" taught 7-10 children \ x k hours five times a week 
for three weeks. Following treatment, the subjects were again given 
the attitude measure and asked to write their comments about mixed 
"teaming". 

Pre- and post-test analysis of the data showed significant positive 
changes in attitude toward working with teachers from diverse grade 
levels. Rapport, understanding, insight, exchange of ideas, help, and 
respect were significantly improved. 

Does the Participation in a Science Methods Course Change the Atti- 
tudes of a Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Toward Science Teaching? 

Robert K. Caudell, Southeast Fountain Elementary School, Veeders- 
burg, Indiana 47987. One of the instructional goals of the science 



Science Education 435 

teaching methods course at Indiana State University is to improve the 
attitudes of prospective elementary teachers toward the teaching of 
science in the elementary grades. It is believed that, if the prospective 
teacher has a positive attitude, he will feel more confident in teaching 
science and, therefore, will be a more effective teacher in that portion 
of the curriculum. 

This study was conducted to determine whether, in fact, attitudes 
changed as a result of participation in the science teaching methods 
course. 

Although the data is based on a small sample and the instrument 
used was designed solely to represent the attitudes of the staff of the 
Science Teaching Center, Indiana State University, this study indicates 
a change in attitudes does occur. 

Can Your Attitude Towards Elementary Science Instruction Change? 

H. Marvin Bratt, Assistant Professor of Science Education, The Ohio 
State University, Marion, Ohio 43302. There has always been a con- 
cern for the development of various affective behaviors concommitant 
with instruction. Recent literature describing science education reflects 
an even greater concern for the development of affective behaviors. 
Many scientists, educators and psychologists have recommended that 
university instructors give attention to developing these affective be- 
haviors among prospective elementary teachers because of their direct 
involvement with young children. 

Over the years, science instruction has been primarily concerned 
with helping the student learn a pre-selected body of scientific knowl- 
edge. This would seem to indicate that there has been an emphasis on 
the development of cognitive skills and behaviors. Affective and cognitive 
behaviors and skills apparently develop together in a manner that is 
not well understood. Most psychologists and science educators would 
agree that although cognitive skills are important, perhaps the develop- 
ment of affective behaviors are of equal importance. Thus, one goal 
of elementary science instruction should be the development of positive 
affective behaviors towards science. 

The Evaluation of Implementation and Support Procedures in Selected 
Indiana Corporations that Adopted Either SCIS, SAPA or ESS Ele- 
mentary Science Programs. Kenneth L. Potts, Science and Mathematics 
Curriculum Exploration Center, 618 Franklin Square, Jeffersonville, Indi- 
ana 47130; Jerry M. Colglazier, Science Consultant, Indiana Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, Division of Curriculum, 120 West Market 
Street, 10th Floor, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. Fifteen school dis- 
tricts randomly selected from the twenty-seven districts within a 
seventy-five miles radius of Indianapolis which had reported the imple- 
mentation of either SCIS, SAPA or ESS elementary science programs 
provided the data for the study. 

An interaction analysis instrument was used to measure verbal 
interactions between teachers and pupils to determine the extent to 
which the critical thought development (inquiry) component of the three 
programs had been implemented. This instrument along with interviews 



436 Indiana Academy of Science 

with administrators, principals and teachers were used to identify those 
factors affecting" the success of implementation programs. The results 
of the study served as a basis for the development of an implementation 
model for elementary science programs. 

Total Environmental Education: Getting Environmental Education into 
Indiana Classrooms. H. James Funk, Neil V. Weber, Indiana Univer- 
sity, South Bend 46615. In recent years the general public has sud- 
denly awakened to the reality that man is altering his natural environ- 
ment at a devastating rate, and that in many instances nature is 
retaliating. The growing concern of many environmentalists at the 
present time is that much of the citizenry is not fully aware of the 
delicate interplay among natural and man-made systems, and the need 
for an interdisciplinary approach to environmental problems. 

Elementary and secondary school teachers have the unique oppor- 
tunity of reaching the young people during a highly informative stage 
of their development. All too often, however, these teachers are not 
properly prepared to give their students a substantive, comprehensive 
look at local environmental issues and concerns. 

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint elementary, secondary, 
and university personnel with methods of integrating conservation 
instruction into the K-12 curriculum. More specifically, the paper is 
meant to focus attention on a particular approach to environmental 
education that proved to be quite successful on the Indiana University 
at South Bend campus. 

During summer session I of 1974, the authors team-taught a 
three-week workshop on the "Teaching of Environmental Conservation 
in the Elementary School" for graduate elementary teachers. The 
major goals of the course were to develop: 

1. an appreciation for the complexity and dynamic character of 
your natural environment, 

2. a recognition of man's interdependence with both natural and 
man-made components of your environment, 

3. an understanding of essential environmental concepts, 

4. an awareness of resources available to teach environmental 
conservation in the Michiana area (e.g., outdoor education facili- 
ties, local environmental organizations, environmental education 
aids, and resource people), and 

5. skills in organizing and developing an environmental conserva- 
tion unit for use in your classroom. 

The focus of the course was twofold: (1) to develop requisite 
knowledge, skills, and attitudes to teach environmental education, and 
(2) to develop curricular materials congruent with the guidelines pre- 
scribed by the State Department of Public Instruction in Total Environ- 
mental Education. 

In developing environmental education competence, instruction con- 
sisted of lectures, labs, field trips, films, and environmental simulations. 
Building on this basic knowledge the teachers, working in teams, 
developed resource units covering the following topics: Energy, Earth 



Science Education 437 

Resources, Resource Reclamation, Population Processes and Dynamics, 
Interdependence, and Quality of Life. 

By pooling and duplicating the units developed by the various teams, 
each teacher took back to his/her classroom a complete environmental 
education resource unit specifically geared to his/her respective grade 
level. 



QUICK— A Preliminary Report 

Luce, T. G., S. Fletcher, R. N. Hurst and T. Frederick 
Departments of Biological and Computer Sciences 1 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Virtually all computer assisted instructional systems developed to 
date have been based on the assumed need for real-time interaction. 
In fact, Balogh and Purdum (1) believe the total response time should 
be less than 2 seconds. However, efforts to develop interactive CAI 
systems to run on existing multi-purpose computing facilities (PICLS 
(4) and PLANIT (3)) have not been cost effective nor able to service 
large numbers of users. The main approach to cost effective CAI to 
date has been the development of large scale, dedicated hardware 
systems for use by a large number of users (e.g. TICCIT (6) and 
PLATO (2)). This paper reports on an alternative approach to these 
problems which should prove to be less costly in terms of capital ex- 
pense and man-effort. 

Silvern and Silvern (5) believe that the term CAI should only be 
used for "learning situations in which a computer contains a stored 
instructional program designed to inform, guide, control and test the 
student until a prescribed level of proficiency is reached." They further 
believe that CAI must have two way communications between the 
computer and a human "in which there is a stimulus-response-feedback 
relationship producing learning." Their definition does not require 
real-time interaction or that the computer be the only source of in- 
formation. Early efforts in CAI at Stanford (7) and other places, 
while interactive, did not use the computer as the primary source of 
information, but used it to control presentation of audio and visual 
stimuli. The computer itself was also used to evaluate answers 
and make decisions as to what the student should do next. 

Methodology 

QUICK, a "quasi-interactive CAI system" is an attempt to cap- 
italize on this latter feature of many CAI systems while at the same 
time expanding the response-feedback portion of the cycle enough to 
allow the more cost-efficient batch processing of answers. Students will 
be given tasks which may include off-line courseware along with a 
series of questions based on his past history record. Normally a 
student would spend anywhere from 15 minutes to several days com- 
pleting the assigned material. Upon completion of the materials, the 
questions are answered and submitted to the system as a batch job. 
Input to QUICK can be in any existing mode such as punched cards, 
optically read cards, or a remote terminal used to create files for 
batch processing. 



1 This work was supported in part by the Parents' Fund for Instructional Develop- 
ment and Innovative Teaching Grant No. 6674-68-1398. 

438 



Science Education 439 

QUICK currently consists of three main programs and a series of 
data files. The main program is a driver for content files. It issues 
tasks, analyzes answers and does the decision making. A second 
program, which is run periodically, takes update records from the 
main program and updates the sequential student record file. 2 The 
third program permits primitive authoring capabilities, again in a 
batch mode. 

Course materials are organized into units called tasks. Each task 
can exist at one, two or three levels called; low, middle and high. The 
levels may indicate the relative difficulty of the materials but this is 
not necessary. Each task level would normally contain textual infor- 
mation, or instructions and a series of one or more questions. Each 
question in turn may have one or more parts. Associated with each 
question at each level may be a series of help items of three different 
types. Type one gives more specific information relative to the question. 
The second type is for examples and the third is used for references. 
All help items for a question are shared by all parts of that question 
with the author specifying which help items are to be displayed when 
specific parts are missed. 

At the present time the author may select one of three response 
modes for each task. The first mode allows the student only one 
chance to answer his question and no feedback is given about the 
answers he misses. This would normally be an exam mode. The second 
mode allows the student to retry questions which he has missed but 
does not give him any help items. The last mode allows the student 
to retry questions or parts of questions and does give him help items 
if any have been specified. 

In association with this, the author can specify the maximum 
number of retries along with an expected number of retries. By 
manipulation of variables, various effects can be achieved. For ex- 
ample, by selecting answer mode three with maximum tries equal to 
one, it is possible to give an exam with no retries while still giving the 
student feedback on the items he has missed. 

Multiple choice answers, or other answers of one character (let- 
ter or number) are the only type of answer currently allowed. For 
each question, the author may currently select one of three different 
answer processors. The first processor grades each part of each ques- 
tion separately. A second processor is designed to handle sequential 
questions where the answer to part nine, for example, is dependent on 
all previous parts. This processor ignores all remaining parts as soon 
as the answer to any part is found to be in error. The student would 
receive the help items, if there are any, for the part he missed along 
with a message telling him that the subsequent answers for the ques- 
tion were ignored. The third processor allows answers to parts to be 



- Two versions of these programs will eventually exist side by side. One version 
will be highly transportable with documentation on where to make it locally optimized. 
The second version will be the optimized version for the specific site. Sequential student 
record files would be one example of a transportable feature which could be optimized 
by using random files. 



440 Indiana Academy of Science 

entered in any order. This processor can be used for the type of 
question where the student is to select from a list of answers all 
answers which meet some critera. The student may or may not be 
informed of the number of correct answers and it is not necessary for 
him to enter them in any given order. 

A student may complete a task in one of two ways, by passing the 
required number of questions or by using up all of his tries. After either 
condition he moves to the next task. Movement between tasks is based 
on student requests and author stated prerequisites. Each time the 
student uses QUICK he may specify the next task and level he 
wishes to do. Upon completion of the current task, the new task will be 
given to the student unless he has not completed all prerequisite tasks 
specified by the author. If prerequisite tasks remain, QUICK will select 
one for the student. If the student does not specify a task, QUICK 
will again select a task for him. Student requests for level of in- 
struction are currently honored in all cases. If the student does not 
specify a level for his next task, one will be selected for him based 
on the number of tries he used and the expected number of tries 
specified by the author. 

Several important changes are planned for the future. First, 
QUICK will be modified to allow the issuing of subtasks when the 
original task is missed. Students are presently asked to retry the 
same questions. Along with subtasks, it will be possible to have QUICK 
"construct" questions from lists of parts specified by the author. In 
the near future the student will be able to request help without sup- 
plying an answer. The help items which will be shown will be con- 
trolled by author specification. Multiple choice answer processing will 
also be modified to allow feedback based on specific wrong answers 
rather than just on wrong answers in general. Later modifications will 
allow free field input, most likely with keyword and string processors. 
Still later modifications will include a complex decision making package 
to control movement between tasks. 

Current authoring allows only off line task creation although an 
interactive preprocessor for authoring is being tested. Future modifi- 
cations will permit substitution, deletion and editing of tasks. Student 
record display and manipulation is also in the planning stage. 

Every effort is being made to make QUICK very transportable. All 
programs are written in FORTRAN IV with attention given to dif- 
ferences between IBM and CDC input/ output formation specifications. 
Word size, byte size and character size are all set by a data state- 
ment, and may be easily changed for specific machines. Only sequential 
files are currently used but optimization will probably require the 
use of random access files (see note on page 439). It has been necessary 
to use a set of binary logic routines for manipulating information which 
may not present on all systems. It is likely that these routines will 
have to be coded in assembly language at each site. 

At least three distinct uses can now be envisioned for QUICK. First, 
QUICK can be used for drill and practice in much the same way as 
the Stanford drill and practice material. This should prove useful for 



Science Education 441 

formative evaluation and practice in almost any course. Secondly, 
QUICK can function as a self-contained instructional system. It is 
capable of providing instructional materials, giving" feedback to wrong 
answers and branching to new material as the student requires. Finally, 
QUICK can incorporate existing or newly developed courseware with 
its own features to make a well rounded CAI system. This system 
would include computer control and decision making, human-computer 
interaction and learning stimuli from computer output to any other 
audio visual media which are appropriate. 

Conclusion 

We believe that QUICK will offer a reasonable, cost-effective 
alternative to some of the traditional uses for CAI. In addition, its 
transportability and batch processing mode should allow its imple- 
mentation on many systems which cannot, for whatever reason, support 
traditional CAI. 



Literature Cited 

1. Balogh, Richard L. and Don L. Purdum. 1968. Computer Assisted Instruction — 
Feasibility Study. NSA CR-917. 

2. Bitzer, D. and D. Shaperdas. 1972. "The Design of an Economically Based Edu- 
cational System." CERL Report X5. University of Illinois. 

3. Frederick, T. J. 1973. "Test Site Evaluation of ICU/PLANIT," Proceedings of 
ACM 73. 

4. Oldehoef, A. E. and S. D. Conte. 1971. "Experiments with an Automated Instruc- 
tional System for Numerical Methods." Comm. of ACM, Vol. 14, No. 10. 

5. Silvern, Gloria M. and Leonard C Silern. 1968. "Computer-Assisted Instruction: 
Specifications of Attributes for CAI Programs and Programmers" from Proceedings 
of 21st National ACM Conference in Readings and Outline for "Computer-Assisted 
Instruction" Seminar. AM Professional Development Committee. 

6. Stetlen, K. J. 1972. "Toward a Market Success for CAI-An Overview of the TICCIT 
Program." M. 72-73 Report. Mitre Corp. 

7. Suppes, Patrick and Mona Morningstar. 1970. "Four Programs in Computer- 
Assisted Instruction," in Computer-Assisted Instruction Testing and Guidance, edit. 
Wayne H. Holtzman, Harper & Row Publishers, New York. 



SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Chairman: Darrel W. Nelson, Department of Agronomy, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Frank W. Sanders, Soil Conservation Service, 

5610 Crawfordsville Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46224 

was elected Chairman for 1975 

ABSTRACTS 

Growth Results of Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Seedlings on Soil Types 
of East-Central and Southeastern Indiana. Donald R. Hendricks, Hayes 

Regional Arboretum, Richmond, Indiana 47374. From 1967-1969, 

black walnut (Juglans nigra) seedlings of six different seed sources 
were planted on twelve different soil types of east-central and south- 
eastern Indiana for determining the best soil type and seed source 
needed to grow black walnut trees for veneer. Measurements of height 
and diameter were kept for a five year period and computerized to 
test for differences in growth. 

Analyzing Indiana's Soil Associations for Future Land Uses. Harry 
Galloway, Joseph Yahner, Donald Franzmeier and G. Srinivasan, 
Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. Ninety-two county general soil maps show 108 Indiana soil 

associations each on a characteristic landscape and named for the 2 
to 4 principal soil series included. Legends describe their relief, drainage 
and parent materials. Such maps have been widely used to demonstrate 
occurrence of main soil areas and have proven very valuable for compre- 
hensive planning of many sorts. They are destined to play an important 
role in agricultural and community development decision making. 

Soils comprising each association were recently estimated and a 
number of interpretations were made for the use and management 
potential of each. Data are printed on the backs of revised county 
general soil maps. 

Interpretive analyses made by counties show 21 features of in- 
terest for each association including crop production potentials, pro- 
ductivity indices and comparative drainage and erosiveness; also, re- 
sponse to irrigation, organic content of surface soils and land uses in 
1960. Associations are rated for adaptability to use of home spetic 
systems. 

County maps are available singly on request or can be purchased in 
book form through Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue University. 



443 



Air Quality Changes Associated with the Atmospheric Transport 
of Total Suspended Particulate in and around Chicago 1 

Michael D. Abel and James E. Newman 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

An analysis is made of the wind directional effects on the atmospheric transport of 
total suspended particulate in and around the City of Chicago. Daily and annual esti- 
mated values in micrograms per cubic meter are reported for total suspended particulate 
advected into Chicago from surrounding industrial, urban, and rural areas. Using 
eight years of data in the analysis, estimates are given for the mean annual values of 
total suspended particulate advection from northwest Indiana into Chicago, Illinois. 
Some estimates are given for corresponding mean daily values as well. 

Introduction 

The City of Chicago is not likely to meet the federal standards for 
air quality on total suspended particulate (TSP) in 1975. Part of this 
problem of not meeting the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) standards is related to the advection of particulates from sur- 
rounding areas. The purpose of this analysis is that of estimating the 
impact of surrounding areas on the annual, as well as the daily, mean 
values for TSP within the City of Chicago. 

This city is surrounded by several local governmental units in 
addition to being adjacent to the Indiana-Illinois state line. The gov- 
ernmental units include Cook County, Illinois, Lake County, Indiana, 
as well as several nearby city governmental units in both states. 

In an attempt to avoid some of the difficulties normally associated 
with the attainment of uniform air quality standards between local 
city governments and across state lines, Air Quality Control Region 
067 was set up to include the City of Chicago, Cook County, Illinois 
as well as the counties of Lake and Porter in Indiana. Further, the 
Air Stagnation Advisory Region which operates in cooperation with 
the National Weather Service covers the same geographical areas and 
local governmental units. But in practice each individual city or county 
government must meet the EPA's air quality standards separately. 
Such a scheme does not consider, in a measurable way, the fact that 
the air quality problems in one city may not have originated within 
its boundaries. 

Data Sources and Methods 

The figures representing isopleth analysis of TSP concentration for 
northwest Indiana, Cook County, Illinois, and Chicago were drawn 
using data from a network of 82 sites. This was done in cooperation with 
the following nine agencies: 



Journal Paper No. 5670, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

444 






Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 445 

1. Division of Air Pollution, State Board of Health, State of Indiana. 

2. Division of Air Pollution Control, City of Gary. 

3. Department of Air Quality Control, City of East Chicago. 

4. Air Pollution Control Department, City of Hammond. 

5. County Health Department, Lake County, Indiana. 

6. County Health Department, Porter County, Indiana. 

7. Division of Air Pollution Control, Michigan City, Indiana. 

8. Department of Environmental Control, City of Chicago. 

9. Cook County, Department of Environmental Control. 

Figure 1 shows all high-volume air sampling sites used in these isopleth 
analyses. In contrast to the isopleth analysis, data taken solely from 
the Department of Environmental Control, City of Chicago, were used 
in the computational analysis. These data were taken approximately 
every three days from January, 1966, to March, 1974, on the city's offi- 
cial 20-site high-volume sampling network. The total of 1155 daily city- 
wide means were placed on a computer file along with meterological 
data from Midway Airport, Chicago. The data were transformed by 
year using a factor that reduced each year-to-year comparison of data 
This procedure essentially reduced each year's annual TSP mean value 
to 95 /xg/m 3 , the 1973 value (1). This transformation technique was used 
to eliminate the 8-year trend in the data, thus allowing single value 
comparisons to be made using all 8-years of data. 

To determine the influence of surrounding areas on Chicago's 
air quality four wind directional categories were chosen: 10°-90°, 
100°-160°, 170°-260°, 270°-360°. These categories were given the fol- 
lowing respective letter codes for convenience: NE, SE, SW, and NW. 
The specific categories were created in an attempt to single out dif- 
ferent advection characteristics. These directional categories are related 
to the best geographical fit of compass directions to pollution sources 
and sinks. Winds from the NE represent flow from over Lake Michigan, 
an essentially clean air source. Winds from the SE contain the cases 
that constitute advection from the industrial areas of northwestern 
Indiana. Winds from the SW represent advection of air into Chicago 
from urban areas of Cook County, as well as the heavy industrial area 
of South Chicago. Winds from the NW represent air advection from 
suburban and rural areas in Illinois outside of Chicago. 

In Figure 2, the wind rose represents the 1155 days sampled and 
used in this study. Of course, the wind direction divisions made herein 
are simplifications of the real situation. Although there will be overlap 
among advection sources, this effect is thought to be minimal. A 
special wind rose or "rain rose" is shown in Figure 3. The wind "rain 
rose" diagrams the mean wind speed and direction on the day fol- 
lowing the occurrence of precipitation. The wind direction category on 
the sampling day is compared with the average rainfall received on 
the day before at Midway Airport, Chcago. 

The analysis for each day represented in Figures 4 through 8 
was done employing all site data available using linear interpolation 
between points. Daily meteorological data is also given in Figures 5 



446 



Indiana Academy of Science 



through 8. The numbers given below the wind direction are mean wind 
and resultant wind speeds, respectively, in mph. The temperature is the 
average daily temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Also, any day with over 
0.10 inches of precipitation at Midway Airport, Chicago was called a 
wet day. 

WIND ROSE 



360 



270 



- - - 090 




12.9 mph 
mph 



Figure 1. Locations of the 83 high-volume air sampling sites. 



The problem of directional advection or atmospheric transport of 
particulate air pollutants seems to be related to four factors: (1) area 
sources of pollution in the city, (2) outside sources, (3) precipitation, 
and (4) air mass background quality. These factors are discussed and 
supporting data are reported in figures and tables. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



447 




Figure 2. 



Wind rose over the 8-year sampling period taken from tin 
the 1155 days samples at Midway Airport, Chicago. 



meteorology on 



Discussion of Results 

Figure 4 shows the 1973 mean annual isopleths of TSP loading in 
Chicago and the surrounding area. This figure represents only area 
sources and it can be seen that heavy concentration of TSP exists quasi- 
permanently on the eastern and southeastern sides of Chicago, and in 
the corner of northwestern Indiana. 

Winds from the north and northwest will transport Chicago pol- 
lutants southward over the lake decreasing loading within the city as 
shown in Figure 5. These winds may also transport Chicago pollutants 
into northwest Indiana. As shown in the rain rose in Figure 3 winds 



448 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 3. Rain rose showing the amount of rain measured the day before the 1155 
samples were taken broken down by wind direction measured on the sampling days. 

are often from the NW direction the day after a rain. This fact will 
have the effect of decreasing TSP due to the fact that wet ground will 
reduce refloatation of surface suspendable material that may account 
for 10-40% of TSP measurement (1). Mean TSP data reported in Table 




Figure 4. Isopleth analysis of total suspended particulate for li 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



449 



TOTAL PKKTTULNTE 




i 



' 






I I- 



B- 



r, l 



Figure 5. Isoplcth analysis of total suspended particulate on January 28, 1973. 

1 shows that loading from this direction is about 14% less than the 8- 
year annual transformed mean city-wide value of 95 /xg/m 8 . 

Winds from the NE passing over Lake Michigan move much clean 
air into Chicago. Figure 6 shows the effect of transport by north- 
easterly winds. The centers of maximum concentration move toward the 




I- 



&.. 





1 

L 

t 

\ 

r 


ST JOSEPH 
COUNTY 




i 




STARtt 
COUNT 1 







r 



Figure 6. iBopleth analysis of total suspended particulate on September IS, 1978. 



450 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 7. Isopleth analysis of total suspended particulate on December 18, 1973. 

center of Chicago can be noted. Also, it may be noted that the maximum 
concentration of industrial pollution from Lake County, Indiana tends 
to drift westward. 

Indiana pollution advection into Chicago is most likely when the 
winds are from the SE direction. Figure 7 shows that the centers of 




Figure 8. Isopleth analysis of total suspended particulate on January 16, 1973. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



451 



pollution concentration have considerably decreased in Lake County, 
Indiana, as well as in the south and east sides of Chicago. Also, in- 
creased pollution levels exist in the north side of Chicago. The extent 
of the Indiana pollution transport is estimated in the following para- 
graphs. 



Table 1. Characteristics of total suspended particulate (TSP) data broken down 
using wind direction criteria. 





City-wide 


average TSP 




Percent of time 


24-hour av. wnd 
direction 


Weekdays 


Weekends 


Time 
weighted 


wind from given 
direction 


10°— 90° (NE) 
100°— 160° (SE) 
170°— 260° (SW) 
270°— 360° (NW) 


95 ±1.4* 
124 ±2.0 
104 ±0.9 

87 ±1.3 


81 ±1.9 

110 ±2.8 

89 ±1.3 

69 ±1.9 


91 
120 
100 

82 


21% 
10% 

45% 
24% 



* 95% confidence interval. 



Winds from the SW direction seem to transport the pollution from 
Lake County, Indiana to Lake Michigan. These SW winds also seem to 
move the pollution from the south side of Chicago to the north side 
(Figure 8). Much of this particulate pollution represented in Figure 8 
in north Chicago may be from refloatation sources within the city. As 
Table 1 reveals, winds blow from the SW directional quadrant 45% of 
the time. This is unfortunate for much of Chicago. However, this fact 
is indeed fortunate for the heavy industrial areas of SE Chicago and 
NW Indiana. These winds transport pollution away from this area, 
thus, decreasing the measured TSP levels in these urban areas. 

In estimating the impact of advected particulate pollution from 
northwest Indiana on Chicago's TSP levels, both the impact on the 
annual mean TSP value and the daily values need to be considered. 
There seem to be two possible approaches in estimating the advection 
from Indiana on an annual basis. First, one may assume that SE winds 
would have the average advection characteristics of the other three 
wind directions, if the industrial area of northwest Indiana were not 
there. Therefore, one can compute the average loading in Chicago when 
winds are from all but the SE, thus eliminating the Indiana advection 
cases. Such a value was computed at 9.1 Mg/m 3 from Table 1. The 
average loading when winds are from the SE is 120 ng/m 3 (Table 1). 
The difference between these two values multiplied by the 10% of 
the time winds are from this direction results in an estimated annual 
increase of Chicago TSP of 2.9 ^g/m 8 because of pollution advection 
from Indiana. Secondly, one may assume that if the Indiana sources 
of pollution were not there, the loading from the SE direction would 
be the same as the TSP loading when winds are from the NW di- 
rection for cases when the wind blows from both rural and suburban 
areas. This assumption results in a value of increased TSP that could 
probably be taken as an upper limit of Indiana's total effect on Chicago 
TSP. Such calculations using the data in Table 1 result in an estimate 



452 Indiana Academy of Science 

of 3.8 ng/m 3 increase in the annual mean Chicago TSP value. This value 
represents an increase of approximately 4% of the annual total. 

The impact of advection from Indiana on daily values of Chicago 
TSP measurement can be estimated in a similar manner. The national 
secondary ambient air quality standard for particulate matter measured 
over 24 hours states that TSP may exceed 150 /xg/m 3 only once a year. 
From the eight years of data used in this study it was found that days 
when winds were from the SE accounted for 34% of the days exceeding 
the 150 /xg/m 3 value. Winds from the SW accounted for 50% of these 
occurrences, which compare very closely with the 45% value that 
represents the fraction of time the winds are from that direction. 
However, since the winds are only from the SE 10% of the time, it 
follows that some factor associated with SE winds is causing increased 
loading and consequently, violations of the standard (see Table 1). 
The average loading of all measurements taken on days with over 150 
/xg/m 3 TSP and with the wind from the SE is 167 /xg/m 3 (see Table 2). 
Based on data from Table 2, it was estimated that advection from Indi- 
ana increased these SE direction cases about 30 /xg/m 3 on a daily basis. 
Thus, if this additional amount were subtracted from each daily TSP 
value from the SE direction, the percent of time that violations oc- 
curred from the SE direction would be reduced by approximately two- 
thirds. Consequently, it is estimated that advection from Indiana oc- 
curring when the winds are from the SE direction accounts for 20% 
of the yearly violations of the daily national secondary TSP standard 
even though the winds blow from the SE quadrant only 10% of the 
time on an annual mean basis. 

By examining Table 1 one may determine other characteristics of 
the atmospheric transport of particulates in and around Chicago. As is 
expected (3) there is considerable difference between weekday and 
weekend values within each of the four directional categories. Yet, the 
relative differences between categories remain the same for both week- 
day and weekend values. It is also apparent that the SW directional 
winds are associated with a higher mean TSP value. That Chicago 
measures its own pollution a number of times as it travels from the 
southern industrial region to the north side of the city is one possible 
explanation of the elevated TSP value. Also, one may speculate that 
because the city extends 25 miles in the N-S direction, the winds may 
suspend (refloat) more exposed surface dust and dirt which is measured 
as TSP. Finally, the southerly winds in Chicago are often associated 
with the flow on the back side of a high pressure system. Such systems 
can give rise to air stagnation and the resulting high TSP levels due to 
low rates of mixing and transport of pollutants upward in the at- 
mosphere. 

Table 2 shows the analysis done using weekday values. Of the 1155 
days in the 8-year analysis period 772 daily measurements occurred 
on weekdays and 383 on weekends. Data reported here points to the 
fact that difference